Tourism Culture & Communication 18(4) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 18, pp. 227-239
1098-304X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830418X
15369281878387
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Acculturation of Migrant Populations: An Exploratory Study Across Multiple Generations

John C. Crotts* and Josef A. Mazanec

*Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA
†MODUL University Vienna, Vienna, Austria

The acculturalization of migrants is the focus of this study, aimed at better understanding the speed of acculturation, how it can be measured, and what is influencing the process. The implication of this research rests on the reality that developed countries are increasingly becoming more ethnically diverse and this diversity has an impact on understanding tourism markets from a cultural values perspective. Drawing from a secondary database composed of a large national sample of the US adult population, the application of graphical modeling produced evidence that acculturation is a multigeneration process with wide variation across five cultural dimensions. The number of generations it takes to assimilate, if at all, is influenced by a number of determinant factors that included travel to one’s ancestral homeland, gender, parents of mixed ancestry, and European origin. Limitations of this line of research are discussed as well as a call for future research.

Key words: Hofstede; Cultural values; Acculturalization; Migrants

Address correspondence to John C. Crotts, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 18, pp. 241-250
1098-304X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830418X
15369281878396
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Hofstede’s Cultural Indices Revisited: The Relationship Between Cultural Values and International Tourism

Michael J. Ahn and Bob Mckercher

School of Hotel and Tourism Management, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong

This article explores the previously unexamined assumption that the cultural profile of international tourists traveling to different destinations mirrors that of the overall population of a nation. Most studies adopt a cross-sectional destination approach, comparing and contrasting visitors from different source markets that visit a single destination. This study adopts a market approach by examining a cohort of socially and demographically homogenous Koreans who have varying travel experiences. The results demonstrated that no significant differences exist among respondents when Hofstede’s cultural values scale is applied. Yet, respondents themselves felt their core national cultural values did change because of traveling and also most feel they were less stereotypically “Korean” because of their travel experiences. One reason for the dichotomy is that the standard technique to measure national cultural norms “explains” less than two thirds of the variance in recorded cultural norms. In the end, one wonders how effectively Hofstede’s measures really are?

Key words: Hofstede; Cultural values; International tourism

Address correspondence to Bob McKercher, School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 17 Science Museum Road, TST East, Kowloon, Hong Kong. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 18, pp. 251-274
1098-304X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830418X
15369281878404
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cross-Cultural User Experience of Luxury Hotel Websites: A Conjoint Analysis

Xinran Y. Lehto,* Zhi Shi,* G. Joel Anaya,* Mark R. Lehto,† and Liping Cai*

*School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
†School of Industry Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

The website of luxury hotel brands is regarded as a great platform for marketers to create positive brand identity. The underlying architecture of information, as well as the design of graphics, navigation system, and user interface could have an influence on user experience with a hotel brand. Utilizing a conjoint design, this research assessed user preferences of three website design factors: background/font color, human image use, and navigation system. The preferences of two cultural groups—that of the Chinese and American consumers—were compared and contrasted. The findings of this study suggest that users from both the US and Chinese cultures have similar tastes for hotel website design features. They both prefer photos with no human images, dark background with light font, and a linear navigation system. The convergent tendencies of the two cultural groups and practical implications for the luxury hotel industry were discussed.

Key words: Luxury hotel websites; Brand identity; Cross-cultural users; Conjoint analysis

Address correspondence to Xinran Y. Lehto, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, Marriott Hall, 900 W State St, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 18, pp. 275-286
1098-304X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830418X
15369281878413
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Perceived Personal Development Benefits From Backpacking: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

Songshan (Sam) Huang* and Ganghua Chen†

*School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia
†School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

This study aims to examine the cross-cultural differences of perceived backpacker personal development between Chinese and Western backpackers. Backpacker personal development has been found to be an effective form of personal development in addition to the formal education system. Although the literature shows backpacking is a culturally driven travel phenomenon, little research has been done to examine the cross-cultural differences in association to backpacking. Comparing 230 Chinese backpackers with 246 Western backpackers traveling in China, the study found that Western backpackers rated four out of the five backpacker personal development dimensions consistently higher than their Chinese counterparts. These dimensions are capability, skill, worldview, and selfconsciousness. However, the two cultural groups did not differ in emotion as a backpacker personal development dimension. The differences can be explained by stages of industry development of backpacking in and outside China, Chinese social and economic development, in addition to the cultural determination. The study demonstrated that Chinese backpackers are a culturally different traveler market, comparing to Western backpackers. The special features and culturally informed characteristics of Chinese backpacking will not only enrich the worldwide backpacking travel phenomena, but also enhance the general knowledge of tourism from a cross-cultural perspective. This study contributes to the literature by advancing the understanding of tourist learning and personal development through backpacking experiences. Based on the study findings it is recommended that governments and industry organizations should designate supportive policies and favorable industry protocols to encourage young generations to seek personal development through backpacking.

Key words: Personal development; Tourist learning; Backpacking; Cross-cultural analysis; Chinese culture

Address correspondence to Songshan (Sam) Huang, Ph.D., Professor of Tourism and Services Marketing, School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 7027, Australia. Tel: +61 8 6304 2742; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 18, pp. 287-301
1098-304X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830418X
15369281878413
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Local Strategies for Economic Survival in Touristically Volatile Times: An Indonesian Case Study of Microvendors, Gendered Cultural Practices, and Resilience

Kathleen M. Adams

Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

This article utilizes a qualitative ethnographic approach to examine the economic survival strategies pursued by Indonesian souvenir artisans and handicraft microvendors in touristically turbulent times. Resilience-oriented approaches have offered promising frameworks for understanding regions’, destinations’, and communities’ capacities to adjust and adapt to challenges: this article complements these broader approaches by offering a fine-grained analysis of individual strategies for finding creative solutions to the economic challenges thrust upon them. My approach melds a constructivist approach accentuating local peoples’ creative responses with gender-aware and practice-oriented approaches. These findings draw from data collected over three decades of ethnographic research in the Toraja highlands of Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Key words: Handicrafts; Resilience; Gender; Indonesia

Address correspondence to Kathleen M. Adams, Professor of Anthropology, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL 60660, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it