ognizant Communication Corporation


VOLUME 1, 1998

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 1, pp. 1-16, 1998
1098-304X/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The Pomo Promo of Tourism

Graham Dann

Department of Tourism and Leisure, Luton Business School, Park Square Luton, Bedfordshire, LUI 3JU, UK

After briefly outlining the principal characteristics of postmodernism and its related social theory, this article examines the attitudes shown towards the latter in contemporary tourism research. Whereas opinion seems to be fairly evenly divided as to the usefulness of a postmodernist perspective in tourism studies, it is argued here that one hitherto neglected area that could benefit from the employment of such a paradigm is the realm of destination promotion. At the empirical level, the analysis looks at three relatively recent hybrid forms of communication found in Condé Nast Traveler. Within these media, attention focuses on commodified status symbols.

Key words: Tourism research; Destination promotion; Postmodernist perspective

Address correspondence to Professor Graham Dann. Fax: 0152 743143; E-mail: graham.dann@luton.ac.uk

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 1, pp. 17-26, 1998
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What is Cornishness? The Implications for Tourism

Michael Ireland

The University College of St. Mark and St. John, Derriford Road, Plymouth, Devon, PL6 8BH, UK

This article advances the argument that Cornishness is not just an expression of cultural and ethnic identity put forward by Cornish people to mark a boundary between themselves and the other. Cornishness is a deeply emotional and personal statement about being part of a living culture. Drawing on recent anthropological fieldwork in Cornwall, this article will examine what aspects of that culture are being commoditized by the tourist industry. To what extent is Cornishness a finite economic resource? The perceived threat to Cornishness as seen by the indigenous people. This article shows that these questions also are of great importance to policy makers in Cornwall. At a recent conference hosted by Cornwall County Council it was argued that Cornishness had implications for housing, health, and education as well as tourism policy in the county. This article concludes by putting forward the argument that Cornishness must be identified as a cultural resource that can be used to the advantage of all the people living in Cornwall, and not as a device to foster prejudice.

Key words: Cornishness; Tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. Michael Ireland, Department of Social Science, College of St. Mark & St. John, Derriford Road, Plymouth PL5 8BH, UK. Fax: 01752 636820; E-mail: mirel152686@aol.com

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 1, pp. 27-48, 1998
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The Economic Evaluation of Cultural and Heritage Projects: Conflicting Methodologies

Trine Bille Hansen,1 Henrik Christoffersen, And Stephen Wanhill2

1Amternes og Kommunernes Forskningsinstitut, Nyropsgade 37, 1602 København V, Denmark and Bornholms Forskningscenter, Stenbrudsvej 55, 3730 Nexø, Denmark
2Bornholms Forskningscenter, Stenbrudsvej 55, 3730 Nexø, Denmark, and The School of Service Industries, Bournemouth University, Poole BH12 5BB, UK

There are contrasting approaches to the evaluation of cultural and heritage projects from an economic perspective. The aims of this article are to review the methodological basis of two different approaches, drawing on examples from Denmark and Britain to give a European viewpoint, and to show how the contrasting methods can be applied to improve decision making, not only at the microlevel of project selection, but also at the macrolevel of public resource allocation. It is a matter of conjecture as to whether the different strands, which appear to be pulling in opposite directions, can be brought together, or whether it is simply a matter of choosing the technique appropriate to the objectives that have been set and the current circumstances. This article throws some light on this matter as well as showing how the different approaches improve decision making.

Key words: Economic evaluation; Cultural projects; Heritage; Methodologies

Address correspondence to Professor Stephen Wanhill, The School of Service Industries, Bournemouth University, Poole BH12 5BB, UK; Fax: 01752 636820; E-mail: stephen@rcb.dk

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 1, pp. 49-77, 1998
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Tourism and the Restless Peoples: A Dialectical Inspection of Bhabha's Halfway Populations

Keith Hollinshead

Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, Department of Recreation, Parks & Tourism Science, Mail Stop 2261, College Station, TX 77843-2261

Recently, Hall has condemned the heavy reliance in tourism studies of value-free, one-dimensional, approaches to tourism research, which he suggests are insufficient to investigate in depth the sociocultural, transnational, and globalizing contextualizations that are routinely embedded within international tourism. This synthesis of Bhabha's landmark work The Location of Culture is an attempt (following Hall) to explore the dialectics of tourism as a force of cultural production. It inspects the projection of cultural difference in tourism, particularly in terms of the sheer numbers of the world's people, whom Bhabha suggests are living - for a welter of reasons - within interstitial spaces, as "halfway populations" existing "inbetween" cultures! Thus, this article attempts to inspect Bhabha's impressive examination of the difficult psychic condition faced by such "restless," interstitial people (particularly under the predicament of postcoloniality), so as to shed light on the large role that tourism plays in the othering of such peoples and in the ethnocentric positioning of places and pasts. In noting the inventive and essentializing force of so much representational activity within tourism - as "the industry of differerence," par excellence - the article provides dialectical insight into the fashions by which the discourse and praxis of tourism management (and that of tourism research!) frequently helps significantly misinterpret the hybridity, the ambiguity, and the temporal pluridimensionality of so much postcolonial/postmodern life.

Address correspondence to Dr. Keith Hollinshead. Fax: (409) 845-0446; E-mail: khollins@rpts.tamu.edu

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 1, pp. 79-85, 1998
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Tourism as a Catalyst for Sociocultural Change: An Overview

Ian Kelly and Tony Nankervis

Swinburne University of Technology, Lilydale Campus, Locked Bag 218, Lilydale, Victoria, Australia 3140

This article provides an overview of the interaction between tourism and the elements of the sociocultural environment. It notes the relatively recent recognition of tourism's potential to impact, negatively and positively, on the culture of a host community and the development of social impact assessment studies. A definition of culture, chosen for its utility in the present context, provides a basis for identifying the elements of culture affected by tourism developments and activities, its established patterns, transmission processes, artifacts, and values. These are influenced by tourism as it impacts on the cultural landscape; diminishes the effectiveness of a culture as a guide to social behavior; contributes to culture change; and increases the likelihood of conflict. Areas of impact are identified, and some of the forms that such impact takes are outlined. This article concludes with a brief review of ameliorization measures that might be taken to enhance the positive and counter the negative sociocultural impacts of tourism.

Key words: Sociocultural change; Tourism

Address correspondence to Ian Kelly. Fax: (613) 9215-7161; E-mail: ikelly@swin.edu.au

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 1, pp. 97-107, 1998
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Tourism in the Communication of Senses of Place or Displacement in New Mexico

Gregory J. Ashworth

Heritage Management and Urban Tourism, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Post Box 800, 9700AV Groningen, The Netherlands

Tourism has played an important role in communicating senses of place but the relationship between place identities produced for tourist and local consumption is complex and multidimensional, not simple and unidirectional. The New Mexico case offers the possibility of exploring the idea of multilayered place identities as expressed largely through the built environment and of applying a simple model of tourism-induced change in the senses of place. Reactions to change may include a local adoption of the tourist sense of place, an adaptation of tourism to local identities, or in extreme cases a sense of local displacement. It is concluded that tourism has played an important role in inducing change in place identities in New Mexico but is best viewed as a catalyst, sometimes initiating and more often amplifying and projecting changes initiated by other factors.

Key words: Sense of place; Multilayered place identities; Tourism-induced change

Address correspondence to Greg Ashowrth. Fax: (50) 363 3901; E-mail: g.j.ashworth@frw.rug.nl

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 1, pp. 109-114, 1998
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A New Perspective on Materialism

Hugh C. Wilkins

School of Tourism & Hotel Management, Griffith University, PMB 50 GCMC, Queensland, Australia 9726

This article reviews the status of materialism as a method by which consumers posture a social identity and proposes the concept of experiential materialism with particular reference to the tourism field. Many authors have suggested that materialism is in decline as a phenomenon of the late 20th century. Experiential materialism may be considered as a replacement or substitute for product materialism. Experiential materialism occurs when consumers use nonstandard activities as a means of identifying with one or more reference groups. The concept of experiential materialism is explored both in connection to the hierarchy of needs and its use as a means of signaling aspirational behavior, particularly in a tourism context.

Key words: Experiential materialism; Social identity; Hierarchy of needs; Aspirational behavior

Address correspondence to Hugh C. Wilkins. Fax: (617) 5594-8507; E-mail: h.wilkins@bhm.gu.edu.au

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 1, pp. 115-128, 1998
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Interpretive Mismatch in Cultural Tourism*

Jennifer Craik

Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia 4111

In recent years, tourism has come full circle: away from sites and sights to cultures, experiences, and education. Parallel to the growth of the industry has been the development of tourism training and educational programs. Central to both have been three interlinked assumptions: that tourism brings benefits; that tourism has the potential for unlimited development; and that tourism furthers intercultural understanding. This author challenges those claims, though the focus of this article is on the latter assumption. Drawing on studies of cultural tourism and the case of Sovereign Hill Pioneer Settlement in particular, the article argues that tourism is underpinned by a fundamental "interpretive mismatch" between the key agents and agencies involved in tourist transactions. The result is that tourism is based on a simmering set of conflicts and contradictions that threaten to undermine the basis of the tourist experience and potentially the sustainability of the industry.

Key words: Cultural tourism; Interpretive mismatch; Living interpretation; Sovereign Hill; Authenticity; Cultural conflict; Indigenous tourism

Address correspondence to Jennifer Craik. Fax (617) 3875 7730; E-mail: j.craik@hum.gu.edu.au

*A version of this article was presented as a keynote address at the National Communication Educators 1997 Conference, "Diversity: The Challenges Across Cultures, Curriculum and Contexts," Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne, 1-2 December 1997.

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 1, pp. 129-138, 1998
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Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The World Comes to Fiji: Who Communicates What, and to Whom?

David Harrison

Tourism, Culture and Development, Business School, University of North London, Stapleton House, 277-281, Holloway Road, London, N7 8HN, UK

Fiji has experienced immigration for centuries, and 19th century arrivals included European settlers and East Indian indentured laborers. Consequently, a "plural society" emerged, characterized by structural, social, and cultural pluralism and widespread inequality. Since 1945, diversity has been increased by international tourists, mostly holidaymakers from "developed" societies, and they are now the main source of the country's foreign exchange. The Fiji portrayed for them in the brochures is highly romanticized and idealized, with a focus on indigenous Fijian traditions, social harmony and consensus, and a low profile accorded to East Indians, who represent nearly half the population. Even in Fiji, it remains difficult for visitors to Fiji to gain a more rounded impression of Fijian society. Centers of population are not usually on the tourist itinerary, hotels are built apart even from indigenous Fijian villages, and the lifestyles they promote are distinctly Western. Strong links between guests and hosts are therefore rarely developed. However, tourism intensifies other trends whereby "traditional" culture interacts with global processes and consequently may be modified or reinforced. Inward acculturation may occur over land disputes, which are often prompted by tourism, and "demonstration effects" have implications for local dress codes and chiefly authority. By contrast, outward acculturation (where tourist behavior and values are modified or influenced through visitor association with locals) seems rare. Ironically, because indigenous Fijians own most of the land and are more prominent in the tourism industry, they are perhaps more susceptible to global influences than Indo-Fijians, who are politically marginalized in Fiji and less involved in tourism. A more balanced cultural exchange could occur if properly planned ecotourism were to be developed, and this could also give a greater weight to the role of Indo-Fijians in the Fiji Islands.

Key words: Brochures; Culture; Ethnic relations; Fiji; Plural society; South Pacific; Tourism; Tradition

Address correspondence to David Harrison. Tel: 0171 753 7049; Fax: 0171 753 5051; E-mail: davidharrison@cwcom.net

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 1, pp. 139-152, 1998
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New Zealand Retailers' Perceptions of Some Tourists' Negotiation Styles for Souvenir Purchases

Zhi Hua Wang1 and Chris Ryan2

1Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia 2480
2The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand

This article reports the findings of an exploratory study into the nature and implications of cross-cultural differences in souvenir purchase behaviours in New Zealand. The study compares the different negotiating styles of Taiwanese, Japanese, and New Zealand tourists. It finds that the Taiwanese tend to seek discounts, whereas the Japanese will seek additional services for the price. New Zealanders are the least likely to seek these extra services, but are prone to wanting to establish a friendly relationship with the sales personnel. The findings are exploratory in that the fieldwork is based solely on a population of 21 Christchurch sales managers, but little literature has been published on this common tourist activity.

Key words: New Zealand; Tourism retailing; Tourism; Cultural difference

Address correspondence to Chris Ryan, Waikato Management School, Tourism Programme, Centre for Management Studies, The University of Waikato, Private Bag 3015, Hamilton, New Zealand. Fax: (07) 838 4063; E-mail: caryan@waikato.ac.nz