|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal
VOLUME 9, NUMBER 4
Tourism Review International, Volume 9, pp. 307-332
1544-2721/06 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Wine Tourism Research: The State of Play
Richard Mitchell and C. Michael Hall
Department of Tourism, University of Otago, New Zealand
Abstract: Research on wine tourism has expanded rapidly since the early 1990s with approximately two thirds of the literature coming from Australia and New Zealand, countries with not only substantial wine tourism but also a long record of wine marketing research. Of the remaining literature the dominant source countries for research are Canada and the US. Seven themes are identified from the literature and are discussed in turn: the wine tourism product and its development; wine tourism and regional development; the size of the winery visitation market; winery visitor segments; the behavior of the winery visitor; the nature of the visitor experience; and emerging area of research on the biosecurity risks posed by visitors. For each of the themes future research challenges and issues are identified. The review concludes by noting that although there is now a significant catalogue of research in the field, methods are still relatively crude and studies still tend to be regionally focused and quite generic in nature. There is therefore a need not only to improve the means by which results from different locations and populations can be compared but also to employ greater sophistication in the employment of qualitative and quantitative techniques in their examination.
Key words: Wine tourism; Product; Regional development; Visitor behavior; Visitor experience
Address correspondence to Dr. Richard Mitchell, Senior Lecturer, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: +64-3-479-8428; Fax: +64-3-479-9034; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Germany's Mosel Valley: Can Tourism Help Preserve Its Cultural Heritage?
Hubert Job and Ann Murphy
Institute for Economic Geography, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany
Abstract: The Mosel Valley is Germany's fifth largest wine region. Its scenic winescape attracts thousands of visitors annually and the region is the most important tourist destination in the state of Rheinland-Pfalz. Focusing on the interdependent relationship between wine growing, wine tourism, and endogenous regional development, this article provides a comprehensive overview of problems facing the region in view of the ongoing decline in wine production. In particular, the steep-slope terraced vineyards that define this winescape are increasingly being abandoned, as they are difficult and costly to cultivate. Consequently, the primary pull factor for the tourism industry, the winescape, is endangered. In the past years a number of strategies seeking to revive wine production have been initiated at the grassroots level. In order to evaluate these measures and forecast future trends, qualitative interviews were conducted with key stakeholders from the wine and tourism industries. Measures aimed at improving tourism supply are of specific interest--although relatively underdeveloped, tourism already contributes significantly to growers' income. By further exploiting the benefits, planers hope that wine tourism will play a greater role in the protection of its own product base. Based on an in-depth assessment, the authors conclude that while tourism cannot single-handedly sustain the wine-growing tradition, it is an integral and indispensable component of any future cultural heritage conservation strategies.
Key words: Wine tourism; Winescape; Endogenous regional development and cultural heritage; Mosel Valley, Germany
Address correspondence to Dr. Hubert Job, Institute for Economic Geography, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Ludwigstraße 28, D-80539 München, Germany. Tel: +49-89-2180-5378; Fax: +49-89-2180-3809; E-mail: email@example.com
Select Michigan: Local Food Production, Food Safety, Culinary Heritage, and Branding in Michigan Agritourism
Department of Geography, Western Michigan University, MI, USA
Abstract: Smaller US farms, such as those in Michigan where the average farm size is 215 acres, have been disproportionately impacted by declining agricultural commodity prices; the competition-driven need to adopt capital-intensive, large-scale production; and the globalization of agriculture. Niche production and agritourism can provide Michigan farmers with the means to differentiate their products from cheaper out-of-state or imported produce. Using focus groups, this article illustrates how agritourism helps Michigan farmers sell their locally produced food at a premium, and thus deal with declining commodity prices. Firstly, agritourism provides a venue for demonstrating how food is produced locally, which can help assure customers of its quality and safety. Secondly, it provides a means of sharing declining culinary knowledge and showing customers how to use their locally produced fresh fruits and vegetables. Finally, agritourism fosters the positive reputation and branding of Michigan agricultural products, which, in addition to reinforcing current state agriculture and tourism marketing programs that emphasize Michigan's natural bounty, helps keep land in production.
Key words: Agritourism; Culinary tourism; Food safety; Branding; Food quality; Michigan, USA
Address correspondence to Dr. Deborah Che, Department of Geography, Western Michigan University, 3236 Wood Hall, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA. Tel: (269) 387-0604; Fax: (269) 387-3442, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Local Food in Tourism: An Investigation of the New Zealand South Island's Bed and Breakfast Sector's Use and Perception of Local Food
Margunn Nummedal and C. Michael Hall
Department of Tourism, University of Otago, New Zealand
Abstract: This study's aim was to investigate the New Zealand South Island's bed and breakfast (B&B) sector's use and perception of local food produce. In 2003 a survey was mailed to every South Island B&B listed in The New Zealand Bed & Breakfast Book. Of the total sample of 570 B&Bs, 247 completed the questionnaire, providing a response rate of 43%. The results indicated that the B&B sector show a great overall interest in local foods. Not only did the majority of respondents indicate that they use a lot of local produce in their cooking, but they also indicated that they would very much like to increase usage. Respondents also found it important to support local food producers. However, availability and reliability affect the sourcing of local produce. Respondents also undervalued their own role as promoters of local food towards visitors. The study concludes that there is a need to "educate" members of local food networks, including the B&B sector, about the positive benefits of food and tourism relationships to all sectors, with respect to increased visitor interest and satisfaction as well as the development of longer-term promotional and purchase relationships as part of the consumer value chain.
Key words: Local food; Bed and breakfast; Food tourism; Culinary tourism; Networks; New Zealand
Address correspondence to Professor C. Michael Hall, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: +64-3-479-8520, Fax: +64-3-479-9034; E-mail: email@example.com
Foods of Freedom: Juneteenth as a Culinary Tourist Attraction
Anne Donovan and Karen Debres
Department of Geography, Kansas State University, KS, USA
Abstract: Juneteenth originated in Texas as an African-American celebration of the end of slavery. As participation and interest has increased, this celebration has taken on broader functions, serving as homecoming and community celebrations. It is argued in this article that Juneteenth also functions as a culinary tourist event, with barbecue being the major draw. Barbecue has been attributed to African-American slave cuisine and features prominently in Juneteenth celebrations. Research was conducted in Manhattan, Kansas in 2004 and 2005. Participant observation, interviews, and archival/textual analysis were used to demonstrate the importance of barbecue as a regional food tourism attraction.
Key words: Juneteenth; Culinary tourism; African-American; Barbecue; Festival; Manhattan, Kansas, USA
Address correspondence to Ms. Anne Donovan, Department of Geography, 126 Seaton Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. Tel: (785) 532-3446; Fax: (785) 532-7310; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org