Tourism Analysis 23(3) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 289-301
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305418666931
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Does Tourism Penetration Affect House Prices? Evidence From Crete, Greece

Dimitra Kavarnou* and Anupam Nanda†

*Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
†Henley Business School, University of Reading, Reading, UK

This study examined the relationship between tourism penetration and house prices. We used a very touristic place, Crete, which is a major Greek island, as a case study to test research hypotheses. With data from 2006 to 2012, we constructed tourism indicators for the four prefectures of Crete. Then by using principal component analysis (PCA) we created a tourism penetration rate (TPR) for each prefecture and ranked them in terms of tourism penetration. In the second stage of the analysis, we performed a hedonic house price regression analysis. We established empirical findings that (i) the TPR of a prefecture has a significant effect on house prices of the prefecture and (ii) house prices are affected by the TPR of the neighboring prefectures, indicating statistically significant tourism spillover effects. The findings, although significant, show asymmetric effects that confirm both the impact of tourism penetration on house prices and the presence of spillover effects across Crete Island. Models were tested for robustness across several specifications. The analytical framework drawing from tourism and housing economics literature is repeatable across regions with a significant tourism sector.

Key words: Tourism penetration (TPR); House prices; Tourism spillover effect; Crete

Address correspondence to Dr. Dimitra Kavarnou, Senior Research Associate, Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, 19 Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EP, UK. Tel: +44 1223 337127; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 303-322
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305418666940
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Dimensions of Image: A Model of Destination Image Formation

Lilian Dominguez Santana* and Marlusa De Sevilha Gosling†

*Predio da Faculdade de Economia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
†Centro de Pos-graduacao e Pesquisas em Administracao (CEPEAD), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

This study sought to develop and test empirically a model that examines the relationship between four destination image dimensions (i.e., cognitive, affective, unique, and overall image), their antecedents (i.e., familiarity, sociodemographic characteristics, and tourist motivations), and their influence on behavioral intentions. A quantitative research method based on online and physical surveys was used, resulting in 396 valid questionnaires analyzed by applying structural equation modeling. The reference unit was Ilheus, in Bahia, Brazil. The main results are related to the interrelationship between the destination image dimensions and overall image. The latter is strongly influenced by cognitive and affective images and indirectly by unique image. Cognitive image exerts a strong influence on the other dimensions of destination image. As for the dimensions’ antecedents, informational familiarity mainly influences cognitive image (positively). Considering experiential familiarity, the number of visits negatively affects cognitive image. Sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., social class and level of education) also have a negative influence on cognitive image. Tourist motivations have a direct influence on cognitive and unique image and indirectly on affective image. Finally, the results also confirm the influence of overall image on intentions to recommend and return to a destination.

Key words: Tourist destination image formation; Destination image dimensions; Familiarity; Tourist motivations; Behavioral intentions

Address correspondence to Lilian Dominguez Santana, Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 – Predio da Faculdade de Economia –sala 4131 - Campus da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais- Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG Brazil, 31270-901.

E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 323-335
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305418666959
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring User-Generated Images in Online Reviews of Hotels

Elmira Djafarova and Brian Deluce

Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Consumers within the tourism industry have become increasingly dependent upon electronic word-of- mouth, such as online reviews, when making purchase decisions. Previous research in this area has explored the importance of textual content within online consumer reviews; however, little research has been carried out with regard to the role and influence of online user-generated visual content. This study aims to fill this gap by analyzing the content of user-generated images on TripAdvisor. Findings from both qualitative and quantitative research methods show that the difference, in terms of its helpfulness to consumers, is insignificant when comparing online reviews with accompanying photos and reviews without it. Results also indicate positive correlation between overall image quality and image usefulness.

Key words: Tourism; Electronic word-of-mouth; Online consumer reviews; User-generated visual content; Hotels

Address correspondence to Dr. Elmira Djafarova. Ph.D., M.A., Northumbria University, City Campus East -243, New Bridge Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST UK. Tel: +44 919 2274250; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 323-335
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305418666968
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Revising Importance–Performance Analysis: A New Synthetic Service Quality Indicator Applied to the Tourist Apartment Industry

Juan Carlos Martin, Cira Mendoza, and Concepcion Roman

Department of Applied Economic Analysis, Institute of Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas G.C., Spain

Importance–performance analysis (IPA) is a valuable tool for developing marketing strategies by prioritizing improvements to service quality attributes. Despite its simplicity and easy interpretability, IPA is not free from criticism. Moreover, IPA methodology does not consider the distribution of respondents when the importance–performance grid is displayed. By applying the analysis to a sample of four competing tourist apartment complexes located in the Canary Islands, this work aims to propose a new synthetic service quality indicator by importance–performance analysis (SSQI-IPA) to overcome the above-mentioned limitations. On the one hand, by comparing service performance with competitors, managers can establish adequate strategies to enhance their relative position in the market and achieve competitive advantages. On the other hand, taking into account the whole distribution of the importance–performance grid provides managers with more accurate results than traditional IPA.

Key words: Importance–performance analysis (IPA); Customer satisfaction; Synthetic service quality indicator by importance–performance analysis (SSQI-IPA); Serviced apartments; Canary Islands

Address correspondence to Juan Carlos Martin, Department of Applied Economic Analysis. Institute of Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas G.C., Spain. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 351-364
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305418666977
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring the Attractiveness of Chile as a Vacation Destination for International Tourists

Constanza Bianchi

School of Business, Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Santiago, Chile
School of Advertising, Marketing and Public Relations, QUT Business School, Queensland, Australia

A growing number of emerging countries in South America are attempting to become important tourism destinations, yet limited research considers perceptions of destination attractiveness considering the perspective of actual visitors. Specifically, scant research examines tourists’ perceptions of attractiveness, satisfaction, and loyalty of an emerging vacation destination in South America. To fill this gap, the author develops a conceptual model and tests hypotheses linking destination attractiveness attributes, tourist satisfaction, and attitudinal loyalty. Data were collected by applying an online questionnaire to 365 tourists from short-haul and long-haul countries visiting Chile for vacations. Hypotheses are tested with structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. The results identify salient attributes for tourists and verify that tourist satisfaction is a strong positive driver of tourist attitudinal loyalty to a vacation destination.

Key words: Tourism; Vacation destination; Attractiveness; Satisfaction; Attitudinal loyalty; Chile

Address correspondence to Constanza Bianchi, Ph.D., School of Business, Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Av. Diagonal Las Torres 2700, Penalolen, Santiago, Chile. Tel: (56-2) 2331 1659; Fax: (56-2) 2331 1310; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 365-376
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305418666986
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sustainable Long-Distance Trail Management: International Perspectives

Kerstin Stender,* Dale Sanders,† and Ross Dowling†

*Parks and Visitor Services, Department of Parks and Wildlife, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
†School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia

The management of long-distance trails was investigated through a review of global case studies including the Munda Biddi Trail (Australia), Nga Haerenga Cycle Trail (New Zealand), Arizona Trail and Appalachian Trail and Pacific Crest Trail (USA), West Highland Way (UK), Lechweg (Germany/Austria), E-Paths (Europe), Rim of Africa Trail (SA), and Jeju Olle Trail (South Korea). Through comparative analysis, the trail management components were identified as: funding, volunteering, governance, partnerships, conservation, infrastructure, and tourism. These components were then analyzed within the context of political, social and environmental settings. The findings indicate that the most financially sustainable model is the community approach, which involves a partnership between government and a not-for-profit organization. It extends the income stream options and reduces overhead through the use of volunteers for maintenance. Tourism strategies, such as marketing, promotion, and product and destination development, further extend the trail’s financial sustainability by maximizing user numbers and partnering with businesses. This also increases regional economic benefits and improves the user experience.

Key words: Long-distance trail; Sustainability; Management; Tourism; International perspectives

Address correspondence to Professor Ross Dowling, School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Western Australia 6027. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 377-389
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305418666995
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Role of Hostels in Fostering Intercultural Competence Among Host Communities

Joanne Lam and Neha Singh

Collins College of Hospitality Management, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USA

The tourism industry is one of the world’s largest industries, contributing over $7.6 trillion in 2016, according to Statista (https://www.statista.com/topics/962/global-tourism/). It is also frequently highlighted as a possible agent in promoting peace, as well as improving cross-cultural understanding. In particular, tourist accommodations can allow for such opportunities. This research analyzes how hostelling, in particular, Hostelling International Santa Monica, serves as an avenue to foster intercultural competence for host communities. This study uses a combination of grounded theory and ethnographic research methods to conceptualize a process model of fostering intercultural competence. Conceptualizing the hostel as an intercultural space, this research identifies the importance of purposeful facilitation to foster engagement, self-reflection, and behavioral transformation for improved intercultural competence. This study illustrates hostels as an embassy to improving cross-cultural understanding. It recognizes the potential for hostelling to foster diverse understanding and cultivate intercultural competence. It also serves to solidify Hostelling International USA’s contribution to broadening cultural exchanges, encouraging intercultural dialogue and educating for peace.

Key words: Hostelling International; Intercultural competence; Tourism; Cross-cultural understanding; Hostel research

Address correspondence to Joanne Lam, M.S. student. Collins College of Hospitality Management, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona), 3801 West Temple Avenue, Building 79B - #2427, Pomona, CA 91768, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 391-407
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305418667002
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring the Effects of Tourism and Economic Growth in Fiji: Accounting for Capital, Labor, and Structural Breaks

Nikeel Kumar,*† Ronald Ravines h Kumar,‡§¶# Arvind Patel ,** and Peter Josef Stauvermann ††

*Department of Economics, University of Fiji, Lautoka, Fiji
†School of Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji
‡School of Accounting & Finance, University of the South Pacific, Laucala Campus, Suva, Fiji
§School of Business, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
¶Informetrics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
#Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
**Faculty of Business & Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji
††Department of Global Business & Economics, Changwon National University, Republic of Korea

Fiji’s tourism industry has evolved considerably in the past 30 years with past and present governments striving to support and promote the sector despite competing development priorities. This study examines the effects of tourism on the economic growth of Fiji, a small island economy, over the period 1975 to 2015. Using a neoclassical framework and the autoregressive distributed lag bound procedure, the short-run and the long-run effects are explored while accounting for structural breaks. The long-run and short-run results indicate that a 1% increase in visitor arrivals contribute about 0.13% and 0.20% to the per capita income, respectively. Additionally, a unidirectional causality from economic growth to tourism and a mutually reinforcing effect between capital investment and tourism are noted. Thus, greater impact of tourism on the economic growth can be realized through tourism-related investment activities such as improvements in airports, roads, transportation, telecommunications, financial sector, technology, and natural parks and beaches.

Key words: International visitor arrivals; Economic growth; Causality; Fiji; Autoregressive distributed lag model

Address correspondence to Ronald Ravinesh Kumar, Senior Lecturer, School of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Campus, Private Mail Bag, Suva, Republic of Fiji. Tel: (679) 32 32574; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 309-414
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305418667011
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Evaluating the Impacts of the Global Financial Crisis on Tourism in Brunei

Tariq H. Haque* and M. Ohidul Haque†‡

*School of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of the Professions, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
†Department of Applied Statistics and Econometrics, International Institute of Business and Social Studies (IIBASS), Victoria, Australia
‡Ex-Honorary Senior Fellow of Economics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

This study investigated the effects of the 2008 Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on Brunei’s economy and tourism for the first 22 months post-GFC. To estimate the impacts of the GFC, the effects of swine flu, which emerged and affected tourist numbers and the Brunei economy during this period, were eliminated. Tourist numbers were predicted for the post-GFC period, using the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and intervention time series analysis (ITSA) methods. These predicted numbers were then compared with actual tourist numbers to estimate the impacts of the GFC. It is shown that Brunei lost 198,112 (36.44%) tourists and more than US$70.5 million due to the GFC during this period.

Key words: Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model; Forecasting; Global financial crisis (GFC); Intervention time series analysis (ITSA) model; Swine flu; Tourism;

Address correspondence to M. Ohidul Haque, Ph.D., Department of Applied Statistics and Econometrics, International Institute of Business and Social Studies (IIBASS), 9 Collier Court, Burwood, Victoria–3125, Australia. Tel: 61 3 9808 5013; Fax: 61 3 9808 5013; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 415-420
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305418667039
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Effects of Three Variables on Tourists’ Information Behaviors About Macao

Suh-Hee Choi,* Lisa Tam,† Jinhoo Kim,‡ and Jeong-Nam Kim§

*Tourism College, Institute for Tourism Studies, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macao, China
†School of Advertising, Marketing and Public Relations, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
‡Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
§Gaylord College of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA

The findings from this research extend the study of information behaviors in tourism research using the communicative action in problem solving (CAPS) framework. Data collected from a survey (N = 510) of mainland Chinese tourists in Macao show the effects of tourism stage (i.e., pretrip and posttrip), visiting history (i.e., first-time visit or repeat visit), and tourist loyalty (i.e., attitudinal loyalty and behavioral loyalty) on their information behaviors (i.e., information acquisition, information selection, and information transmission). This study was undertaken in response to calls for practitioners and researchers in the tourism industry to further explore and extend the use of the CAPS framework to understand the complexity of information behaviors among tourists.

Key words: Tourists’ information behaviors; Tourist loyalty; Tourism stage; Visiting history

Address correspondence to Suh-hee Choi, Invited Assistant Professor, Tourism College, Institute for Tourism Studies, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macao, China. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 421-426
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305419108010
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Examining Stress Relief Benefits of Tourism Experiences: A Study of American Workers

Chun-Chu Chen

School of Hospitality Business Management, Washington State University, Vancouver, WA, USA

This research examines the stress relief benefits of tourism experiences. Derived from a sample of 563 American workers, the study results show that being able to control what to do, feeling relaxed and detached from work demands, and participating in activities that provide challenging experiences and learning opportunities during a leisure trip would lead to greater life satisfaction after the trip. It is also found that individuals who perceive travel as more important are more likely to have experiences associated with stress relief during the trip. These findings provide important insights into the link between tourism and well-being.

Key words: Life satisfaction; Tourism and well-being; Tourism experiences; Travel importance; Stress relief

Address correspondence to Chun-Chu Chen, School of Hospitality Business Management, Washington State University, 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue, Vancouver, WA 98686, USA. Tel: 360-546-9750; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 427-432
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305419108038
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Understanding Influences Affecting Local Visitors to an International Arts Festival

Stephen Boyle,* Carmen Reaiche,† Abm Abdullah,‡ and Md Wahid Murad§

*Division of Business, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia
†Entrepreneurship, Commercialisation and Innovation Centre, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia
‡School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia
§UniSA College, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

This study is an attempt to identify and analyze the factors that may influence local visitors to attend an international arts festival. Using primary data collected via surveys and employing the technique of logistic regression, the researchers identified four factors that significantly influence local visitors to various international performances at the Hong Kong Arts Festival. The factors found to significantly influence local visitors’ interest in various show performances by international actors included education (p ≤ 0.05), number of adults in the party (p ≤ 0.01), number of children in the party (p ≤ 0.01), and number of prior visits (p ≤ 0.05). Also, the paired samples t test results show that some particular show performances were significantly correlated with local visitors’ interest in the Hong Kong Arts Festival.

Key words: Arts festivals; Local visitors; International show performances; Demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral factors; Hong Kong

Address correspondence to Md Wahid Murad, UniSA College, University of South Australia, 160 Curie Street, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia. Tel: +61 8 830 20384; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 23, pp. 433-437
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15305419108047
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Gulf Cooperation Council Outbound Tourism: The Role of Expatriates

Faruk Balli,* Hatice O Balli,* Amira Karimova,* and Rosmy Jean Louis†

*School of Economics and Finance, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand
†Department of Economics and Finance, Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, BC, Canada

The situation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries is quite uncommon in that the population of expatriates far exceeds that of the nationals, except for Saudi Arabia. Communication, interaction, and mutual coexistence that take place formally or informally between the two groups and within the expatriate community carry the potential to influence the direction of outbound tourism. This article extends the general gravity model to explain the dynamics of tourism outflows of the GCC countries by concentrating on the immigrant/expatriate effect. The results reveal that expatriates make implicit advertising effect to attract the tourists from GCC to their home countries.

Key words: Bilateral international tourism demand; Gravity equation; Migrants; Expatriates

Address correspondence to Faruk Balli, School of Economics and Finance, Massey University, Room QB 3.44, Quadrangle Building B, Albany, Auckland 0632, New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it