|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal
VOLUME 11, NUMBER 4
Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 329-347
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Obstacles to Ethical Travel: Attitudes and Behaviors of New Zealand Travel Agents With Respect to "Politically Repressed" Destinations
Department of Tourism, University of Otago, New Zealand
This article examines the attitudes and behaviors of New Zealand travel agents in relation to providing travel advice for destinations that have known human rights abuses. A postal survey was undertaken of travel agencies throughout New Zealand. Generally, while supportive in principle of ethical travel, travel agents do not operationalize this concern in terms of their workplace behavior (e.g., continuing to sell products for destinations that have known human rights issues). A range of workplace and personal factors appear to be influential in the way in which travel agents behave. However, the primary obstacle acting against travel agents participating more actively in ethical travel is the ethical dissonance imposed on the ethical decision-making situation through the agent's obligation to give credence to their clients' rights of freedom of choice over where they travel.
Key words: Travel agent; Ethical travel; Ethics; Human rights; Destination; New Zealand
Address correspondence to Dr. Brent Lovelock, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: 3-479-8069; Fax: 3-479-9034; E-mail: email@example.com
An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Responsible Gambling Code of Practice at the Gold Coast, Queensland
Helen Breen and Nerilee Hing
School of Tourism and Hospitality, Southern Cross University, Australia
The Queensland Responsible Gambling Code of Practice is a voluntary commitment by gambling providers to assist with responsible gambling. This qualitative research involving interviews with 20 managers and staff from 14 gambling venues at the Gold Coast aims to examine awareness and implementation of the Code plus perceptions of its effectiveness. After the first year, the average level of implementation of all the elements in the Code was 78% for these venues. Of the Code's six major practice areas, the physical layout and environment practice was reported as being very effective while the provision of information, including signage and the odds of winning, was perceived as the least effective practice. Training and education were seen as important facilitators in encouraging responsible gambling. The implementation of the Code supports the goal of sustainability for the Gold Coast as a tourist destination.
Key words: Code of practice; Gold Coast; Responsible gambling; Australia
Address correspondence to Helen Breen, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480 Australia. Tel: 02-6620-3152; Fax: 02-6622-2208; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Community-Defined Cultural and Ecological Tourism Framework: Potential Applications in Romania's Orastie Zone
Vinod Sasidharan1 and Marilyn E. Hall2
1School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, San Diego
State University, CA, USA
2Library and Information Access, San Diego State University, CA, USA
The intense tourism initiatives currently being implemented at the national level in Romania have the potential to rejuvenate the country's rural economies. Although the national goal to utilize tourism as an economic development strategy in rural areas is both viable and timely, it is crucial for the Romanian government to adopt sustainable rural tourism practices incorporating local community-identified needs and viewpoints relating to tourism development. This article elucidates one such attempt at identifying the needs and concerns of a cross-section of community stakeholders, from the Orastie region of Romania, regarding appropriate forms of tourism development in their community and surrounding areas. In early 2004, a series of community meetings and focus groups was held in Orastie, as part of an NGO-facilitated rural tourism consultation project for the region. Although the local governments and community members of the area were highly enthusiastic regarding Orastie's tourism potential, no clear guidance for sustainable tourism development was available until a tourism planning framework was developed by the consultation team. From this study, it may be inferred that, for successful sustainable rural tourism development to occur, it is vital for local governments to enhance local empowerment through involvement of community members in the tourism planning and decision-making process.
Key words: Rural tourism; Sustainable development; Community participation; Nongovernmental organizations; Cultural tourism; Ecotourism; Case study; Romania
Address correspondence to Dr. Vinod Sasidharan, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-4531, USA. Tel: (619) 594-4726; Fax: (619) 594-3320; E-mail: email@example.com
Motives, Rural Images, and Tourism Brokering Roles of Rural Accommodation Entrepreneurs in South Western Ontario, Canada
Barbara A. Carmichael and Kelley A. Mcclinchey
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
This study focuses on the rural images of rural accommodation operators, their motivations in terms of "lifestyle" aspirations, and their "brokering" role in the understanding of tourists' needs and experiences in rural areas. We know little about the rural image perceptions of tourism entrepreneurs, the importance that they place on a rural lifestyle, and how they influence their guests' experiences of rural life. Similarly, little is known about knowledge transfer between hosts and their guests. The study area for this research is in a rural region of small towns and villages in South Western Ontario, Canada. Through personal interviews, rural entrepreneurs showed a strong interaction with tourists, a sound knowledge of tourist motivations, and where tourists go in the region. They performed a role of validating and recommending tourist activities and thus influencing consumption patterns. Their role as tourism "brokers" is important because as well as recommending the tourism product, they can get feedback on the quality of tourist experiences in the region. This article supports the notion of lifestyle entrepreneurship as the norm in rural tourism, at least in this region, and emphasizes the importance of the rural landscape to quality of life for both hosts and guests.
Key words: Rural tourism; Rural images; Tourism entrepreneurs; Tourism "brokers"; Rurality
Address correspondence to Barbara A. Carmichael, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5, Canada. Tel: (519) 884-0710, ext. 2609; Fax: (519) 725-1342; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Travel Motivations and Satisfaction: A Case of National Cultural Festival-Goers in Korea
Hospitality College, Johnson & Wales University, Charlotte, NC, USA
Information about motivation related to travel behavior allows marketers to better understand and predict individuals' decision making. This study identified underlying motivational factors of national cultural festival-goers in Korea and classified distinct travel groups attending the festival. Factor analysis determined eight reliable motivational factors and cluster analysis suggested three heterogeneous travel groups. To validate the travel groups, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and discriminant analysis were performed, followed by the chi-square statistic. The findings support that significant differences exist in the motivational factors, overall satisfaction levels, annual income, and duration of the visit across the three travel groups. Practical implications are discussed for festival marketers to promote cultural festival visits.
Key words: Festivals; Motivation; Satisfaction
Address correspondence to Kakyom Kim, Ph.D., CHE, Assistant Professor, Hospitality College, Johnson & Wales University, 801 West Trade Street, Charlotte, NC 28202, USA. Tel: (980) 598-1528; Fax: (980) 598-1520; E-mail: Kakyom.Kim@jwu.edu