ognizant Communication Corporation

TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 12, NUMBERS 3/4

Tourism Review International, Volume 12, pp. 171-186
1544-2721/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Creativity in Cultural Tourism: The Case for Rural Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

Paul K. Ankomah and Trent Larson

Department of Human Performance and Leisure Studies, North Carolina A & T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA

Worldwide poverty is on the decline. In contrast, the phenomenon is on the ascendancy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts are being and continue to be made to arrest the situation and improve human conditions, especially among rural residents. This article suggests cultural tourism as a tool for rural development and addressing rural poverty. It proposes a tripartite alliance of governments, businesses, and civil rural societies/NGOs to collaborate in the area of cultural tourism product development to achieve the rural poverty alleviation objective. The article provides some creative suggestions to developing the cultural tourism product. It also identifies challenges that will be posed to the partnership approach and suggests some solutions to these challenges. The article concludes with a call on political, business, and civic community leaders to prepare their citizens to participate in the growing global tourism industry.

Key words: Sub-Saharan Africa; NGOs; Poverty alleviation; Afrikatourism; Human capacity

Address correspondence to Dr. Trent Larson, Department of Human Performance and Leisure Studies, 204 Corbett Sports Center, Greensboro, NC 72411, USA. Tel: +1-336-334-7712; Fax: +1-336-334-7258; E-mail: tlarson@ncat.edu




Tourism Review International, Volume 12, pp. 187-202
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Tourism and the General Agreement on Trade in Services: Debates, Progress, and Implications for the African Continent

Scarlett Cornelissen

Department of Political Science, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa

The adoption of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) more than a decade ago represents an important pinnacle in a prolonged process of international state-led trade liberalization. There is not much consensus on what the implications of GATS are for tourism development. Two viewpoints dominate; the fi rst that the GATS presents a major opportunity for tourism growth, and the second that dependency, inequity, and unsustainability are likely to emanate from the scheme. This article examines the content of the GATS, the degree to which it has been implemented on the African continent, and what some of the prospects are that GATS holds for tourism development in Africa. As in many other developing regions, several difficulties are experienced in African countries to apply the GATS, and the scheme has been put into practice to a limited and fragmented degree. Factors related to the nature of tourism in Africa, structural economic and political deficiencies, and limited understanding of the complex provisions of the GATS, create a complicated environment. There is the potential that the GATS may be counter to an emergent regime of environmental protection in tourism and other practices of sustainable tourism development. There is, however, sufficient potential in the GATS for growth, particularly within the intra-African frame. Serious consideration should be given to the utilization of GATS to foster intra-African tourism trade and investments that are beneficial for all African states. At the same time African states should attempt to obtain more favorable negotiation positions in existing multilateral fora such as the World Trade Organization, to enhance their gain from tourism liberalization.

Key words: General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS); Tourism liberalization; Regulation; African development

Address correspondence to Dr. Scarlett Cornelissen, Department of Political Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa. Tel: +27-21-8082140; Fax: +27-21-8082110; E-mail: sc3@sun.ac.za




Tourism Review International, Volume 12, pp. 203-214
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Regional Alliances and Cross-Border Tourism in Africa: Border Implications and the Economic Community of West African States

Dallen J. Timothy and Victor B. Teye

School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

This study examines supranationalism in Africa and focuses specifically on the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and its implications for tourism in West Africa. The article also presents findings from a study conducted at the common border of Ghana and Togo to assess cross-border travelers' perceptions of the border crossing experience and how it might be affected by the tenets of ECOWAS. The findings suggest that most people had a relatively pleasant experience crossing the border, but not everyone attributed the relative ease of crossing to the rules and regulations established by ECOWAS for border crossing. Likewise, less than half the respondents of Ghanaians and Togolese surveyed were aware of ECOWAS and its role in improving or easing the cross-border travel experience.

Key words: Africa; Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS); Supranationalism; Economic communities; Borders

Address correspondence to Dallen J. Timothy, Professor, School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, 411 N. Central Ave, Suite 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA. E-mail: Dallen.Timothy@asu.edu




Tourism Review International, Volume 12, pp. 215-230
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism in the Gambia: A Case of Planning Failure?

Richard A. J. Sharpley

School of Sport, Tourism & The Outdoors, University of Central Lancashire, UK

The development of The Gambia as a winter sun tourism destination commenced in 1965. Over the following 30 years, tourism to The Gambia grew steadily and, by the early 1990s, almost 90,000 international (air charter) arrivals were recorded. By then, tourism had also become a dominant sector of the Gambian economy and a principal driver of development. However, the military coup of 1994 had a major impact on tourism to The Gambia; arrivals figures declined dramatically and it was not until towards the end of the decade that they reached pre-coup levels. Since then, tourism to The Gambia has demonstrated little overall growth and the country has struggled to further develop its tourism industry, while wider economic development has also stagnated. This article considers the last decade of tourism development in The Gambia, highlighting major changes and, in particular, explores the reasons for the country's lack of progress in developing tourism. Identifying a lack of government support for tourism, it suggests that planning failure is the major cause of tourism sector's underperformance and that greater support and investment on the part of government is necessary to realize the potential benefits of tourism.

Key words: The Gambia; Tourism development; Tourism planning

Address correspondence to Professor Richard A. J. Sharpley, School of Sport, Tourism & The Outdoors, Lancashire Business School, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE, UK. Tel: (+44) 01772 894622; Fax: :(+44) 01772 892927; E-mail: rajsharpley@uclan.ac.uk




Tourism Review International, Volume 12, pp. 231-242
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Reflecting on Tourism Development in Kenya Through the Mirror of Dependency Theory

Geoffrey Manyara and Eleri Jones

Welsh School of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, UK

The Kenyan Government recognizes that the tourism industry can be a tool for economic development and poverty alleviation. However, the extant tourism development model is anachronistic and colonial, and the involvement of local communities is insignificant. Through a review of relevant literature, this article analyzes tourism development in Kenya within the context of dependency theory. The article [using in-depth semistructured interviews with members, managers, and leaders of community-based tourism enterprises (CBEs), members of academia, and representatives of support organizations and government] analyzes the implications of involving conservation-based organizations in tourism development in Kenya. The article reveals that the Kenyan Government recognizes the potential of CBEs in enhancing the involvement of local communities in tourism development. The development of CBEs in Kenya is solely driven by conservation organizations that in turn rely heavily on donor funding. A preference for community partnerships, particularly those involving white investors, increases dependence of local communities. In addition, heavy reliance on donor funding by CBEs can be regarded as a form of neocolonialism. Such a neocolonial approach hinders indigenous tourism entrepreneurship, particularly among the local communities, who view tourism development initiatives as undertakings only for white people, and thus can be easily reflected upon within the context of dependency theory.

Key words: Kenya; Economic development; Tourism; Dependency theory; Neocolonialism

Address correspondence to Professor Eleri Jones, Cardiff School of Management, Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, UK. Tel: +44-2920416937; Fax: +44-2920416930; E-mail: Ejones@uwic.ac.uk




Tourism Review International, Volume 12, pp. 243-258
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Promoting Cultural Tourism in Kenya: Focus on Funerals in Luo and Luhya Communities

Roselyne N. Okech

Tourism Studies, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, Canada

Cultural tourism develops at a considerable speed and diversifies continuously in a multifaceted way. It constitutes not only the base for booming city tourism but acts more and more as an instrument for fostering tourism in all areas. Culture has various products, including ceremonies (birth, marriage, or death). The focus of this study is on two communities, namely Luo and Luhya, residing in the Nyanza/Western region of Kenya. The article examines their ethnic culture within broader-not only local but also national and global socioeconomic-contexts, with special reference to the development of funeral tourism in the region. Funerary customs vary widely between cultures, and between religious affiliations within cultures. These communities have elaborate ways of performing the last rites of the dead. The ceremonies sometimes last longer than a week and this can at times prove to be extremely expensive for the family in question. In so doing, the article attempts to depict the dynamic way in which an ethnic culture is "staged" in the contemporary "postmodern" setting, and because development of tourism in the region is currently being promoted, the article attempts to evaluate if funeral tourism could be one of the ways of promoting cultural tourism in the region.

Key words: Funeral; Tourism; Communities; Culture; Luo; Luhya

Address correspondence to Dr. Roselyne N. Okech, Tourism Studies, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, NL, A2H 6P9, Canada. Tel: (709) 637-6200, ext. 6535; Fax: (709) 639-8125; E-mail: rokech@swgc.mun.ca or Rnokech@yahoo.com




Tourism Review International, Volume 12, pp. 259-273
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Troubled Past, a Challenging Present, and a Promising Future: Tanzania's Tourism Development in Perspective

Noel B. Salazar

Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Leuven, Belgium

Despite the many assets the continent possesses, tourism in Africa has mostly operated below its potential, and its often poorly planned development has had irreversible negative consequences for both people and the environment. In order to develop sustainable forms of tourism, respectful of the rich natural and cultural African heritage, industry leaders and policy makers must consider the broader historical and socioeconomic contexts in which tourism is implanting itself. Inspired by an anthropological perspective, this article takes Tanzania as a case study. Tourism in this East African country, as in other African countries, is firmly embedded in encompassing-and sometimes conflicting-processes of localization, nationalization, regionalization, and globalization. Only by having a solid understanding of how these different scales are connected, disconnected, and reconnected, and by taking into account the interests of all stakeholders involved, can we begin to build an integrated African hospitality industry that is sustainable as well as economically beneficial. Archival records and recent ethnographic data are combined to show the kinds of challenges and opportunities this poses in the case of Tanzania.

Key words: Anthropology of tourism; History; Ethnography; Development; Tanzania

Address correspondence to Dr. Noel B. Salazar, IMMRC-Anthropology, University of Leuven, Parkstraat 45, Bus 3615, BE-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Tel: +32-475-537.313; E-mail: noel.salazar@soc.kuleuven.be




Tourism Review International, Volume 12, pp. 275-290
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Alternative Models of Community Tourism: Balancing Economic Development and the Aspirations of the Poor

Damiannah M. Kieti,1 Eleri Jones,2 and Bob Wishitemi1

1Moi University, Kenya
2Welsh School of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, UK

While the World Tourism Organization asserts the potential of tourism for poverty alleviation, real life scenarios on the ground do not necessarily provide supporting evidence for such an assertion. The anachronistic nature of current models of tourism development in Kenya, for example, does not address the key issues of poverty reduction as the poor do not derive significant benefits from tourism activity, either through employment or participation in community tourism initiatives. This study of two alternative models of community involvement in tourism development in the Samburu-Laikipia region of Kenya gives voice to the poor and develops a rich understanding of their aspirations for tourism development and their involvement in it. The study uses ethnographic techniques to uncover local people's attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and values as well as the unspoken cultural patterns that shape their behavior and livelihood practices. Moreover, it explores the local people's understanding of tourism and their perceptions of how poverty alleviation through tourism development could impact their lives.

Key words: Community tourism; Aspirations of the poor; Economic development; Poverty; Local people

Address correspondence to Professor Eleri Jones, Cardiff School of Management, Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, UK. Tel: +44-2920416937; Fax: +44-2920416930; E-mail: Ejones@uwic.ac.uk




Tourism Review International, Volume 12, pp. 291-301
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

International Involvement in a Regional Development Scheme: Laying the Foundation for National Tourism Development in Ghana

Victor B. Teye

School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

While most African countries use short-, medium-, or long-term planning instruments for internal economic development at the regional and national levels, many of these plans exclude specific tourism development components. Some of the reasons advanced for this situation include low priority assigned to tourism, lack of domestic investment capital, and limited local human resource capacity to support the planning and development of the tourism sector. Some of the few countries that have successfully developed tourism have initially depended on external agencies, foreign expertise, foreign investment capital, and technical assistance. This article examines the involvement of several international development organizations in an integrated nature-based and heritage tourism project in the Central Region of Ghana. It analyzes the role of the international agencies; the objectives of the project; some of the project's unique aspects with respect to funding, capacity building, and transfer of technology; and some of the direct outcomes in laying the foundation for the recent growth of tourism in Ghana over the last 15-20 years.

Key words: Central region; Tourism; International; Development; Ghana

Address correspondence to Dr. Victor B. Teye, School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix Campus, 411 N. Central Avenue, Suite 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690, USA. Tel: +1-602-496-0172; Fax: +1-602-496-0953 E-mail: Teye@asu.edu




Tourism Review International, Volume 12, pp. 303-315
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Efficiency Measurement Systems in Hotels: Perspectives From Luanda, Angola

Carlos M. Santos,1 Peter U. C. Dieke,2 and Carlos Pestana Barros3

1University of Azores, Portugal
2George Mason University, USA
3Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

This article analyzes the technical and allocative efficiency of hotels in Luanda, Angola using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to seek out the best organizations in order to improve the performance of the least-performing hotels in the sample. We rank the hotels according to their total productivity for the period 2003-2005. In a second stage, a bootstrapped Tobit model identifies the efficiency drivers. Economic implications arising from the study are considered.

Key words: Hotels; Luanda, Angola; Efficiency; Data envelopment analysis (DEA)

Address correspondence to Dr. Carlos Pestana Barros, Instituto de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon, Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon, Portugal. E-mail: cbarros@iseg.utl.pt