ognizant Communication Corporation

TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 97-106
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Stakeholder Involvement, Culture, and Accountability in the Blackstone Valley of New England, USA: A Work in Progress

Robert Billington, Veronica Cadoppi, and Natalie Carter

Sustainable Tourism Planning and Development Laboratory, Blackstone Valley Tourism Council Inc., Pawtucket, RI, USA

Following its historical rise and fall, America's first industrialized polluted landscape garnered federal and local support to remedy its near destruction. Today, the Blackstone Valley is a pragmatic example of translating theory into practice. The Blackstone Valley Tourism Council, since its inception in 1985, has applied leadership, innovation, and commitment to its mission and innovative sustainable tourism place-making principles in its work. This dedication to its destination, aligned with principles from the World Tourism Organization, United Nations Environmental Programme & World Tourism Organization, and the Geotourism principles of the National Geographic Society, Center for Sustainable Destinations, has led the way for the Blackstone Valley to become a sustainable tourism destination. The Tourism Council has worked to preserve and enhance the Valley's environment, respect the sociocultural authenticity of the communities, and provide economic growth to all stakeholders. Social responsibility from all sectors of the community has led the Valley to find its direction, follow its vision, and share it with others along the way. The Blackstone Valley Tourism Council continues to fulfill the vision of sustainable tourism through the Sustainable Tourism Planning and Development Laboratory. The Laboratory's purpose is to share the Tourism Council's experience in developing planned sustainable tourism with local, regional, state, provincial, and worldwide tourism leaders, and community stakeholders seeking to develop viable and successful destinations.

Key words: Social responsibility; Stakeholder involvement; Planned sustainability; Accountability; Blackstone Valley, USA

Address correspondence to Robert Billington, Sustainable Tourism Planning & Development Laboratory, Blackstone Valley Tourism Council Inc., 175 Main Street, Pawtucket, RI 02860, USA. Tel: 1-800-454-2882; Fax: 401-724-1342; E-mail: bvri@aol.com




Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 107-114
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
 

Corporate Social Responsibility Within the Hospitality Industry

Margaret Deery, Leo Jago, and Michael Stewart

Centre for Hospitality and Tourism Research, Victoria University, Australia

This article presents the findings from a survey of employees at a five-star hotel over a number of years. The instrument used in the study examines employee responses on important components of corporate social responsibility (CSR) with regard to these key stakeholders. In particular, employees were asked to rate their perceptions on issues such as access to training and new work roles, various aspects of work life and the work environment, and the level of commitment they felt towards the organization. The findings suggest that while the hotel appears to have a low level of employee turnover, there is dissatisfaction with job security, the level of commitment from the hotel to the employees, and access to adequate equipment to do their jobs properly. Each of these areas, however, offers an opportunity for management of the hotel to improve its level of CSR to the employees.

Key words: Corporate social responsibility; Employees; Commitment; Training

Address correspondence to Margaret Deery, Centre for Hospitality and Tourism Research, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne City MC, Victoria, Australia 8001. Tel: (613) 9688-4626; E-mail: Marg.Deery@vu.edu.au




Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 115-131
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Case Study of Hilton Environmental Reporting as a Tool of Corporate Social Responsibility

Paulina Bohdanowicz

Sustainable Building Systems, Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has recently reached the agenda of tourism businesses, and many of the hotel corporations are declaring their environmental and social responsibilities. This article presents a case study of the on-going CSR-related initiative at Hilton International and Scandic--the Hilton Environmental Reporting (HER) system. In order to improve the monitoring of performance of its facilities, Hilton corporate management decided to create HER, an environmental reporting and benchmarking system for all its facilities. This article reports on the history, criteria, and procedures within this computerized reporting tool created by Addsystems. The development and implementation process of the upgraded version of the system is also presented. This process brought to light a number of aspects that need to be addressed while developing such systems (i.e., the need for proper technical and IT support, training, and data verification, as well as strong and continuous management support). This knowledge could be used to help other tourism and hotel businesses develop their own reporting, monitoring, and benchmarking schemes within the CSR concept.

Key words: Hilton Environmental Reporting (HER); Hilton International; Scandic; Performance reporting; Performance benchmarking; Hotels; Computerized system development

Address correspondence to Paulina Bohdanowicz, Obroncow Wybrzeza 23/164, 80-398 Gdansk, Poland. E-mail: paulina_bohdanowicz@yahoo.com




Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 133-144
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Corporate Social Responsibility at Tourism Destinations: Toward a Social License to Operate

Peter Williams, Alison Gill, and Ian Ponsford

School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Canada

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a term increasingly employed to denote ethical behavior with respect to various shareholder, employee, consumer, supplier, and competitor stakeholder groups. It is often shaped and expressed through community engagement strategies in which firms reach out to these groups to address societal concerns as well as corporate objectives. Little research probes how CSR relationships are initiated and evolve in tourism destinations. This article outlines the key theoretical foundations of CSR and illustrates how these concepts may be translated into stakeholder engagement strategies in mountain resort destinations. It uses empirical research findings from case studies of CSR relationships between Intrawest, a large North American resort corporation, and stakeholders in two Canadian mountain tourism destinations. It is argued that the extent to which these CSR strategies are employed is a function of both in situ stakeholder saliency and the ability of community stakeholders to provide what has been referred to as a "social license to operate."

Key words: Corporate social responsibility; Stakeholder engagement; Social license to operate; Whistler B.C.; Mont Tremblant, Quebec

Address correspondence to Dr. Alison Gill, School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada. Tel: (1) 778-782-3321; Fax: (1) 778-782-5841; E-mail: agill@sfu.ca




Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 145-154
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: CSR, Film, and Tourism. Two Cases of Filming in a Small Community

Sue Beeton

School of Sport, Tourism and Hospitality Management, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086, Australia

This article reports on an element of an ongoing research project undertaken since 1999 in relation to the effects of film-induced tourism on a small community based in North Yorkshire, England, namely Goathland. Goathland is better known to TV audiences around the world as the village of Aidensfield in the long-running series, Heartbeat. Its railway station and heritage train was also used as Hogwarts Station in the Harry Potter movies. Both the TV series and the movie have been extremely popular and increased the number as well as altered the "type" of tourist visiting Goathland, which is set in a national park with a resident population of 300. However, the extent of responsibility taken by the respective film companies in terms of the related tourism to the village is significantly different, particularly in relation to community engagement and opportunities for that community to commercialize its exposure as a film site to visitors. This article considers these differences in terms of each organization's demonstrated corporate social responsibility (CSR) to Goathland.

Key words: Corporate social responsibility; Film-induced tourism; Film corporations; Community development

Address correspondence to Sue Beeton, Director of Research, School of Sport, Tourism and Hospitality Management, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086, Australia. E-mail: s.beeton@latrobe.edu.au




Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 155-166
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Corporate Responsibility as Essential to Sustainable Tourism Yield

Larry Dwyer,1 Leo Jago,2 Marg Deery,2 and Liz Fredline3

1School of Marketing, University of New South Wales, Australia
2STCRC Victoria University, Australia
3Griffith University, Australia

In parallel with the development by other social scientists of the philosophy of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and, relatedly, triple bottom line reporting, tourism researchers have been developing indicators of tourism yield. The notion of "sustainable yield" includes the dimensions of economic, social, and environmental yield. This article first discusses the link between these developments highlighting the results of the authors' attempts to develop financial, social, and environmental measures of tourism yield. It discusses these measures with regard to specific tourist markets. It also discusses the challenges faced in converting these independent measures into an overall measure or index of "sustainable yield" consistent with CSR reporting.

Key words: Tourism yield; Corporate social responsibility; Financial yield; Environmental yield; Social yield

Address correspondence to Larry Dwyer, School of Marketing, Faculty of Business, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Tel: 61 2 9385 2636; Fax: 61 2 9313 6337; E-mail: l.dwyer@unsw.edu.au




Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 167-174
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Corporate Social Responsibility of Large Urban Museums: The Contribution of Volunteer Programs

Deborah Edwards

University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

Out of a growing concern about the erosion of social infrastructure has come an increase in pressure on business to take up more of the responsibility to invest in building strong communities. While many tourism organizations have been slow to involve themselves in any long-term and meaningful way with communities, the volunteer programs of large Australian museums unintentionally create partnerships of engagement, participation, and involvement between the museum and their urban communities. These volunteer programs represent a contribution to corporate social responsibility (CSR). Drawing on the author's previous work, the CSR literature, and museum reports and information posted on the Internet, this article discusses why and how this occurs. First, the article explores the relationship between CSR and social capital. Second, the contribution that museums make to social capital through their volunteer programs is outlined. Third, it is considered whether museums could do more in terms of their CSR and volunteer programs. Finally, suggestions are made for the way in which museums can continue to fulfill and advance their CSR activities. Museums, in acknowledging and documenting the CSR activities of their volunteer programs, can improve CSR outcomes and enhance the social and economic outcomes for both the community and the museum.

Key words: Corporate social responsibility; Museums; Volunteers; Social capital

Address correspondence to Dr. Deborah Edwards, Senior Research Fellow in Urban Tourism, School of Leisure Sport and Tourism, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 222, Lyndfield, NSW 2070, Australia. Tel: +61 2 95145116; Fax: +61 2 95145195; E-mail: deborah.edwards-1@uts.edu.au




Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 175-185
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Ethical Issues in Collaboration in the Aviation Industry

Ravi Ravinder

School of Leisure Sport and Tourism, University of Technology Sydney, Lindfield, Australia

This article examines competitive activity within the airline industry and in its interrelationships with other supplier firms, particularly airports. Competitive activity is reviewed using an ethics-based approach; in particular, it investigates airline-airport relationships, bilateral Air Service Agreements, and airline alliances. Recognizing the economic rationale for such relationships, this article concludes that the first two activities may pose ethical questions in that they could disbenefit key stakeholders of the communities in which they operate. The article concludes with a telos that could underpin a privatized aviation industry operating in a liberalized market environment and at the same time operating in "the public interest."

Key words: Airlines; Airports; Competition; Air Service Agreements; Alliances; Ethics; Public interest

Address correspondence to Ravi Ravinder, School of Leisure Sport and Tourism, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 222, Lindfield NSW 2070, Australia. Tel: 61 2 9514 5278; Fax: 61 2 9514 5195; E-mail: ravi.ravinder@uts.edu.au