|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal
(Formerly Pacific Tourism Review)
VOLUME 7, NUMBER 1
Tourism Review International, Volume 7, pp. 1-12
1544-2721/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Sustainable Forest-Based Tourism in Northeast New South Wales, Australia: A Problematic Goal
Jeremy Buultjens, Margaret Tiyce, and Deborah Gale
School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Australia
Sustainable tourism is seen as capable of providing both rural economic development and valorizing conservation. Unfortunately, it appears that many nature-based tourism operations are struggling to maintain the financial viability required to ensure this occurs. This study examined 41 forest-based tourism businesses in northeast New South Wales, Australia, to assess their ability to contribute to sustainable tourism. The businesses employed an average of 5.6 staff per business, including the owner(s). Approximately 61% of businesses had a gross income of less than AUS$100,000 and 40% of operators had a combined household income under AUS$25,000. A relatively large number of operators suggested that they were forced to charge fees that were either below cost or at cost. All operators suggested that their businesses did not have a negative impact on the environment, although nearly 46% of operators stated they had concerns about the environmental impact of their competitors. The overall results indicated that a majority of forest-based tourism operators in northeast NSW, because of their financial position, are probably not contributing substantially to local economic development and would have trouble adopting environmentally sustainable practices.
Key words: Sustainable tourism; Nature-based tourism; Forest-based tourism; Rural development
Address correspondence to Dr. Jeremy Buultjens, Senior Lecturer, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, P.O. Box 157, Military Road, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia. Tel: 61-1-02-6620-3382; Fax: 61-2-6622-2208; E-mail: email@example.com
The Financial Viability of Heritage Tourism Attractions: Three Cases From Rural Australia
Department of Management, Monash University, Australia
Heritage tourism (whether historic, cultural, or natural) is widely seen as one of the mainstays of rural tourism. Most research on heritage tourism has focused on issues such as the protection of the physical fabric at heritage attractions, balancing authenticity, and accessibility in interpretation and the meaning of heritage for people. However, the issue of the viability and sustainability of heritage tourism operations as businesses has in contrast hardly been considered. This article addresses this issue by focusing on three rural heritage tourism attractions that have experienced financial problems. In addition, the article explores two factors that may limit research into the financial viability of attractions. The first is that problems may be manifested in many different ways, of which bankruptcy and closure are only the most extreme. The second is the difficulty of gaining useful objective information from and regarding businesses in trouble.
Key words: Heritage attractions; Failure; Rural; Tourism businesses; Australia
Address correspondence to Dr. Warwick Frost, Department of Management, Monash University, Clyde Road, Berwick, Victoria 3806, Australia. Tel: 61-03-9904-7042; Fax: 61-3-9904-7130; E-mail: Warwick.Frost@BusEco.monash.edu.au
Contemporary Challenges for Ecotourism in Vietnam
Neil Lipscombe and Rik Thwaites
School of Environmental and Informational Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Australia
With a rapidly growing domestic and international tourism industry, the government of Vietnam has taken a number of tourism-related initiatives since early 1999. These include the issuing of an Ordinance on Tourism, which provides the legal and policy foundations for developing tourism with due regard for conserving biodiversity and ensuring social, cultural, and environmental sustainability, and the proposal to revise the existing Tourism Development Master Plan to produce a Tourism Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism Development in Vietnam. Through these initiatives the government of Vietnam has moved towards planning the management of tourism to ensure sustainable outcomes, and ecotourism and cultural tourism have been proposed as preferred tourism development options. One destination focus of this preferred tourism option is the protected area system of Vietnam. This article presents a series of themes as key areas for discussion, to assist Vietnam as it endeavors to assess the current proposed Tourism Master Plan (2001-2010) as a means of achieving national development objectives. A month-long ecotourism training workshop for protected area managers was held in Hanoi in February-March 2000. Through this workshop, four primary themes were identified as presenting major challenges for those with responsibility to balance conservation with increasing tourist visitation: the structure and administration of the protected area system, tourism infrastructure, providing for the needs of local communities, and effective communication across all relevant stakeholders. This article explores these challenges based on the review of a range of in-house reports and documents, the recorded views of Vietnamese government officials, academics, and protected area managers, discussions with and surveys of workshop participants, and visits to a number of national parks and tourist locations.
Key words: Ecotourism; Protected area management; Community development; Vietnam; Southeast Asia
Address correspondence to Dr. Neil Lipscombe, Associate Head, School of Environmental and Informational Sciences, Charles Sturt University, P.O. Box 789, Albury, NSW 2640, Australia. Tel: 61-1-02-6051-9835; Fax: 61-2-6051-9897; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
A Review of Tourist and Health Issues, With Particular Reference to Tibet
Ghazali Musa, J. E. S. Higham, and C. M. Hall
Department of Tourism, University of Otago, New Zealand
Despite the common beliefs that travel provides positive benefits to health, a considerable number of tourists experience ailments abroad. Tourism and health remain a neglected area in tourism research, and in high-altitude destinations it is nonexistent. This study explores the holistic concept of the travel health experience among foreign tourists in Tibet. A sample of 340 tourists who had visited Tibet responded to a survey that was administered employing convenience sampling in the Kathmandu Valley. The results showed, despite comprehensive pretravel anticipation among visitors to Tibet, the majority (9 out of 10) experienced some form of health ailments. The most common ailments were mountain sickness symptoms, diarrhea, and respiratory symptoms. The study also found several significant connections between the incidence of health ailments and travel motivation, level of knowledge and education, fitness level, and pretravel preparation. The study suggests that visitor education should be more holistic in its approach by considering all the possible factors that contribute to sickness in high altitude. The Tibet tourism authorities should provide a better health infrastructure and facilities as well as put special emphasis on educating the high-risk group of tourists. While tourism development in Tibet remains a low priority this is unlikely to take place, in which case travel agents or governments in tourist-generating countries may need to assume a greater role in providing critical health information for visitors to high-altitude destinations such as Tibet.
Key words: Ailments; Travel health experience; High altitude; Mountain sickness, Tibet
Address correspondence to Dr. Ghazali Musa, 3A-18-1, Pantai Panorama Condominium, Off Jalan Kerinchi, Jalan Pantai Dalam, 59,200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel & Fax: 60-3-2284-0701; E-mail: email@example.com or Dr. James E. S. Higham, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, 4th Floor, Commerce Building, Corner of Clyde & Union Streets, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: 64-3-479-8500; Fax: 64-3-479-9034; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Return Visits Among Filipino Migrants in Dunedin, New Zealand
Maria Elena Obsequio-Go and David Timothy Duval
Department of Tourism, University of Otago, New Zealand
The purpose of this article is to present top-line data from a recent study investigating travel to the Philippines by Filipino migrants living in Dunedin, New Zealand. The study was conducted to provide an initial assessment of migrant mobilities among a small subpopulation of Filipino migrants. Financial and logistical constraints prevented broad coverage of Filipino migrants across New Zealand, although such research is currently in the planning stages. The study itself is part of a larger, multisite research project based at the University of Otago designed to investigate the relationship between migration and temporary mobility.
Key words: Migrants; Return visits; Mobility; Philippines; New Zealand
Address correspondence to Dr. David Timothy Duval, Department of
Tourism, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: 64-3479-5398;
Fax: 61-64-3479-9034; E-mail: email@example.com