|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal
VOLUME 10, NUMBER 4
Tourism Review International, Volume 10, pp. 207-216
1544-2721/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Economic Impact of Sport Events: A Reassessment
Larry Dwyer,1 Peter Forsyth,2 and Ray Spurr3
1School of Economics, University of New South Wales, NSW,
2Department of Economics, Monash University, VIC, Australia
3Sustainable Tourism CRC, School of Marketing, University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia
Abstract: Governments are spending increasing amounts to attract and host sporting events in the belief that they generate significant additional economic activity and jobs. Current practice is to measure the economic impact of events through the use of multipliers that are derived from Input-Output (I-O) models. Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) techniques are now preferred to I-O models because of their superior ability to reflect resource constraints and feedback effects across the economy. The authors have applied a CGE model of the Australian and New South Wales state economies to examine a selected event, the Qantas Australian (Motor Racing) Grand Prix. The results are compared with projections using an I-O approach. The CGE analysis estimates impacts on gross product that are half of those projected by the I-O analysis for the host state and 20% of the I-O projections for the Australian economy as a whole. The article then discusses the distinction between the impacts and net benefits of events. Finally, the article discusses the institutional framework required for a more rigorous assessment of economic impacts of sport events, making some general observations about event strategies and evaluation internationally.
Key words: Economic impacts; Sport events; Computable general equilibrium modeling; Net benefits, Motor racing; Qantas Australian Grand Prix; Australia
Address correspondence to Professor Larry Dwyer, Qantas Professor of Travel & Tourism Economics, School of Economics, University of New South Wales, Australia. Tel: 2-9385-2636; Fax: 2-9313-6337; E-mail: L.Dwyer@unsw.edu.au
Playing, Watching, and Participating: Identifying the Role of Sport in Canadian Domestic Travel
Barbara Carmichael,1 Wayne Smith,2 and Culum Canally1
1Department of Geography & Environmental Studies, Wilfrid
Laurier University, Canada
2Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business and Economics, College of Charleston, USA
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to investigate and analyze the characteristics of domestic tourists in Canada who either participated in sports or attended sporting events. Secondary data analysis using a subset of the 2000 Canadian Travel Survey (CTS) person trip file was used in this study. These data were analyzed in an exploratory attempt to test out a conceptualization of sport tourism and develop a typology of sport-related tourists based on their activities profiles. Cluster analysis revealed four types of sport-related tourists: the "Focused Sport Tourist," the "VFR Sport Tourist," the "Urban Vacationist," and the "Outdoor Vacationist." These groups were found to be diverse in relation to their demographic, activity, and trip characteristic profiles. However, there is significant overlap between the group characteristics when they are applied to the conceptual model. It is recommended that future studies explore the varying profiles of these sport-related tourists.
Key words: Sport tourists; Cluster analysis; Domestic travel; Segmentation; Sporting events; Canada
Address correspondence to Dr. Barbara Carmichael, Associate Professor, Department of Geography & Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Ave. West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5. Tel: (519) 884-0710, ext. 2609; Fax: (519) 725-1342; E-mail: email@example.com
The Influence of Policy Makers' Perceptions on Sport-Tourism Policy Development
Department of Sport Science, Tourism and Leisure, Canterbury Christ Church University, UK
Abstract: There has been a range of previous research that has commented on structural and cultural factors that influence liaison between sport and tourism agencies. Such research has also highlighted the importance of the perceptions, attitudes, and understandings of policy makers in determining sport-tourism liaison. This article draws on interviews with national and regional policy makers for sport and for tourism in the UK to illustrate the perceptions of such policy makers of their own and other agencies' roles and potential influence in relation to sports tourism. It also highlights the ways in which policy makers understand the nature and extent of the sport-tourism link. The article shows that policy makers generally have a very narrow conception of the sport-tourism link and largely believe that agencies other than their own should be responsible for the development of sports tourism. In conclusion, the article locates the influence of policy makers' perceptions within a broader model of sport-tourism policy development.
Key words: Sports tourism; Sport-tourism link; Policy; Partnership; Liaison
Address correspondence to Professor Mike Weed, Department of Sport Science, Tourism and Leisure, Canterbury Christ Church University, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent, CT1 1QU, UK. Tel: +44 1227 782743; Fax: +44 1227 470442; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mega-Events and the "Showcase" Effect: Investigating the Moderating Influence of Exposure to the 2004 Olympic Games Telecast and Interest in the Olympic Movement - an Australian Perspective
Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, VIC, Australia
Abstract: Survey-based research explored the moderating effects of "exposure" to the Australian free-to-air telecast of Athens 2004 and "interest" in Olympic Games in developing behavioral intentions to visit Greece in the future. Differences were found between groups with low and high levels of exposure to the telecast, and also between groups with high levels of interest in the Olympic Games, but these were only marginal. When the combinatorial influences of these two variables were considered simultaneously, their effects were generally synergistic. The article calls for further research on this area of mega-events, as the results, while of significance, provide food to continue the broader debate on the role of mega-events in developing tourism to their host destinations after their staging.
Key words: Mega-event; Olympic Games; Telecast; Tourism development; Australia
Address correspondence to Dr. Anne-Marie Hede, Bowater School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia. Tel: 3-9244-6235; Fax: 3-9251-7083; E-mail: email@example.com
Security, Perceived Safety, and Event Attendee Enjoyment at the 2003 Rugby World Cup
Tracy Taylor1 and Kristine Toohey2
1School of Business, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW,
2Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith University QLD, Australia
Abstract: International sport event organizers around the world have placed considerations of terrorism high on their planning and risk management agendas since September 11, 2001. Increased public awareness about the threat of terrorism and associated safety concerns have led to increased security, especially for large multicountry international events. To date there has been limited empirical research on the relationship between sport event attendance and the impact of terrorism, with the exception of the body of work on the 1972 Olympic Games. In this article the authors outline the extensive antiterrorism security measures taken at the 2003 Rugby World Cup held in Australia. To determine the impact of these measures, event attendees were surveyed to determine the extent to which terrorism influenced event attendees' motivations, perceptions of safety, and level of enjoyment. The results indicate that security measures were perceived as sufficient and attendees were generally not deterred by the threat of terrorism. The heightened security enhanced the event experience for some attendees, with only a small minority reporting a negative impact on satisfaction. Suggestions for further research and practice are discussed.
Key words: Sport event; Rugby World Cup; Mega-event; Terrorism; Security; Australia
Address correspondence to Dr. Tracy Taylor, Associate Professor and Head, Graduate School of Business, University of Technology, Sydney PO Box 123 Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia. Tel: 2-9514-3664; Fax: 2-9514-3557; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Impact of Olympic Spectator Safety Perception and Security Concerns on Travel Decisions
Lisa Delpy Neirotti1 and Tyra W. Hilliard2
1Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, George
Washington University, USA
2Department of Tourism & Convention Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
Abstract: Attendance at the 2004 Athens Summer Olympic Games did not reach levels comparable to previous Summer Games. Public speculation on the low attendance blamed high travel expense, media emphasis on construction delays, and time poverty. This study illustrates that at least one of the factors influencing the decision to attend the Olympic Games was safety and security perceptions. This article uses data collected from spectators at the 2004 Olympic Games to address the role of safety and security issues on the event attendee's decision-making process as well as attendee satisfaction with the event security. Sixty-six percent of those surveyed at the Olympic Games said that security was somewhat to very important in their decision to attend the 2004 Summer Games. Only 4% indicated that security was the most important factor in their decision. Additionally, over 28% of respondents indicated that they personally knew of someone who did not attend the 2004 Olympic Games due to security concerns. Security was important to those people who actually chose to attend the 2004 Olympic Games, and future research should be conducted to determine how security concerns may have deterred those who ultimately chose not to attend the 2004 Olympic Games or future events. This article extends previous research on Olympic spectator motivations and perceptions.
Key words: Olympic Games; Athens; Event; Safety; Security; Travel; Spectator
Address correspondence to Dr. Lisa Delpy Neirotti, Department of Tourism & Hospitality Management, The George Washington University, Funger Hall, 2201 G Street NW, Suite 301, Washington, DC 20052, USA. Tel: (202)-994-6623; Fax: (202)-994-1630; E-mail: email@example.com