Tourism Culture & Communication 19(1) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 19, pp. 1-16
1098-304X/19 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830419X
15489421397219
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Systems Thinking: Towards an Integrated Framework to Guide the Study of the Tourism Phenomenon

Santiago Rodriguez-Giron and Dominique Vanneste

Division of Geography and Tourism, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Tourism is widely recognized as a complex phenomenon. Some academics, however, have studied tourism from their own specialization, contributing from the perspective of their specific fields. Others have argued that the complexities of tourism should be tackled more systemically and so have used diverse concepts from systems thinking theory. Nevertheless, nobody has yet presented an integrated framework connecting existing diverse systems thinking concepts, which serves as a more structured point of departure from which to study tourism. This article (1) starts by identifying seven complexities of tourism, (2) discusses eight systems thinking’s key notions in the context of those complexities, (3) structures an integrated tourism systems thinking conceptual framework, and (4) provides an application example. Thus, this work contributes with a more structured theoretical foundation for the study of tourism as a system and with an integrated approach to understand its complexities.

Key words: Tourism studies; Systems thinking; Complexity; Integrated framework

Address correspondence to Dr. Santiago Rodriguez-Giron at his current address: Breite Strasse 68, 53111 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 19, pp. 17-29
1098-304X/19 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830419X
15489421397228
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Ethnocultural Empathy Among Frontline Hospitality and Tourism Employees

Mohammad Sharifi-Tehrani, Ali Sanayei, Ali Kazemi, and Hoseein Rezaie Dolat Abadi

Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

The current study outlines the measurement of frontline employees’ guest-directed ethnocultural empathy abilities in the context of Islamic hospitality in Iran. To this end, nine 4- and 5-star hotels located in three of the country’s main cities were sampled for examining their frontline employees by a modified version of Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy. To test this scale and analyze the data, the variance-based technique of partial least squares structural equation modeling was selected. Out of the scale’s dimensions, Empathic Feeling and Expression exerted the strongest influence on the ethnocultural empathy levels, followed by Empathic Perspective Taking, Acceptance of Cultural Differences, and Empathic Awareness. These underlying four dimensions accounted for more than two thirds of the total variance of ethnocultural empathy. This, along with the substantiation of convergent validity, discriminant validity, high reliability, and satisfactory model indices, indicates a high contribution of the above dimensions and their modified items to the quantitatively measurement of frontline employees’ competencies to empathize with guests of other racial or ethnic groups. Hotel managers can take advantage of this scale to identify any likely weaknesses with such competencies in order to improve them based on the priorities that various guest segments seek.

Key words: Islamic hospitality; Frontline employees; Ethnocultural empathy; Partial least squares structural equation modeling

Address correspondence to Mohammad Sharifi-Tehrani, Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 19, pp. 31-42
1098-304X/19 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830419X
15489421397237
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Entertaining Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR) in Destination Settings: A Cross-Cultural Host Comparison

Reyhan Arslan Ayazlar

Tourism Faculty, Department of Hospitality Management, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey

This study aims to examine whether there is a difference between two different host groups in terms of hosting styles in visiting friends and relatives (VFR) tourism. The study provides some insights into this issue by comparing hosting type, hosting length, expenditure type, etc. between Turkish and British hosts. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 238 Turkish and 224 British hosts who live in Didim, located in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings demonstrated that Turkish and British participants played an important role in hosting their friends and/or relatives. They also represented a large and underestimated part of VFR tourism with their expenditures and behaviors towards their guests. On the other hand, significant differences were found between Turkish and British hosts in which hosting their guests. Another finding of the study is that Turkish and British hosts and VFR travelers engage in activities in and around Didim. However, British hosts participated in activities more than Turkish hosts. In other words, this study found that British hosts contribute more to the local economy.

Key words: Visiting friends and relatives (VFR); Cross-cultural; Turkish hosts; British hosts; VFR tourism

Address correspondence to Reyhan Arslan AyazlarMuğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Hospitality Management, Kötekli Campus 48000 Muğla, Turkey. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 19, pp. 43-53
1098-304X/19 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830419X
15489421397255
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Dynamic Role of Augmented Reality in Tourism

Bashar Maaiah,* Abdalla Al-Shorman,† Omar Alananzeh,‡ and Mohammad Al-Badarneh*

*Department of Travel and Tourism, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
†Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
‡Department of Hotel Management, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

The increasing ubiquity of the smart phone has undoubtedly paved the way for the utilizing of technological intermediation in tourism, notably in the case of augmented reality (AR). The current study seeks the opinions and perceptions of AR users about how such technologies impact their decision-making. The study seeks an enhanced understanding of contemporary tourist consumption practices, drawing upon the relationship between code and space using LAYAR AR applications. The research methods that have been deployed in this study involve the conduct of qualitative interviews with consumers and producers with an interest in AR applications using a snowball sampling approach. The results show that using AR produces the augmented construction of reality that is multidimensional and consists of the owner, site, and tourism agency. It has also been shown that AR is a secondary tool, where user awareness and sense of the physical environment decreases. It is concluded that integrating technologies into the tourist experience can enhance the enjoyment of the experience and improve expertise and skills in the context of tourist operations and attractions.

Key words: Tourism; Augmented reality (AR); Perception; Information and communication technology (ICT)

Address correspondence to Bashar Maaiah, Department of Travel and Tourism, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 19, pp. 55-74
1098-304X/19 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830419X
15489421397264
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Domestic Visitors Relate to Te Papa Museum: The Other Roles of Modern Museums

Ahmed Abdel Fattah and Mary E. Eddy-U

Tourism College, Institute for Tourism Studies, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macao SAR, China

The roles of modern museums have been scrutinized theoretically in museum studies, critical theory, cultural studies, and other academic disciplines, but there is a lack of empirical insights into their actual functioning from the visitor’s perspective. The functions of modern museums are not so simple and straightforward as merely interactive learning experience and leisure. By drawing on the results of qualitative research that examined domestic visitors’ motives and overall experiences at Te Papa museum in New Zealand, this study found that the nexuses between the physical and personal contexts and the physical and social contexts reveal different roles of the modern museum. The role of the modern museum is much broader than merely providing infotainment and leisure for families on a Sunday afternoon. The museum is an important site for social learning experiences; remembering historical and personal events; connecting visitors with the familiar and reinforcing their preexisting knowledge; and aesthetic, recreational, and restful experiences. These findings thereby offer interesting clues to museum practitioners to help them better understand their visitors and the wider roles modern museums may play in visitors’ experiences as well as rethink the mission and goals of these types of institutions.

Key words: Te Papa; Modern museums; Interactive experiences; Learning; Motivations; Domestic visitors

Address correspondence to Ahmed Abdel Fattah, Tourism College, Institute for Tourism Studies, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macao SAR, China. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it