Tourism Analysis 15(3) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 287–298
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12801550666024
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Game-Theoretic Approach to Tourism Supply Chain Coordination Under Demand Uncertainty for Package Holidays

Xinyan Zhang,* Haiyan Song,† George Q. Huang,‡ and Wanli Chen†

*School of Professional and Executive Education Development, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong
†School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
‡Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong

Demand uncertainty is one of the most significant characteristics of the tourism industry. In a typical tourism supply chain (TSC) for package holidays, multiple tour operators reserve rooms from a hotel chain in advance according to their demand predictions. Discrepancies between demand predictions and actual demand lead to shortages or unused room reservations, which inevitably leads to reduced profits for the tour operators concerned. This article examines different TSC coordination strategies to determine how they can be used to help alleviate such negative effects. A game-theoretic approach is used to analyze the different coordination relationships between TSC players. Two coordination programs are discussed. The first is a horizontal coordination program in which tour operators exchange shortages or unused reservations with each other. The second is a vertical coordination program in which tour operators trade shortages or unused reservations with hotel chains. Game models are established and analyzed for the two coordination strategies and uncoordinated conditions, respectively. The analytical results suggest that both coordination strategies can be used to reduce the negative impacts of the demand uncertainty. The results also show that the horizontal coordination is preferred to the vertical coordination when the competition among tour operators is fierce.

Key words: Tourism supply chain; Game theory; Supply chain coordination; Demand uncertainty; Package holidays

Address correspondence to Haiyan Song, School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: +852 2766 6372; Fax: +852 2362 9362; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 299–313
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12801550666060
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Are People Aware of Their Attitudes Toward Destination? Understanding the Implicit Association Test In Tourism Researchi

Dae-Young Kim* and Zhijian Chen†

*Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
†Department of Psychology, University of Toronto at Mississauga, ON, Canada

This study tests the hypothesis that explicit and implicit measures of attitudes would differentially identify tourist attitudes in the domain of destination study. A total of 89 college students were recruited to complete a self-report survey and implicit association test (IAT). The results reveal that participants’ attitudes toward China and England vary depending on the two different types of attitude measures. Specifically, it appears that attitudes toward the two countries are not significantly different by explicit measures but differences of attitudes are salient by IAT. The implications of the IAT results for tourism destination study and its relations to explicit measures of attitudes are discussed.

Key words: Implicit attitudes; Explicit attitudes; Implicit association test

Address correspondence to Dae-Young Kim, Hotel and Restaurant Management, University of Missouri, 220 Eckles Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 315–330
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12801550666105
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change for Tourism-Dependent Nations

Robert B. Richardson* and Kelly Witkowski†

*Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
†Conservation International, Washington, DC, USA

Changes in climate are expected to significantly affect participation in recreation and tourism and the provision of tourism products and services. Because tourism is an important economic sector for many developing nations, the potential vulnerability of tourism to climate change is of interest. Various biophysical factors affect the vulnerability of tourism, including temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events. Vulnerability may be characterized in terms of impacts to tourism arrivals, revenues, tax receipts, and adaptation costs, all of which ultimately affect national income, gross domestic product, and socioeconomic welfare. This article proposes a conceptual framework, based on an economic model of supply and demand, for the assessment of the economic vulnerability to climate change for tourism-dependent nations. We draw upon elements of this framework in a vulnerability assessment for Belize as a case study for demonstration. The framework has implications for tourism planning, training and outreach for the tourism industry, and the identification of future research and development priorities at the national and regional scales.

Key words: Climate change; Vulnerability; Tourism development; Tourism planning; Developing countries

Address correspondence to Robert B. Richardson, 131 Natural Resources, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1222, USA. Tel: (517)-355-9533; Fax: (517)-353-8994; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 331–343
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12801550666141
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Gender Differences in Responses to Written Touch References in Hospitality Print Advertisements

Vincent P. Magnini* and John N. Gaskins†

*Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
†College of Business and Economics, Longwood University, Farmville, VA, USA

An emerging body of research indicates that males and females often respond differently to advertising stimuli. Therefore, this research used a between-subjects experimental design in study 1 to illustrate that a written touch reference in a destination ad (e.g., Visit the Newstead Cove Resort and feel the soothing Caribbean sand and water as you walk on our pristine award-winning beach) positively influences females’ affective responses to the advertisement and image of the destination, without having a significant impact on male sentiment. Next, study 2 used two photo-elicitation sessions, one conducted with females and the other with males, to probe deeper into these findings. The managerial and research implications of both studies are discussed.

Key words: Destination advertising; Hotel advertising; Hotel marketing; Touch; Touch reference

Address correspondence to Vincent P. Magnini, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Hospitality Management, Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Tech, 355 Wallace Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Tel: 540-231-8425; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 345–355
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12801550666187
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Brand China: Tour Guide Perceptions and Implications for Destination Branding and Marketing

Leonardo (Don) Dioko,* Rich Harrill,† and Peter W. Cardon‡

*Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, SAR, China
†International Tourism Research Institute, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
‡Technology, Support, and Training Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

This research investigates the attitudes and experiences of China tour guides that mediate contact between Western visitors and Chinese residents. This mediator role can have considerable influence over destination branding and marketing, as tour guides have much information about how China’s tourism brand is perceived by tourists. Tour guides were interviewed in three locations intended to capture a cross section of experiences with travelers, including: Beijing, the cultural and historical center of China; Shanghai, the country’s commercial center; and Guilin, a major nature-based tourism destination. Through collecting and analyzing tour guides’ narrative lens, the article explores: (1) initial brand knowledge by potential visitors, (2) China’s brand image, and (3) the country’s implicit or explicit brand promise. With this information, implications are then drawn for the country’s branding and marketing. The article then discusses how these perceptions and interpretations can be used to improve China’s destination brand marketing, development, and management.

Key words: China; Tour guides; Destination branding; Destination marketing; Destination management organizations (DMOs)

Address correspondence to Rich Harrill, International Tourism Research Institute, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Tel: (803)777-7682; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 357–365
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12801550666222
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Factors Influencing Hotel Occupancy In Jamaica: The Role Of Events 1991–2008

Diaram Ramjee Singh, Allan Wright, and Carolyn Hayle

Department of Management Studies, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica

The aim of this article is to establish the primary economic determinants of hotel occupancy in Jamaica by reviewing for the period January 1991 to December 2008. The rationale is to help policy makers of Tourism and Hospitality management identify factors that have the biggest impact on hotel occupancy. The empirical results showed that stopovers, length of stay, events such Air Jamaica Jazz & Blues festival and to a lesser extent Reggae Sumfest are the main economic factors affecting occupancy levels. The study also seeks to establish whether seasonality affects hotel occupancy.

Key words: Hotel occupancy; Stopover; Regression; Air Jamaica Jazz & Blues Festival; Sumfest

Address correspondence to Diaram Ramjee Singh, Department of Management Studies, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Tel: (876) 977-3775; Fax: (876) 977-3829; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 367–379
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12801550666268
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Examining the Dimensions of Travel Behavior: A Case of Chinese Tourists Visiting the United States

Yueying Xu,* Xiangping Li,† and Pamela A. Weaver†

*School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
†Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA

The objective of this study was to develop and empirically test a theoretical model incorporating the underlying dimensions of travel motivation, travel satisfaction, revisit intentions, and recommendation intentions. The population of interest was Chinese tourists and the model was tested on a sample of Chinese tourists visiting the US. Exploratory factor analysis found six dimensions of motivation: Relaxation/Escape, Prestige, Knowledge, Job Fulfillment, Entertainment, and Novelty. The first four motivation dimensions were examined further for their effects on travel satisfaction, revisit intentions, and recommendation intentions. The empirical results indicated that Chinese tourists motivated by relaxation/escape or knowledge tend to have a satisfactory trip experience and those motivated by knowledge would recommend the destination whether they had a satisfied trip experience or not.

Key words: Motivation; Satisfaction; Destination loyalty; Chinese tourists

Address correspondence to Yueying Xu, School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Tel.: 86-756-3662457; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 381–386
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12801550666303
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Notes

Active Sport Tourists: Sport Event Image Considerations

Kiki Kaplanidou

College of Health and Human Performance, Department of Tourism, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Sport events can be used as tourist attractions by destinations that seek to attract large numbers of tourists in their locale. This study examines the event image perceptions of active sport tourists (participants) of an international marathon event following the destination image measurement paradigm. The census of active sport tourists (N = 2,000) who traveled from abroad to participate in the event was used to elicit image associations about the event. Respondents were asked to indicate the three words that come to mind when they think of the event after they returned to their homes (posttrip phase). Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were utilized. For the qualitative approach, the acquired words (n = 1,015) were classified into six image themes (historical, emotional, organizational, physical, environmental, and social). The quantitative approach included a frequency analysis of prespecified key words associated with each dimension and revealed that the emotional theme was more frequently mentioned. These results suggest active sport tourists’ event image perceptions are related to the themes above with emotional aspects being more dominant during the postevent recall of the event. More research is needed with different types of active sport tourists to be able to generalize these results.

Key words: Sport event image; Active sport tourists; Participation; Destination; Postevent evaluation

Address correspondence to Kiki Kaplanidou, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of Florida, College of Health and Human Performance, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, P.O. Box 118208, Gainesville, FL 32611-8208, USA. Tel: (352) 392-4042, ext. 1242; Fax: (352) 392-7588; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 387–391
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12801550666349
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Future of Tourism In Zimbabwe: Towards Sustainability?

Muchazondida Mkono

Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe

Before the political events after 2000, notably the Land Reform Program, Zimbabwe was a leading tourism destination in the Southern African region. However, political upheavals and consequent economic crises in the last decade damaged the attractiveness of the country as a tourist destination. Arrivals dropped drastically as the country was seen as unsafe for tourists. With the recent formation of the inclusive government in September 2008, and the gradual stabilization of the political and economic environments, it is hoped that the country’s tourism industry can be restored to its former competitiveness. This article discusses the struggles and dilemmas that the tourism industry continues to face as it aspires towards sustainability.

Key words: Zimbabwe; Tourism destination; Sustainability

Address correspondence to Muchazondida Mkono, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it