|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal
VOLUME 9, NUMBER 1
Tourism Review International, Volume 9, pp. 7-19
1544-2721/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Environmental Training and Measures at Scandic Hotels, Sweden
Paulina Bohdanowicz, Branko Simanic, and Ivo Martinac
Sustainable Building Systems, Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Abstract: Mass tourism destinations and facilities, accounting for the most significant share of the global tourism market, are still largely managed with little or no environmental concern. The willingness and ability of facility management and staff to adopt greater environmental awareness and responsibility is crucial in striving towards a higher degree of sustainability in the tourism sector. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the environmental proactiveness and ground-breaking work that has been carried out within the Scandic hotel chain over the past decade. This is an account of how environmental responsibility can become a top corporate priority and lead to significantly decreased environmental impacts, excellent economic performance, and a considerably upgraded environmental image.
Key words: Scandic; Hotels; Environmental sustainability; Environmental program; Sweden; Resource consumption
Address correspondence to Paulina Bohdanowicz, Sustainable Building Systems, Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvägen 66, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: +46 8 790 7682; Fax: +46 8 20 41 61; E-mail: Paulina.Bohdanowicz@energy.kth.se, URL: www.greenthehotels.com
It's Mostly About Me: Reasons Why Volunteers Contribute Their Time to Museums and Art Museums
School of Management, College of Law and Business, University of Western Sydney, Australia
Abstract: Museums and art museums make a significant contribution to the tourism and leisure industries. In Australia they contribute to the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of the communities and regions in which they are located. However, museums are facing challenges that are leading them to rethink their products and services, to improve their economic position, and to remain competitive in the marketplace. In this climate of change, the role of the volunteer is growing increasingly important to the operation of museums and art museums. However, why persons choose to volunteer for these attractions is not well understood. This article reports on initial findings from a wider study of volunteers in museums and art museums that was designed to explore volunteer motivation, expectations, values, and commitment. Factor analysis identified eight underlying dimensions to volunteer motivation for individuals in this field. This article has three objectives: first, to set the sustainable context in which museums and art museums operate; secondly, to present the initial findings of volunteer motivation; and thirdly, to discuss the implications they have for sustainable volunteer management.
Key words: Museums; Art museums; Volunteers; Volunteer management; Sustainability; Australia
Address correspondence to Deborah Edwards, School of Management, College of Law and Business, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South, Sydney, NSW, Australia 1797. Tel: 1-61-(2)-4620-3518; Fax: 1-61-(2)-4620-3799; E-mail: email@example.com
The Community Model and Sustainability in Tourist Destinations: The Case of the Dolomites
Mariangela Franch,1 Umberto Martini,1 Pier Luigi Novi Inverardi,1 Federica Buffa,2 and Pietro Marzani1
1Department of Computer and Management Sciences, University
of Trento, Italy
2Department of Economics, Business and Management, University "Cà Foscari" of Venice, Italy
Abstract: The aim of this article is to highlight the impact of mass ski tourism on the environment in the Dolomites (Italian Alps), where in winter the principal activities are snow sports. In implementing this development model the Dolomite region has achieved important results in terms of numbers of tourists and economic development for entire localities. Nonetheless, some weaknesses in this model have come to light in terms of environmental, economic, and social sustainability. The eTourism research group (University of Trento, Italy) has carried out two field projects with a view to understanding: 1) the importance of the variable "quality of environment" for the winter tourist when deciding on a destination, and similarly 2) how the major actors on the supply side approach local environmental issues. The results were used to formulate hypotheses regarding possible alternatives to the mass ski model of development for new or developing destinations within the region.
Key words: Mass ski tourism; Sustainability; Community destination model; SMTEs; Dolomites; Italian Alps; Italy
Address correspondence to Federica Buffa, Department of Economics, Business and Management, University "Cà Foscari" of Venice, S. Giobbe-Cannaregio 873, 30121, Venice, Italy. Tel: 1-(39)-0461-882146; Fax: 1-(39)-0461-882124; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sustainability in a Mature Mass Tourism Destination: The Case of Hawaii
Pauline Sheldon,1 John M. Knox,2 and Kem Lowry3
1School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii
at Manoa, USA
2John M. Knox and Associates, Honolulu, HI, USA
3Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Hawaii, USA
Abstract: This article describes the recent efforts of the state of Hawaii, USA, a mass tourism destination in the Pacific, to bring new understanding, knowledge, and policy to improve the quality and sustainability of tourism across the islands. The study, described in some detail in the article, consisted of three main parts: an Infrastructure and Environmental Overview Study, an Economic and Environmental Assessment Modeling Study, and a Public Input and Socio-Cultural Impact Study. The methodology, results, and challenges experienced in each of the three studies are discussed. The article also extrapolates the experience in Hawaii to other mass tourism destinations seeking to improve their sustainability.
Key words: Sustainable tourism; Stakeholders; Environmental assessment; Economic modeling; Resident perceptions; Indicators; Hawaii, USA
Address correspondence to Professor Pauline Sheldon, School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, George Hall 346, 2560 Campus Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. Tel: 1-(808)-956-8078; Fax: 1-(808)-956-5378; E-mail: email@example.com
Environmental Performance Analysis of German Hotels
Joseph S. Chen,1 Willy Legrand,2 and Philip Sloan2
1Tourism Management Program, Department of Recreation and
Park Administration, Indiana University, USA
2Department of Hospitality Management, International University of Applied Science, Germany
Abstract: This study attempts to present a snapshot of the assessment of German hoteliers' efforts to prevent environmental degradation. It collects 41 questionnaires from the top mangers of independently owned hotels in Germany in 2004. The key findings of the study are presented in three areas: the laundry and housekeeping services, the kitchen and restaurant operations, and guest and training issues. In general, the study finds that German hotels have strived to excel in the effort of tackling environmental issues regardless of whether the hotels participate in accreditation programs or not. The study concludes that privately owned and operated hotels have been making an effort to create value in the customer's mind by undertaking environmental schemes at a departmental level.
Key words: Environmental performance; Accreditation; German hotels; Hotels; Germany
Address correspondence to Dr. Joseph S. Chen, Associate Professor/Coordinator Tourism Management Program, Department of Recreation and Park Administration, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, USA. Tel: 1-(812)-855-1880; Fax: 1-(812)-855-3998; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A Framework for the Development of Social and Socioeconomic Indicators for Sustainable Tourism in Communities
Marg Deery,1 Leo Jago,1 and Liz Fredline2
1Centre for Hospitality and Tourism Research, Faculty of
Business and Law, Victoria University, Australia
2School of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel & Sport Management, Griffith University, Australia
Abstract: This article presents a framework for the development of social indicators to measure the impact of tourism on communities. It is a research project funded by Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre (STCRC) and emanates from the Green Globe 21 Standard that incorporates indicators for the environmental impact of tourism and seeks to develop other indicators. The article provides the theoretical background to the concept of sustainable tourism and examines the preliminary findings of the key themes from some exploratory research. It also examines the main literature in the field, extracts the key impacts such as overdevelopment, the relationship between tourists and residents, the management of tourist flows, and the facilities that are created as a result of increased tourism. These impacts are then examined against the exploratory research undertaken. The article concludes with a potential list of indicators to be used for measuring the social and socioeconomic impacts of tourism on communities.
Key words: Social impacts; Social indicators, Communities
Address correspondence to Associate Professor Margaret Deery, Principal Research Fellow for Sustainable Tourism CRC, C/-Centre for Hospitality and Tourism Research, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne City MC, VIC, Australia 8001. Tel: 1-61-(3)-9688-4626; Fax: 1-61-(3)-9688-5278; E-mail: email@example.com
Relevance of Triple Bottom Line Reporting to Achievement of Sustainable Tourism: A Scoping Study
School of Economics, University of New South Wales, Australia
Abstract: The tourism industry shares with local residents, governments, and community the obligation to protect and maintain the natural and cultural heritage resources of our planet, both to sustain economies and to be passed on unimpaired to future generations. The most comprehensive approach to achieving sustainable operations (i.e., to integrate economic, environmental, and social thinking into core business activities) is the Triple Bottom Line (TBL), approach. TBL is a planning and reporting mechanism and decision-making framework used to achieve sustainable development in both private and public sector organizations--an internal management tool as well as an external reporting framework. This scoping article has several aims. First, it sets out the nature of the TBL approach and its key components. Second, the article identifies the potential benefits of the TBL approach to tourism organizations. Third, it will discuss the conditions necessary for integrating TBL into organization activities. Fourth, the article will discuss some challenges to tourism organizations in establishing TBL. Finally, some issues for further research will be highlighted.
Key words: Triple Bottom Line reporting; TBL; Sustainability; Tourism industry; Impacts of tourism
Address correspondence to Professor Larry Dwyer, QANTAS Professor of Travel & Tourism Economics, School of Economics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Tel: 1-(61)-2-9385-2636; Fax: 1-(61)-2-9313-6337; E-mail: L.Dwyer@unsw.edu.au
Theoretical and Practical Contexts of Triple Bottom Line Performance and Reporting: Implications for the Tourism Sector
School of Accounting and Finance, Victoria University, Australia
Abstract: Triple Bottom Line (TBL) is defined and explained within the context of a broad philosophical approach to business and a more narrow perspective of reporting performance. The impact of the broader notion of sustainable development, with its macro- and microdimensions, on TBL, is also discussed along with alternative ideological imperatives. The theoretical perspectives consider the effect of legitimacy and accountability theories on reporting and performance in the tourism sector. The operational level of TBL assumes the adoption of the responsible business philosophy of being accountable for the economic, environmental, and social outcomes of the organization and moves the discussion along to the reporting of relevant issues and the determinants of quality reporting. The need for a reporting perspective is considered within the user, stakeholder, and societal assurance perspectives. An example of the infancy of the process is demonstrated through a discussion of performance reporting by Earth Sanctuaries Ltd., an Australian company. Earth Sanctuaries Ltd. is a unique case as it generates revenue from tourism activities in order to support its primary conservation objective.
Key words: Triple Bottom Line; Sustainability; Performance and reporting; Earth Sanctuaries Ltd.; Australia
Address correspondence to Dr. Jeffrey Faux, School of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Business and Law, Victoria University, PO Box 14428 MMC, Melbourne City 8001, VIC, Australia. Tel: 1-(61)-3-9919-4630; Fax: 1-(61)-3-9919-4901; E-mail: Jeffrey.firstname.lastname@example.org
Sustainable Tourism and Innovation in Mobile Tourism Services
Janne J. Liburd
International Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark
Abstract: This article examines some promising perspectives from a research project that is driven by an innovative research agenda to combine sustainable tourism and mobile information technology in rural and peripheral areas of Southern Denmark. Most technologically based innovation projects tend to focus on the hardware, but the present project is concerned only with the content offered on the mobile platform. The frame of analysis and project objectives is presented through an outline of the defining characteristics of tourism innovation and sustainable tourism development. Addressing the much neglected issues of equity, scale, and implementation, it is argued that the principles of sustainable tourism should be exercised in those metropolitan centers that generate the largest shares of international tourist arrivals and gross receipts. Also concerned with stakeholder participation and ultimately quality of life in a mass tourism destination, a profile of the project team is provided. Finally, a sample will illustrate the expected outcome in a user scenario.
Key words: Mobile tourism services; Innovation; Content; Sustainable tourism; Stakeholders; Denmark
Address correspondence to Dr. Janne J. Liburd, International Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9-10, DK-6700 Esbjerg, Denmark. Tel: 45-6550-1576; Fax: 45-6550-1091; E-mail: email@example.com