ognizant Communication Corporation

An Interdisciplinary Journal


Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 197-204
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Managed to be Wild: Species Recovery, Island Restoration, and Nature-Based Tourism in New Zealand

Eric J. Shelton and Hazel Tucker

Tourism Department, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

New Zealand and its sub-Antarctic dependencies had an abundance of birdlife, endemic flora, and invertebrates but no terrestrial mammals before the arrival of Homo sapiens. Subsequent mammalian imports have severely adversely affected the endemic and native fauna and flora. In response to the impossibility of nationwide mammalian predator eradication, endangered species are transferred to relatively safe environments: either offshore islands or "mainland islands." Individuals of species at risk in their traditional environments can be transferred to one or more of these islands. New Zealand has pioneered this form of restoration program and substantial nature-based tourism occurs in these settings. Traditional binaries such as captive/free and captivity/wild are problematic because these descriptors do not capture the nature and range of the possible environments and experiences provided by "islands." It is proposed that a more useful descriptive and analytic framework involves focusing on the matrix of power relationships that exist between native and endemic fauna and flora, introduced fauna and flora, and groups of humans. Furthermore, it is argued that such a focus usefully reformulates longstanding controversies within conservation, highlights the utility of a restoration narrative, and promotes the development of sustainable nature-based tourism.

Key words: Narrative; Nature-based tourism; Conservation; New Zealand; Endangered species; Environmental history

Address correspondence to Eric J. Shelton, Tourism Department, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: 64-3-479-5657; Fax: 64-3-479-9034; E-mail: eshelton@business.otago.ac.nz

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 205-212
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Pathway to Minimal Impact Wildlife Viewing?

Michael Hughes and Jack Carlsen

Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia

As the agency responsible for managing human interactions with wildlife in Western Australia, the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM) is faced with a complex issue. Wildlife is a significant component of the nature-based dominated tourism market in Western Australia. Tourists appear to expect naturalistic, easily accessible, close encounters with appealing wildlife, preferably in areas resembling a wilderness. Meeting this demand may result in serious risks to both tourists and the wildlife they seek to interact with. The legally driven conservation mandate of CALM operates to minimize impacts on natural areas and wildlife. Wildlife tourism demand is focused on opportunities for accessible experiences, preferably with close interaction and rare species. Somehow, a balance must be struck between the legal and ethical requirement to minimize risk to wildlife and human welfare while maximizing tourism market opportunities. This article presents a study of one way in which CALM has acted to ensure access to wildlife while attempting to minimize negative impacts.

Key words: Zoo; Wildlife tourism; Wildlife representation; Rare wildlife; Wildlife management

Address correspondence to Michael Hughes, Curtin Sustainable Tourism Centre, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987 Perth, Australia. Tel: 61 8 9266 2123; Fax: 61 8 9266 1100; E-mail: Michael.Hughes@cbs.curtin.edu.au

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 213-223
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Understanding Visitor Experiences in Captive, Controlled, and Noncaptive Wildlife-Based Tourism Settings

Gianna Moscardo

School of Business, James Cook University, Australia

There is considerable debate about the ethics of captive wildlife-based setting such as zoos and aquaria, and there is concern about the negative impacts wildlife watchers can have on animals in both captive and noncaptive settings. An important claim made by both captive wildlife-based tourist attractions and those who support wildlife viewing in noncaptive settings is that these wildlife experiences provide opportunities to encourage visitors to develop greater wildlife conservation awareness. This claim is, however, largely untested in any setting and there has been very little research comparing visitors and their experiences across different types of wildlife-based tourism. This study compared wildlife-based tourism attractions in three different groups--captive, controlled, and noncaptive--in terms of visitor profiles, encounters with wildlife, images of wildlife, and learning about the wildlife. The results indicated significant and substantial differences between the three types of setting on many of the variables analyzed. Overall the results provide little support for the claims that any wildlife-based tourism experiences enhance wildlife conservation awareness.

Key words: Captive wildlife; Conservation; Image; Education

Address correspondence to Gianna Moscardo, School of Business, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia. Tel: 61 7 4781 4254; Fax: 61 7 4781 4019; E-mail: Gianna.Moscardo@jcu.edu.au

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 225-235
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Do Zoo Visitors Attend to Conservation Messages? A Case Study of an Elephant Exhibit

Liam Smith and Sue Broad

Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

The Trail of the Elephants (ToE) exhibit at Melbourne Zoo in Australia is an example of a new immersion-style exhibit where visitors are immersed in surroundings that represent the type of environment where the observed animal is found in nature. One of the key objectives of ToE is to provide visitors with multiple learning opportunities, particularly about conservation issues. As such, ToE was chosen as a case study to explore the relationship between delivery of conservation messages and how visitors direct their attention to these messages. Analysis revealed that exhibit stay and attention times in ToE were substantially longer than other stay and attention times reported at similar exhibits, and suggestions were made to explain the differences.

Key words: Zoos; Immersion; Exhibit stay times; Attention; Conservation; Education

Address correspondence to Liam Smith, Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, PO Box 1071, Narre Warren 3805, Australia, Tel: +61 3 99047107; Fax: +61 3 99047130; E-mail: liam.smith@buseco.monash.edu.au

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 237-249
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Public Awareness, Education, and Marine Mammals in Captivity

Yixing Jiang,1 Michael Lück,2 and E. C. M. Parsons3,4

1Department of Recreation & Leisure Studies, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada
2School of Hospitality and Tourism and New Zealand Tourism Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
3Department of Environmental Science & Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
4University Marine Biological Station Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland, UK

Increasing popularity of marine parks as tourist attractions brought with it a number of concerns. Considerable attention has been paid to investigate issues, such as the ethics of keeping marine mammals in captivity, welfare of captive marine mammals, and the educational and conservational abilities of marine parks. Little research has been conducted to explore the public's awareness and opinions of these issues. Public awareness is an important tool to understand the quality of a marine park's products and services. This study was designed to investigate the public's awareness of welfare of captive marine mammals, educational and conservational purposes of marine parks, and to examine public awareness and opinions of Dunlap and Van Liere's New Environmental Paradigm. A total of 120 respondents from St. Catharines, Canada completed either a visitor or a nonvisitor questionnaire. Results indicated that most people were aware of the issues of welfare of captive marine mammals and educational opportunities offered by marine parks, but showed less awareness of the conservational issues. However, results also indicated that respondents were well aware of, and agree with, the concerns expressed in the New Environmental Paradigm.

Key words: Marine parks; Captive marine mammals; Conservation; Awareness; New Environmental Paradigm

Address correspondence to Michael Lück, School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: +64 9 921 9999, ext. 5833; Fax: +64 9 921 9975; E-mail: mlueck@aut.ac.nz

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 251-263
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Roles of the Modern Zoo: Conflicting or Complementary?

Peter Mason

Department of Tourism, Leisure & Sport Management, University of Bedfordshire Business School, Luton, UK

Zoos are important urban-based visitor attractions. It is generally accepted that they have multiple roles: entertainment, education, scientific research, and species preservation. However, it has been argued that these roles are not compatible. The establishment of other forms of animal attractions and the emergence of many other attractions for day visitors in urban areas has meant that the role of traditional zoos in the 21st century is being challenged. This article used survey research at Wellington Zoo in New Zealand to explore visitor demographics and their understanding of the zoo's roles. Ninety percent of visitors were from New Zealand. The percentage nonlocal domestic visitors had increased compared to previous zoo surveys, suggesting a growing importance of tourist visits. Visitors perceived that education was the single most important role of the zoo, but recreation was also viewed as a major role. A majority of visitors indicated that the zoo had important roles in the areas of conservation and breeding animals, but a large minority (approximately 35%) was not aware of these roles. Although the zoo's roles of education and entertainment appeared not be in conflict, the lack of awareness by a large minority of the zoo's conservation role has implications for both marketing and management at the zoo, as well as raising wider issues about the future of the traditional zoo.

Key words: Zoos; Wildlife attractions; Role of zoos; Visitor motivations

Address correspondence to Dr. Peter Mason, Professor of Tourism Management, Department of Tourism, Leisure & Sport Management, University of Bedfordshire Business School, Luton Campus, Vicarage Street, Luton, LU1 3JU, UK. Tel: 01582 743462; E-mail: Peter.Mason@besd.ac.uk

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 265-277
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Indigenous Wildlife Interpretation at Australian Zoos and Wildlife Parks

Heather Zeppel and Sue Muloin

James Cook University, Cairns, Australia

This article evaluates indigenous wildlife interpretation at captive wildlife attractions in Australia. The sites included 13 wildlife parks/sanctuaries or zoos, one aquarium, and three indigenous-owned emu or crocodile farms. Telephone interviews were conducted with 35 managers (9 indigenous) and 26 indigenous staff at wildlife attractions that included verbal or written indigenous interpretation of wildlife. The indigenous guides verbally presented both traditional uses and personal stories about Australian wildlife followed by Aboriginal "Dreaming" or creation stories about totemic animal species. Nonindigenous staff explained traditional indigenous uses of wildlife followed by biological facts and species information. According to staff, tourists benefit from the inclusion of indigenous content at captive wildlife attractions by giving additional value or worth to the experience, broadening their mind, dispelling myths, learning/education about indigenous cultures, novelty and excitement for visitors, increasing cultural awareness, and developing more positive attitudes towards indigenous people. Managers and staff support the employment of indigenous guides to provide interpretive tours and talks at captive wildlife attractions. Key issues for wildlife parks and zoos to develop and present indigenous cultural knowledge through wildlife interpretation are identified.

Key words: Australia; Indigenous cultures; Wildlife interpretation; Zoos; Tourism attractions

Address correspondence to Heather Zeppel, Tourism Program, School of Business, James Cook University, PO Box 6811, Cairns 4870, Australia. Tel: 61 7 4042 1446; Fax: 61 7 4042 1474; E-mail: Heather.Zeppel@jcu.edu.au

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 279-293
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exposing the Tourist Value Proposition of Zoos and Aquaria

John Fraser, Sarah Gruber, and Kathleen Condon

Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY, USA

The world's urban population has few opportunities for contact with real wild nature and little chance to develop a connection with nature in everyday life. To redress this problem in Western culture, major urban zoos are attempting to bridge the deficit in nature experience by constructing more simulated nature experiences as part of the animal viewing opportunity. The tourist value proposition in urban zoos, however, may not be in the simulated experience of artificial nature, but in the very real and authentic encounter with live "wild" animals and the contemplation of how our human society relates to the biological world. This article explores how zoo visitors describe their engagement with wildlife, how zoos provoke consideration of personal ethical relationships to nature, and how zoos connect an urban public to the natural world. This article builds on the biophilia hypothesis by considering the sociological attributes of zoo visiting and how the novel experience of encountering captive wild animals helps to develop environmental awareness. The article explores how a poetry installation at one urban zoo served evidence this awareness in visitor comments, about conservation, personal connections to nature, and one aspect of the restorative role zoos offer. It is suggested that the uniqueness of live animals in the zoo is a forum for individuals to question the continuity between self and the natural world.

Key words: Zoos; Animals; Nature; Wildlife; Metaphor use; Poetry

Address correspondence to John Fraser, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Blvd., Bronx, NY 10460m USA. Tel: 718-220-7131; E-mail: jfraser@wcs.org

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 295-306
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Demand for Zoos and Aquariums

Louis Cain1 and Dennis Meritt, Jr.2

1Economics, Loyola University Chicago, IL and Economics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
2Biology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL, USA

We estimate a demand equation using cross-sectional data from accredited zoos and aquariums in the US supplied by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association augmented with data from federal government sources. Among the most important findings is that demand is price inelastic, particularly among the not-for-profit institutions. Also, the size of the institution matters. The institutions with the largest budgets draw the most visitors. We argue that, in spite of changes in income, population, leisure activities, and other variables that affect the quantity demanded, the structure of demand has been remarkably stable during more than three decades of significant supply-side change. Finally, using information from visitor surveys, we argue that the most common visitors are families with young children, a finding that has ramifications for these institutions' collection, education, and construction strategies.

Key words: Demand; Attendance; Price

Address correspondence to Louis Cain, Professor, Economics, Loyola University Chicago and Adjunct Professor, Economics, Northwestern University, 820 N. Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Tel: 312-915-6075; Fax: 312-915-8508; E-mail: lcain@luc.edu

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 307-316
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships Between Hygiene Factors, Motivators, Satisfaction, and Response Among Visitors to Zoos and Aquaria

Jan Møller Jensen

Department of Marketing & Management, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M., Denmark

Drawing on Herzberg's two-factor theory, this article suggests that visitors to attractions base their overall evaluation or satisfaction with an experience on their consideration of two types of aspects referred to as either "motivators" or "hygienes." The application of Herzberg's two-factor theory to an attraction context suggests "motivators" to come from the experience itself (e.g., entertainment, educational events, socializing), while more peripheral elements like parking, eating, and toilet facilities may constitute "hygiene" factors. A conceptual model and corresponding hypotheses are proposed. The conceptual model is translated into a LISREL model, and the hypotheses are tested using survey data from visitors to a zoo and an aquarium in Denmark. The findings show that negative experiences with hygiene factors have a negative effect on the visitors' perceived quality of the core experience, thereby indirectly creating less satisfied customers with less intention to revisit the attraction or recommend friends and relatives to visit the attraction. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed at the end of the article.

Key words: Zoos; Aquaria; Herzberg's two-factor theory; Visitor satisfaction; Attraction management; LISREL

Address correspondence to Jan Møller Jensen, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Department of Marketing & Management, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M., Denmark. Tel: +4565503241; Fax: +4566155129; E-mail: jmj@sam.sdu.dk

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 317-327
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Put Me in the Zoo! A Laddering Study of Zoo Visitor Motives

David B. Klenosky1 and Carol D. Saunders2

1Department of Health & Kinesiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
2Department of Communications Research & Conservation Psychology, Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, IL, USA

Understanding why people visit zoos and other nature-oriented attractions is critically important for developing exhibits and programming, as well as promoting the attraction to potential visitor markets. Means-end theory and its associated methodology known as laddering provide a useful framework for characterizing the relationships between the attributes of a choice option (such as a visitor attraction), the consequences (i.e., the benefits or costs/risks) associated with those attributes, and the personal values those consequences help reinforce. The present research uses this means-end perspective to explore the factors influencing people's decisions to visit a zoological park. A total of 138 visitors to Brookfield Zoo (a large conservation-oriented zoological park located near Chicago, Illinois) were intercepted onsite and asked by trained interviewers why they chose to visit the zoo that day. The interviewing technique known as laddering was then used to link the attributes of the zoo that influenced the decision to visit, to the consequences and personal values important to the visitor. Analyses of the resulting data provides an effective complement to traditional approaches for studying zoo visitation motives, and suggests actionable recommendations for managerial practice and future research efforts.

Key words: Visitation motives; Nature-based tourism; Means-end theory; Laddering methodology; Qualitative research; Zoological park; Zoo visitors

Address correspondence to David B. Klenosky, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Tel: 765-494-0865; Fax: 765-496-1239; E-mail: klenosky@purdue.edu