ognizant Communication Corporation

TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal

(Formerly Pacific Tourism Review)

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2

Tourism Review International, Volume 8, pp. 57-67
1544-2721/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The International Student Travel Market: Travelstyle, Motivations, and Activities

Greg Richards1 and Julie Wilson2

1Fundació Interarts (Interarts Foundation) and Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Spain
2Department of Geography and History, Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Spain

Abstract: One sign of the growing interest in student travel both from the tourism industry and academic researchers is the global independent travel survey conducted by the International Student Travel Confederation (ISTC) and the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS). The survey, conducted in 2002, covers the profile and travel behavior of 1630 students booking travel from student travel organizations in eight countries. This article reports the initial results of this research. The survey showed that students are frequent travel consumers with extensive previous experience of relatively long trips outside of their own world region. Most students see their travelstyle as that of "traveler," but a significant proportion of the market characterized their travel as "backpacking." Motivations reflecting a desire for experience are prevalent with student travelers, particularly in terms of exploring other cultures. Motivations tend to be differentiated by destination region and travelstyle and are distinct between students and other young travelers. In spite of these differences in motivation, however, the activities actually engaged in showed little differentiation between students and others. The most frequently mentioned activities were visiting historical sites, walking, sitting in cafés and restaurants, and shopping, which were practiced by over 70% of respondents. In this and other respects, the article argues that comparisons of motivation and actual activities indicate a gap between the ideology and practice of travel.

Key words: Student travel; Motivations; Activities; Experience

Address correspondence to Dr. Greg Richards, Fundació Interarts and Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Carrer Mallora 272, 9a, 08037 Barcelona, Spain. Tel: 34-93-487-7022; Fax: 34-93-487-2644; E-mail: grichards@inarts.net




Tourism Review International, Volume 8, pp. 69-84
1544-2721/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring the Relationships Among Psychographic Factors in the Female and Male Youth Travel Market

Yvette Reisinger1 and Felix Mavondo2

1Department of Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, Berwick Campus, Monash University, Australia
2Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business and Economics, Clayton Campus, Monash University, Australia

Abstract: This article explores the differences in the relationships among cultural values, personality, travel motivation, vacation activities, and lifestyle in the female and male youth travel markets. A path model is developed separately for the US female and male market. The equivalence of the model across the two markets is determined. The significant differences in the relationships between factors across the two groups are explored. The results suggest the same model holds in the two samples and both models had acceptable fit measures. However, there are significant differences in the strengths of the relationships between the factors. These findings suggest that gender-specific issues cannot be ignored in developing and planning tourism and marketing programs. The implications of the study for academics and practitioners are discussed.

Key words: Gender differences; Youth travel market; Psychographics

Address correspondence to Dr. Yvette Reisinger at her current address: Tourism Research International, Bradford, MA 01835. Tel: (978) 273-3993; E-mail: yvette.reisinger@email.com




Tourism Review International, Volume 8, pp. 85-99
1544-2721/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Attraction of Switzerland for College Skiers After 9/11: A Case Study

Scott D. Williams and Heather J. Gibson

Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida

Abstract: A pretest/posttest design was used to investigate the experiences of participants on a university-sponsored ski/snowboard trip to Interlaken, Switzerland. Self-administered questionnaires measuring benefits sought, destination image, satisfaction, and risk perception were distributed during transit. Of the 90 participants, 55 (61%) completed the pretest questionnaire. Thirty-nine (43.3%) completed and returned the posttest questionnaires via e-mail. Additional data were provided by participant observation and open-ended responses within the questionnaire. Frequencies and t-tests revealed that students sought benefits related to novelty, excitement, and social opportunities. Images were of scenic beauty, unique skiing, and cultural attractions. Participants were unconcerned with risks involved in travel after September 11, 2001. Gender, involvement, and previous travel experience were also examined. Recommendations for planners of similar trips are to consider the interests of nonskiers and skiers in marketing, capitalizing on popular images of destinations.

Key words: Students; Benefits sought; Satisfaction; Destination image; Involvement; Perceived risk; Skiing and snowboarding; Active sport tourism; International travel

Address correspondence to Scott Williams, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, 206G Florida Gym, P.O. Box 118208, Gainesville, FL 32611-8208. Tel: (352) 392-4042, ext.1396; Fax: (352) 392-7588; E-mail: swilliams@hhp.ufl.edu




Tourism Review International, Volume 8, pp. 101-111
1544-2721/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Field Trip: Students' View of Experiential Learning

Philip F. Xie

Sport Management, Recreation and Tourism Division, School of Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies, Bowling Green State University, OH

Abstract: Despite the recent increase in research on experiential learning for the field of tourism studies, questions remain about which aspects of experiential learning best contribute to tourism courses and how students perceive the effectiveness of field trips. This article attempts to establish an alternative framework for understanding the students' view of experiential learning in the field of travel and tourism. A travel journal developed in summer 2003 to measure American undergraduates' opinions about experiential learning was used during a field trip in the Niagara Falls region. It solicited the opinions of tourism major students concerning the itinerary activities and images of destinations. The trip was in three parts. First, the undergraduate students attended classroom sessions to familiarize them with destination and management issues. Second, students participated in a 4-day trip and were required to keep a journal and take photographs for interpreting the travel experiences. Third, a photo analysis and panel discussion were held with students after the trip concerning their perceptions of experiential learning. The study found that students are comfortable with the field trip because it helps personal development. The group dynamics and the development of teamwork concept seem to be important variables of this instructional methodology. Other factors, such as destination image, were identified during the trip. The findings of the study have important repercussions for the training of students in tourism majors. The experiential base elements help students develop perspectives and other learning outcomes associated with the application of knowledge at higher levels.

Key words: Experiential learning; Field trip; Niagara Falls; Travel journal; Photo analysis; Tourism major

Address correspondence to Dr. Philip F. Xie, Sport Management, Recreation and Tourism Division, School of Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies, 209 Eppler North, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Tel: (419) 372-6910; Fax: (419) 372-0383; E-mail: pxie@bgnet.bgsu.edu




Tourism Review International, Volume 8, pp. 113-126
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Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Understanding School Excursion Planning and Constraints: An Australian Case Study

Brent W. Ritchie1,2 and Duane Coughlan3

1Tourism Program, University of Canberra, ACT, Australia and 2School of Service Management, University of Brighton, UK
3Menlo Consulting Group, Los Altos, CA

Abstract: According to Ritchie, Carr, and Cooper, school excursion tourism is a relatively underresearched and poorly understood segment of the tourism industry, particularly with regard to its size and specific nature. Yet both domestic and international school excursions provide an important market for attractions, tour operators, and accommodation providers. Although school excursions are not a major economic force for attractions they can provide positive word of mouth and encourage future visitation for both students and parents, and can also support off-season visitation. Cooper notes the need to understand the school excursion market, including their motivations, needs, constraints, and travel behavior. This article begins by outlining the potential of school excursions before focusing on domestic school excursions through discussing a study conducted on the school excursion market in Australia. A total of 807 schools nationwide were surveyed in 1998-99 to examine their school excursion behavior, including their motivations, constraints, and perceptions of Canberra (the National Capital of Australia). Forty-six percent of schools had a dedicated school excursion planner, and while the major motives for school excursions were educational, they were closely followed by cost-effective destinations, a variety of destination attractions, and the ability of attractions to cater specifically to school groups. A total of 74% of schools note that funding is an influencing factor for school excursion planning and note specific strategies that could attract future school visitation to destinations. The results indicate that understanding the school excursion market is important in formulating strategies to attract this market and to provide quality experiences for students and teachers. The findings may be of interest to other destinations seeking to attract school excursions, including national capital cities and destinations with educational attractions.

Key words: Tourism; Excursion; School; Travel; Behavior

Address correspondence to Dr. Brent W. Ritchie, Tourism Program, School of Information Management and Tourism, University of Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Tel: 61-02-6201-2289; Fax: 61-2-6201-2649; E-mail: Brent.Ritchie@canberra.edu.au




Tourism Review International, Volume 8, pp. 127-141
1544-2721/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Reimagining Africa: What American Students Learn in South Africa

Kathryn Mathers

Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Pretoria, South Africa

Abstract: This article explores how travel influences American attitudes to South Africa and Africa. It draws on long-term ethnographic relationships with American study abroad students in Cape Town, South Africa. Travel is often assumed to be an ideal way of changing how the "other" is perceived, but most research on travelers shows only how the traveler is changed. This article is a rare contribution to discussions of what travelers can learn about their destinations. Africa tends to be imagined in the US as a homogeneous entity either good in its primitiveness and wildness or bad in its violence, poverty, and disease. These perceptions color the expectations of students traveling to South Africa and frame their experiences there. Some of their preconceptions are shaken, especially the assumption that racial categories are the same everywhere. The students frequently assert, "South Africa is not Africa." They also learn through their volunteer work, and conversations with South Africans, that poverty is not necessarily a homogenizing, debilitating force and that despite lack of material possessions, poor South Africans have ambitions and pride. The students' image of Africa is disturbed by the combination of their cosmopolitan experiences in South Africa and this unsettling of their preconceptions about poverty.

Key words: Study abroad; Travel; Africa; America; Representations; Poverty

Address correspondence to Kathryn Mathers, Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. Tel: 27-12-420-2496; Fax: 27-12-420-2698; E-mail: catherine.mathers@up.ac.za




Tourism Review International, Volume 8, pp. 143-152
1544-2721/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

RESEARCH NOTE
Cultural Adaptation: A Comparative Analysis of Tertiary Students' International Education Experience

Peter Townsend and Christine Lee

Department of Management Faculty of Business and Economics, Gippsland Campus, Monash University, Australia

Abstract: The new millennium encompasses an era of accelerating diversity and multicultural experience. Globalization, educational tourism, and international student growth has created the need for a greater understanding of the social and economic impacts of the tertiary education cross-cultural experience. The purpose of this article is to enhance this understanding, utilizing the social learning theory framework to compare local and international university students' international education experience with respect to cultural adaptation. The results show that cultural adaptation formed part of the multicultural experience for both student groups, although a key finding was that international students were subject to a greater degree of culture shock. These finding concur with previous academic literature and government reports that have discussed the issue.

Key words: International students; Culture shock; Cultural adaptation

Address correspondence to Dr. Christine Lee, Tourism Research Unit, Department of Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, Gippsland Campus, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842, Australia. Tel: 61-3-512-26714; Fax: 61-3-512-27154; E-mail: Christine.Lee@BusEco.monash.edu.au




Tourism Review International, Volume 8, pp. 153-157
1544-2721/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

RESEARCH NOTE
The Economic Impact of German Graduate Students in Bali

Thomas J. Iverson1 and I Komang Gde Bendesa2

1University of Guam, Guam, USA
2Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia

Abstract: This note addresses an understudied market segment: students who travel on relatively long stays for educational purposes. German students, attending a graduate program of study on the island of Bali, were surveyed to determine their expenditures. Prepaid and lump sum expenditures were combined with monthly spending estimates to arrive at estimates of total spending. The economic impact of this student market is then discussed with consideration of the multiplier effect and "leakages" from the island economy.

Key words: Term abroad; Spending behavior; Economic impact; Students; Bali; Indonesia

Address correspondence to Dr. Tom Iverson, Executive Director, Sustainable Development Institute, Richard F. Taitano Micronesian Area Research Center, University of Guam, Mangilao, GU 96923 E-mail: tiverson@uog9.uog.edu