|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal
(Formerly Pacific Tourism Review)
VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3
Tourism Review International, Volume 8, pp. 167-176
1544-2721/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Access, Disability, and Tourism: Changing Responses in the United Kingdom
Gareth Shaw, Chris Veitch, and Tim Coles
Center for Tourism Studies, School of Business and Economics, University of Exeter, UK
Abstract: Interest in travel constraints and access to tourism facilities by people with disabilities has been largely brought about in the UK with the introduction of the Disability Discrimination Act in 1995. This article explores the impact of this legislation in terms of a wider debate on government ideas of social inclusion. In this setting, attention is given to the reactions of service providers to the disability legislation and of the needs of tourists. The article draws together the findings from a range of recent surveys of both providers and users.
Key words: Disability; Social inclusion; Barriers to access; Service provision; UK
Address correspondence to Professor Gareth Shaw, Center for Tourism Studies, Department of Management, University of Exeter, Streatham Court, Rennes Drive, Exeter EX4 4PU, UK. Tel: +44(0)1392 263332; Fax: +44(0) 1392 263342; E-mail: G.Shaw@exeter.ac.uk
Access to Historic Environments for Tourists With Disabilities: A Compromise?
Brian Goodall,1 Gaye Pottinger,2 Tim Dixon,2 and Henry Russell2
1School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of
2The College of Estate Management, Reading, UK
Abstract: Historic environments, the basis for heritage tourism, are difficult to access for people with disabilities. Many countries have introduced legislation to promote equal rights for people with disabilities. Historic environments, however, enjoy protection under national planning systems which limit the physical access improvements that can be made. The significance of historic environments for tourism in the UK is outlined. Barriers restricting tourists with disabilities accessing historic sites are reviewed from the heritage tourism service provider's viewpoint. Interests of the major stakeholders are considered in terms of the apparent conflict between conservation and access issues as heritage tourism service providers seek to comply with disability discrimination legislation. From a study of access improvements made by major heritage tourism service providers, good practice is identified. However, physical access improvements to enable tourists with disabilities to visit historic environments are a compromise because of the strength of conservation interests. Questions remain as to whether this compromise is acceptable to the tourist with disabilities and whether intellectual access is an acceptable substitute for physical presence.
Key words: Heritage tourism; Historic environments; Tourists with disabilities; Conservation planning; Disability discrimination legislation; Access improvements, UK
Address correspondence to Professor Brian Goodall, Tourism Research and Policy Unit, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, P.O. Box 227, Reading, RG6 6AB England. Tel: +44(0)118-378- 8738/8747; Fax: +44(0)118-975-5865; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Travelers and Tourists With Disabilities: A Matter of Priorities and Loyalties
Norma J. Stumbo1 and Shane Pegg2
1School of Kinesiology and Recreation, Illinois State University,
2School of Tourism and Leisure Management, The University of Queensland, Australia
Abstract: Ensuring full access to travel and tourism opportunities takes considerable knowledge, effort, commitment, and tenacity on the part of the service provider. Many tourism-driven agencies often unknowingly create organizational and institutional barriers to engagement through their narrow and outdated policies, practices, facilities, and programs, as well as rules and regulations that tend to exclude, restrict, or discriminate against persons with disabilities. Travel and tourism businesses need to create and implement strategies that remove attitudinal, social, and physical barriers that currently prevent or reduce the travel options of persons with disabilities. With this in mind, the purpose of this article is to highlight the changing demographics of individuals with disabilities, review some of the major barriers or constraints encountered within travel and tourism endeavors, and discuss how the removal of these constraints can enhance market share. Importantly, this article also outlines the benefits to be accrued to those in the travel and tourism trade who focus on providing equal opportunities for people with disabilities.
Key words: Travel; Tourism; People with disabilities; Accessibility; Barriers
Address correspondence to Dr. Norma J. Stumbo, Professor of Therapeutic Recreation, School of Kinesiology and Recreation, 101 McCormick Hall, Campus Box 5121, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-5121. Tel: (309) 438-5608; Fax: (309) 438-5561; E-mail: email@example.com
Tourism and Disability: Issues Beyond Access
Eric J. Shelton and Hazel Tucker
Department of Tourism, University of Otago, New Zealand
Abstract: For more than a decade theorizing around the concept of disability/disablement has utilized intrinsic versus extrinsic, personal versus social models. Within the intrinsic/personal model, codified by the World Health Organization, the facilitation of access to otherwise inaccessible sites and services has been a major focus of attention. In contrast, the social model situates physical access issues within a much wider context of more general structural denial of minority group access to "loot and clout." The academic study of tourism so far largely has failed to address the implications for the industry of social theories of disability, concentrating rather on practical issues of dismantling barriers to physical access. This article situates the experience of disability in tourism within social models of disability and argues that the historical emphasis on improving physical access, although of value, has served to perpetuate person-centered models, and thus is itself potentially disabling. Consequently, the issue is raised of how far can and should tourism practice be informed by disability theory.
Key words: Disability; Inclusion; Antidiscrimination legislation
Address correspondence to Eric Shelton, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, 4th Floor, Commerce Building, Cnr Clyde & Union Streets, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: 64-3-479-5657; Fax: 64-3-479-9034; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
On and Off the Trail: Experiences of Individuals With Specialized Needs on the Appalachian Trail
Nancy Nisbett and Jennifer Hinton
School of Recreation and Sports Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH
Abstract: Approximately 2000 thru-hikers attempt to complete the 2160-mile Appalachian Trail in its entirety each year; among them are hikers with specialized needs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of long-distance hikers with specialized needs on the Appalachian Trail and in the surrounding towns. Seven hikers were interviewed for an understanding of their experience, constraints, and motivations. Five salient themes emerged: (1) importance of people as support; (2) use of adaptations; (3) knowing oneself; (4) determination; and (5) viewing the Appalachian Trail as a challenge. Constraint and motivational theories were then applied to these themes for better understanding of the hikers' experiences. Results suggest that intrinsic motivation and lack of intrapersonal constraints were strong determinants for success. Recommendations for further research are provided in the areas of tourism, individuals with specialized needs, and leisure.
Key words: Appalachian Trail; Hiking; Constraints; Motivations; Disability
Address correspondence to Dr. Nancy Nisbett, School of Recreation and Sports Sciences, University of Ohio, Grover Center E160, Athens, OH 45701. Tel: (740) 593-0637; Fax: (740) 593-0284; E-mail: email@example.com
Accessibility and Attitudinal Barriers Encountered by Travelers With Physical Disabilities
Amanda H. Avis,1 Jaclyn A. Card,2 and Shu T. Cole2
1Open Doors Organization, Chicago, IL
2Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO
Abstract: With the passage of the Americans with Disability Act (ADA), civil rights protection was expanded for the 54 million Americans with disabilities. Tourism falls under Title III of this legislation. Yet, more than a decade after the passage of the ADA, people with disabilities still encounter barriers in travel and tourism industry sectors, both accessibility and staff attitudinal barriers. This study examined four industry sectors within US travel and tourism in terms of the accessibility and attitudinal barriers that travelers with physical disabilities encountered. The four sectors were transportation, accommodations, eating/drinking establishments, and attractions. Further, comparisons were conducted on gender, age, types of assistive devices used by travelers, income, and accessibility and attitudinal barriers. Results indicated that the four tourism sectors may not universally comply with the ADA and that tourism providers are not meeting the attitudinal needs of travelers. Gender, age, assistive devices, and income were not good indicators of accessibility barriers travelers encountered, but gender and age provided some indication of attitudinal barriers they encountered.
Key words: Accessibility barriers; Attitudinal barriers; Travelers with physical disabilities; Accessibility of tourism sectors; ADA
Address correspondence to Dr. Jaclyn A. Card, Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism, University of Missouri, 105 Anheuser-Busch Natural Resources Building, Columbia, MO 65211-7230. Tel: (573) 882-9516; Fax: (573) 882-9526; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
"We Gotta Get Out of This Place!" Leisure Travel Among Gay Men Living in a Small City
Sergio L. Herrera and David Scott
Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
Abstract: Leisure travel may create many constraints for groups that have been historically marginalized. It can also provide benefits to these groups that are not ordinarily obtained close to home. This study examines the use and significance of leisure travel by gay men living in a small city given the pseudonym "Soledad." In-depth interviews and participant observation were used to collect data. Results revealed that gay men pursued leisure experiences that affirmed their gay self-identities. While gay meeting places and people existed in Soledad, the gay community remained largely covert. Leisure travel to larger cities was a major negotiation strategy used by gay men to escape this stifling, heteronormative community. Escaping perceived hostilities was essential for gay men to feel comfortable exploring their homosexuality in a positive, affirming manner. Furthermore, the benefits of leisure travel spilled over into the daily lives of gay men. Leisure travel helped them make gay friends and, in the process, helped them "learn" how to be gay and/or reinforced their identity. Gay men discovered a whole new set of possible ways to express themselves through a newly acquired "gay gaze."
Key words: Gay men; Leisure travel; Negotiation; Leisure constraints; Gay gaze
Address correspondence to Sergio L. Herrera, Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2261. Tel: (979) 845-5385; Fax: (979) 845-0446; E-mail: email@example.com
A Comparative Study of Leisure Constraints Perceived by Mature and Young Travelers
Yawei Wang, William C. Norman, and Francis A. McGuire
Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, SC
Abstract: With the graying of the baby boomers, the mature market becomes an important travel segment. The purpose of this article is to compare the individual perceived constraints experienced by mature (over 50) and young travelers (under 50) to Wisconsin Northwoods, to identify and compare the important constraint factors perceived by these groups, and to examine the influence of these factors on travel behaviors. The Wisconsin's Northwoods Travel Survey was used in a secondary data analysis. Two separate factor analyses were performed and logistic regression models tested the predictable influence of significant constraint factors on respondents' actual visit to Wisconsin's Northwoods during a shoulder season. The perceived constraint factor structures derived from mature and young travelers were not the same. Nine underlying perceived constraint factors were identified for mature travelers, while eight were identified for young travelers. Differences in perceived constraint factors were found when comparing the two groups. Weather conditions in the shoulder season had a significant influence on young travelers' visit to Wisconsin's Northwoods, while a general seasonal constraint was found to be significantly important for both mature and young travelers when making a travel decision.
Key words: Mature travelers; Young travelers; Tourism constraints; Travel behaviors
Address correspondence to Yawei Wang, Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, 263 Lehotsky Hall, Box 340735, Clemson, SC 29634. Tel: (864) 656-6124; Fax: (864) 656-2226; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
So Why Haven't You Taken a Cruise Lately? An Exploration of Constraints to Cruising
Careen Yarnal, Deborah Kerstetter, and I-Yin Yen
Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, Penn State University, University Park, PA
Abstract: Cruise travel attracted 9.5 million tourists in 2003. Yet, only 5-6% of the US population has cruised. Why are there not more cruisers? The primary purpose of this study was to document the factors associated with the decision not to take a cruise vacation. A secondary purpose was to explore how the concept of constraints negotiation may provide insight into the cruise travel decision-making process. Using qualitative interviews conducted with individuals who travel regularly for pleasure but who have either not cruised or have not cruised recently, we explored individual's travel histories. We focused on adaptive strategies used to negotiate intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural constraints involved in pleasure travel in general and cruising in particular. Highlighting themes that emerged from the interviews, we drew attention to some of the limitations of the hierarchical constraints model. Finally, we suggested how travel agencies and cruise lines might increase the number of cruisers and provided directions for future study.
Key words: Constraints; Constraints to travel; Constraint negotiation; Cruising, US
Address correspondence to Dr. Careen Yarnal, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, Penn State University, 232 Mateer Building, University Park, PA 16802. Tel: (814) 863-5559; Fax: (814) 863-4257; E-mail: email@example.com