|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2
Tourism Review International, Volume 12, pp. 93-114
1544-2721/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Traversing Hegemony: Gender, Body, and Identity in the Narratives of Israeli Female Backpackers
Independent Scholar, Israel
This article explores travel narratives of Israeli female backpackers, depicting their participation in a tourist rite-of-passage. The exploration addresses the meeting of narratives of the masculine, adventurous male hero, on both local (Israeli culture) and global-Western (backpacking) spheres, with regard to which the travelers position themselves and negotiate their gender identity. The article deals with two complementary sites of tourist gender performances: one is the actual trip and the other is the performance of travel narratives. The findings indicate that the backpackers assume several, shifting, positions in relation to an oppressive masculine social norm: while some adhere to the norm, others resist it through a subversive participation in alternative backpacking activities or through a reinterpretation of the normative activities. The article foregrounds the central role played by the body in mediating between the individual and the collective. Finally, it proposes further research on how culture and tourism are interwoven, so as to allow a nuanced picture of gender construction in women's biographies in particular, and in the biography of marginalized people in general.
Key words: Language; Experience; Identity; Body; Performance; Israeli society
Address correspondence to Chaim Noy, Independent Scholar, 1/a Shalom Yehuda St., Jerusalem, 93395 Israel. Tel/Fax: 972-2-6732188; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Spirit of the Cowgirl in the 21st Century: An Exploration of Women's Responses to the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame
Linda J. Ingram
Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, TX, USA
People have been fascinated with the cowgirl persona for decades. She is a part of the history, heritage, and popular culture of the US. Cowgirls are a phenomenon of the US and represent women of independent spirit, courage, and determination. The purpose of this study is to explore how women perceive cowgirls before and after a visit to the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame in Ft. Worth, Texas. Freelisting was used to elicit responses from participants regarding their feelings about the exhibits in the museum. Analysis revealed that the cowgirl persona is read by women as a complex and diverse phenomenon. It was also determined that a tour of the museum alters women's perceptions and awareness of cowgirls and their various accomplishments. The insights gained from this study could be used to develop an in-depth study on women's perceptions of female identities and what they take away from their museum experiences. The information can also be used to further women-centered scholarship with an eye toward gaining greater understanding of women's lives and potential.
Key words: Museums; Cowgirls; Women; Cultural tourism; Heritage tourism; USA
Address correspondence to Linda Ingram, Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, USA. Tel: 979-845-5385; Fax: 979-845-0446; E-mail: email@example.com
Margaret J. Daniels
School of Recreation, Health and Tourism, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA
Running is an individual sport, yet road races are inherently social events. The purpose of this study was to compare the running characteristics, motivations, and safety-related satisfaction of female and male runners who traveled alone to participate in a large annual road race. The event chosen for this study was the Cooper River Bridge Run, a large single-day race that takes place annually in Charleston, South Carolina (USA). Female solo travelers were found to be statistically younger and more likely to walk the route than males. While males reported running longer distances on a weekly basis, females were more likely to participate in road races in order to move to a higher level, signifying a stronger skill competence motivation. Females were more motivated by fun and spirit than males, but the groups were equally motivated by friendship, fitness, and status. Females were more satisfied with the race route, security/medical assistance, and volunteer assistance, suggesting a higher awareness of these safety-related race features. The study findings, which were at times contradictory to previous research, offer event planners guidance when creating promotional materials that target female sport tourists.
Key words: Solo travelers; Road races; Sport participation motivation
Address correspondence to Margaret J. Daniels, Ph.D., School of Recreation, Health and Tourism, George Mason University, 10900 University Blvd., MS 4E5, Manassas, VA 20110-2203, USA. Tel: 703-993-4279; Fax: 703-993-2025; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Female Travel Trends: A Look Back to the Future
Rodney B. Warnick and Meng Chen
Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
Changes in trend patterns in travel behavior among women from 1993 through 2003 were examined to determine how and when travel behavior has changed. The marital status and age of women was examined to determine if these changes can be identified. The travel behavior variables examined included US domestic travel, travel for pleasure, travel for business, foreign travel, frequent flyer travel program participation, cruise ship travel, and second home ownership. A classification system was developed to categorize the trend statistics and patterns. Travel participation was examined by number of households, participation rates, and market indexing. The specific research questions of this study were: 1) has female travel increased; 2) are there differences by household configurations (single vs. married) that affect women's travel participation; and 3) when age is included in the household configurations for women, are travel trends in participation observed? Overall, four of seven travel variables experienced overall growth and of these four, two activities experienced substantial growth (foreign travel and frequent flyer program participation). Two activities actually declined (pleasure and business travel), and one activity remained relatively unchanged over the period (second home ownership). These patterns of change in travel behavior were different by married and single households and by age categories. The number of single female households grew in three travel activities: US domestic, foreign, and substantially in frequent flyer program travel participation. The number of married households grew for US domestic travel, but grew substantially for foreign, cruise ship, and frequent flyer program participation. The impact of 9/11 was reviewed and the trends in travel by marital status and age found the largest substantial changes among married and single women ages 45 to 64. Substantial growth in frequent flyer program participation was noted across all martial and age categories for women. Increases in selected travel pursuits among single female households were found and support does appear to exist for the evolution of the "solo female travel market."
Key words: Female travel; Gender; Pleasure travel; Trends; Business travel; Foreign travel; Domestic travel; Second home ownership; Frequent flyer; Cruise ship travel
Address correspondence to Rodney B. Warnick, Ph.D., Professor, Hospitality
and Tourism Management Department, Isenberg School of Management, 204D
Flint Lab, 90 Campus Center Way, University of Massachusetts at Amherst,
Amherst, MA 01003-9247, USA. Phone: 413-545-6629; Fax: 413-545-1235; E-mail: