|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal
(Formerly Pacific Tourism Review)
VOLUME 7, NUMBERS 3/4
Tourism Review International, Volume 7, pp. 111-121
1544-2721/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Healthcare Tourism in Southeast Asia
Joan C. Henderson
Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
This article is concerned with healthcare tourism and recent initiatives in the Southeast Asian destinations of Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The spectrum of provision is considered from medical tourism through cosmetic surgery to spas and alternative therapies, all areas of increasing commercial interest with considerable competition regionally and worldwide. The sector's development and marketing in the selected countries are assessed, revealing problems and opportunities, and it is shown to be highly distinctive in terms of both demand and supply. Those responsible for the management and promotion of healthcare tourism are seen to confront particular challenges and there are wider concerns that must be addressed if it is to realize its potential.
Key words: Healthcare; Medical tourism; Spas; Malaysia; Singapore; Thailand
Address correspondence to Dr. Joan C. Henderson, Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798. Tel: 65-6790-6116; Fax: 65-6791-3697; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Structural Change in Hong Kong's Inbound Tourism Demand Model: The Impact of the Asian Financial Crisis
Amy Y. F. Tan and Kevin K. F. Wong
School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility of a structural change in Hong Kong's inbound tourism demand model as a consequence of the Asian financial crisis in 1997. Specifically, the study investigated the differences manifested in the model parameters before and after the crisis using pooled time-series and cross-sectional data. Both tourist arrivals and tourism receipts were used as the indicators for tourism demand, and the major economic factors included in the model were income and price. The Wald test procedure was used to examine the possibility of a structural change in tourism demand for Hong Kong between the pre- and postcrisis periods. The results support the hypothesis that structural shift was prevalent in Hong Kong's inbound tourism demand model. Thus, important marketing implications for the tourism industry in Hong Kong were discussed.
Key words: Asian financial crisis; Structural change; Hong Kong tourism demand
Address correspondence to Dr. Amy Y. F. Tan, Assistant Professor, School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hum, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, China. Tel: 852-2766-7393; Fax: 852-2362-9362; E-mail: email@example.com
Tourism and the Sex Trade: Roles Male Sex Workers Play in Malindi, Kenya
Department of Tourism Management, School of Business and Management, MOI University, Kenya
This article deals with a subject that has historically received little attention in tourism studies in Kenya--the relationship between tourism and the development of the male sex trade in Malindi. The article discusses the male sex trade from three distinctive perspectives: male-male sexual services, male-female sexual services, and pimping services. It explores some of the reasons inducing local men into the sex trade. It also discusses the linkage between the sex trade and tourism in Malindi and briefly considers the implications of the trade to the development of tourism in the country. The study concludes that the sex business in Malindi is a reservoir of hidden unemployment, as well as an overt innovative and enterprising force that is integrated in the local economy.
Key words: Sex trade; Male-male sexual services; Male-female sexual services; Pimping services; Unemployment; Malindi; Kenya; Africa
Address correspondence to Wanjohi Kibicho, Lecturer, Department of Tourism Management, MOI University, P.O. Box 3692, Eldoret, Kenya. Tel: 254-03121-63133; Fax: 254-0321-63133/63257; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Involvement in Adventure Tourism: Toward Implementing a Fuzzy Set
Chris Ryan1 and Birgit Trauer2
1The University of Waikato Management School, New Zealand
2University of Queensland, Australia
This article presents initial proposals for utilizing qualitative research methods based on principles of analyzing uncertainty in the field of adventure tourism. It comprises three main sections: a description of fuzzy sets, a conceptualization of adventure tourism, and finally an initial synthesis of the first two sections. The conceptualization of adventure tourism is premised on concepts of flow, involvement, and nature of the product, and a fourfold categorization or "typologies" of adventure tourism are suggested. The final synthesis is presented as a model for possible implementation through future research.
Key words: Adventure tourism; Tourist experiences; Involvement; Flow; Fuzzy sets
Address correspondence to Dr. Chris Ryan, Department of Tourism Management, The University of Waikato Management School, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Tel: 64-7-838-4259; Fax: 64-7-838-4250; E-mail: email@example.com
Destination Image and Loyalty
Liping A. Cai,1 Bihu (Tiger) Wu,2 and Billy Bai3
1Purdue Tourism & Hospitality Research Center, HTM Department,
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
2The Center for Recreation and Tourism Research, Peking University, China
3Tourism & Convention Administration Department, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV
This study extended destination image research by relating to the behavioral dimension of visitor loyalty. Based on the sample from a visitor profile study sanctioned by a county-level destination marketing organization (DMO) in the United States, the study examined the relationship between visitors' perceived images and their destination loyalty. Four distinct image constructs were identified, three of which are attribute based and one affective and attitude based. Among other findings, the study noted a significant and positive association between the favorability of visitors' affective and attitude images and the degree of their loyalty, which was delineated by the frequency of repeat visitation. However, the increased favorability leveled off as one's visitation became more frequent. The finding is important because affective and attitude images are closer and more critical than attribute-based images to the decision-making stage of destination choice. The study results illustrate the importance of closer scrutiny of repeat visitation. It also recognizes that while visitors' perceptions of a destination should be examined holistically as parts of a composite image, they must also be analyzed individually to facilitate a DMO's practical development in decision-making and marketing implementations.
Key words: Destination image; Loyalty; Image constructs; Attributes; Affectives; Attitudes
Address correspondence to Liping A. Cai, Director and Associate Professor, Purdue Tourism & Hospitality Research Center, HTM Department, Purdue University, 700 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907. Tel: (765) 494-4739; Fax: (815) 846-4881; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org