|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal
VOLUME 10, NUMBER 3
Tourism Review International, Volume 10, pp. 131-140
1544-2721/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Promoting Sustainability Through Increased Community Involvement: The Shangri-La Ecotourism Demonstration Project
Duarte B. Morais,1 Cheng Zhu,2 Erwei Dong,1 and Guihua Yang2
1Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, The
Pennsylvania State University, USA
2School of Business and Tourism Management, Yunnan University, China
Abstract: Tourism in Yunnan has a short history; however, many destinations in this region already exhibit substantial cultural and natural degradation. The increased awareness of these negative tourism impacts has led Yunnan's provincial government to sponsor the Shangri-La Ecotourism Demonstration Project (SLED); a project focused on promoting sustainable development of ecotourism in Shangri-La with involvement of the host community. This article describes the SLED project's limitations and accomplishments. The first stage of the project explored factors constraining local residents from becoming involved in the tourism industry and outlined strategies and policies necessary to overcome those constraints. The second stage addressed infrastructure improvements, training of villagers in basic hospitality skills, and the introduction of key tourism policies. A follow-up assessment revealed that the project interventions resulted in increased awareness for the need to preserve local culture and the natural environment. Moreover, the project interventions helped in some instances to bring villagers together to work collaboratively on tourism-related projects. Contrary to this, however, pressures from the tourism retail and lodging sectors and lack of support by the local government led to environmental and cultural degradation, unfair distribution of economic gains, and conflict between community segments.
Key words: Community involvement; Ecotourism; Participatory rural appraisal; Shangri-La; China
Address correspondence to Dr. Duarte B. Morais, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, 228 Mateer Building, University Park, PA 16802-1307, USA. Tel: 1-(814)-865-5614; Fax: 1-(814)-863-4257; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Measuring Destination Image: Do the Existing Scales Work?
Derrick D. Deslandes,1 Ronald E. Goldsmith,2 Mark Bonn,3 and Sacha Joseph2*
1Department of Management Studies, The University of the
West Indies, at Mona, Jamaica
2Department of Marketing, College of Business, Florida State University, USA
3Dedman School of Hospitality, College of Business, Florida State University, USA
Abstract: Although numerous destination image scales have been developed, little empirical research has been published that evaluates the reliability and validity of these measures. This article begins this process by describing a study using data from a convenience sample of 187 students comparing three different image measurement scales using a multitrait-multimethod analysis developed by Campbell and Fiske in 1959. The study compared three states--Texas, Washington, and New York--across each of the three scales. The scales generally had acceptable though inconsistent levels of reliability, but were problematic in respect of convergent validity. A destination image scale for theory testing purposes is suggested.
Key words: Destination image; Brand image; Measurement; Multitrait-multimethod matrix; USA
Address correspondence to Dr. Ronald E. Goldsmith, Richard M. Baker Professor of Marketing, Department of Marketing, College of Business, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-1110, USA. Tel: (850)-644-4401; Fax: (850)-644-4098, E-mail: email@example.com
*Current address: Eberhardt School of Business, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA, USA
Characterizing Off-Peak International Tourists to New Zealand
Shaul Krakover1 and Judith Cukier2
1Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion
University of the Negev, Israel
2Tourism Policy and Planning, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Abstract: Tourism analysts, attempting to stretch the tourism season, may benefit from a detailed characterization of the typical off-season tourist. This study investigates characteristics of foreign individual tourists (FITs) visiting New Zealand during the postpeak shoulder season. Methodologically, the study provides an example of a single sample seasonal variation investigation. Data collected in a well-targeted field survey reveal that a large proportion of the tourists tend to be free of commitments both to workplace or children and their length of stay is longer than average. Several statistically significant differences were found between those who deliberately chose to travel during the postpeak season and those who preferred to travel during the peak season but had to postpone their trip to the shoulder season.
Key words: Off-peak; Shoulder season; Seasonality; New Zealand
Address correspondence to Dr. Shaul Krakover, Professor of Geography, Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel. Tel: 972-8-6472003; Fax: 972-8-6472821; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Betting on Casino Tourism in Asia: Singapore's Integrated Resorts
Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Abstract: This article deals with the subject of casinos as a tourist attraction and tourism development tool within an Asian context. It focuses on the case of Singapore, where approval has been granted for two new integrated resorts that will include casino facilities, reversing a long-standing ban. The decision, its underlying imperatives, and implications are discussed with reference to wider regional trends. These suggest that the number of casino resorts will increase and feature more prominently in tourism development and marketing strategies. However, concerns are also identified about the limitations of casino tourism and its adverse impacts. Careful planning and management are essential in order to realize potential rewards and mitigate possible damage. These questions and other aspects of casino tourism warrant further study in view of the sector's anticipated expansion and a research agenda for the future is proposed.
Key words: Casinos; Casino resorts; Gambling tourism; Singapore
Address correspondence to Dr. Joan C. Henderson, Associate Professor, Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798. Tel: 65-6790-6116; Fax: 65-6791-3697; E-mail: email@example.com
Heritage Tourism: Historic Preservationist Attitude and the Heritage Site--A Case Study of William Faulkner's Homeplace
Tammie J. Kaufman and Denver E. Severt
Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, USA
Abstract: This research analyzes the historic preservationist attitude and its effect on heritage site selection. By studying historic preservationist attitude and how it affects individuals in their selection of heritage sites, planners will be better able to comprehend what these individuals expect from their visit, enabling them to capture a larger share of the heritage tourist market. A survey consisting of a historic preservationist attitude scale, services sought scale, and historic site preference scale was distributed at William Faulkner's home "Rowan Oak" in Oxford, Mississippi. The findings indicate there are differences based upon historic preservationist attitude and the experience and services sought at heritage sites by different types of tourists.
Key words: Historic site; Preservationist attitude; Heritage; Services; Preference; USA
Address correspondence to Dr. Denver E. Severt, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Flordia, 9907 Universal Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32819, USA. Tel: (407)-903-8034; Fax: (407)-370-7295; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org