|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM, CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
VOLUME 9, NUMBER 3
Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 9, pp. 125-135
1098-304X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
American Media Representations of China's Traditions and Modernity
Yasong (Alex) Wang, Duarte B. Morais, and Christine Buzinde
The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, University Park, PA, USA
Most research on the touristic representations of peripheral countries has focused on former colonies of past imperial Western powers. This study attempts to extend colonialism and tourism studies by examining the American tourist gaze upon China, a country with a history of resistance to Western colonialism and dominance. A total of 60 travel articles published between 2000 and 2005 in six major American newspapers were analyzed. The emergent themes were interpreted within the framework of their colonial ideological underpinnings. The analysis revealed that China was represented in three major themes. While many descriptions were similar to other markedly colonial representations of oriental destinations, some were derogatory and imbued with ideological bias. These findings extend the study of colonialism in tourism as they show that conflicting political ideologies may overshadow the tourism media's tendency to praise destinations. Moreover, this study reinforces previous assertions that tourism reflects the dynamic power relations between nations as the complex representation reported here may arguably reflect the nature of contemporary US-China relations.
Key words: China; Critical discourse analysis; Representation
Address correspondence to Yasong (Alex) Wang, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, Penn State University, 801 Ford Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Tel: 814-777-1440; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Travel Writing as a Representational Space: "Doing Deviance"
Carla Santos1 and Samantha Rozier-Rich2
1Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism, University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA
2Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
This study contributes to the ongoing discussion regarding the power and privilege undergirding tourism discourse by examining the representational dynamics of deviance in tourism destinations known in social discourse as consequence-free settings; specifically, Las Vegas, New Orleans, Amsterdam, and Bangkok. Understanding language as constitutive of social reality, this study employed techniques associated with textual analysis to examine feature travel articles published in four of the areas' most recognized and circulated travel and tourism magazines: Travel ??Leisure, Conde´ Nast Traveler, National Geographic, and National Geographic Traveler. Four main narrative emphases are proposed (Legitimized Deviance, A Voyeur's Paradise, Wholesome Deviance, and The Deviant Host) and followed by a theoretical explanation aiming to trace out questions, as well as comment, on travel writing's "ways of seeing" the world.
Key words: Deviance; Travel writing; Discourse
Address correspondence to Carla Santos, Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 Huff Hall, 1206 South Fourth Street, Champaign, IL 61820, USA. Tel: 217-244-3874; Fax: 217-244-1935; E-mail: email@example.com
An Analysis of Culture as a Tourism Commodity
Salford Business School, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, UK
The notion of culture has been the object of multidisciplinary studies attempting, with difficulty, to define this polyhedral social concept expressed in symbolic representations. Culture has a significant role in tourism functioning as an internationally promoted commodity, a role that has often been the subject of debates among academics concerned about the vilification of culture's primary social role. This article analyzes the complexity of the concept of culture in combination with the characteristics of a product, as conceived in marketing, focusing on the levels of product theory from Kotler and Armstrong. The research is based on secondary data analysis in the discussion. This incorporates culture's symbolic representations, its tangibility and intangibility, its multiplicity of interpretations and meanings, the ambiguous status of ownership by the buyer and its versatility to satisfy consumers' needs while functioning as a unit of identification for a society. As a product culture presents a unique configuration with a construct of four different dimensions highlighting the need for special consideration in culture's marketing process. The research could also be considered as a platform for future investigations on the subject and as supporting material in education.
Key words: Culture; Product; Commodification; Symbolic representation
Address correspondence to Agata Maccarrone-Eaglen, Salford Business School, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, M5 4WT, UK. Tel: 0044-161-295-203; Fax: 0044-161-292 2020; E-mail: A.Maccarrone-Eaglen@salford.ac.uk
Satisfaction, Service, and Culture: Cross-Cultural Reflections From the Hotel Industry
Angela K. Miles1 and Sally Sledge2
1Department of Management, School of Business and Economics,
North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA
2Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA, USA
Job satisfaction is a desirable outcome for employees and firms, yet factors associated with job satisfaction remain abstract. Motivation is often considered a precursor to job satisfaction. However, the factors that motivate employees are divergent and are likely influenced by culture. Although research has focused on employee motivation and employee job satisfaction, little has concentrated on the differences between South American, North American, and European businesses qualitatively. This study evaluates the applicability of Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation to employees in the hotel industry in Brazil, Mexico, and Spain. The results lend some support to Herzberg's theory. Additionally, cross-cultural insights related to Hofstede's dimensions of culture are also given.
Key words: Job satisfaction; Employees; Motivation; Hotel industry
Address correspondence to Angela K. Miles, Department of Management,
School of Business and Economics, North Carolina A&T State University,
1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA. Tel: 336-334-7656,
ext. 6017; Fax: 336-334-7093; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org