Tourism Analysis 15(4) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 399–410
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12864727453061
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Towards a Picture of Tourists’ Happiness

Sebastian Filep* and Margaret Deery†

*Centre for Tourism and Services Research, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
†Centre for Tourism and Services Research/School of Hospitality, Tourism and Marketing, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

Happiness is a concept with a long tradition in philosophy and is central to understanding the meaning of human life. Research on happiness has lately flourished in many social sciences. Yet in tourism studies this concept is underexplored. This lack of attention is surprising as tourism is increasingly seen in the literature as more than a break from everyday routines. It is today more and more seen as a health and well-being activity. The discussion in this article hence complements, but differs from, recent examinations of wellness and quality of life of tourists. In this article an exploratory picture of tourists’ happiness is created. The picture of tourists’ happiness is created by first discussing how tourists’ happiness can be interpreted; and then by discussing how tourists’ happiness can be evaluated in the main phases of the travel experience—anticipatory, on site, and reflective phases. It is concluded that tourists’ happiness is a state in which the tourist experiences positive emotions (joy, interest, contentment, and love), is engaged in and derives meaning from holiday activities. This conceptualization is based on a theory from positive psychology—a field from psychology that empirically assesses happiness. Tourists’ positive emotions, engagement, and meaning can be evaluated through analyses of tourist motivation and satisfaction in the three tourist experience phases. Examples of analysis methods are: narratives of perfect days and cognitive maps for assessments of positive emotions, special in-depth interviews to capture engagement at tourist sites, and specific qualitative measures of meaning derived from holidays. The interpretation and the assessment approaches form an exploratory picture of tourists’ happiness. This picture is important as it sheds light on the personal value and quality of tourist experiences to individuals.

Key words: Tourists; Happiness; Picture; Positive; Psychology

Address correspondence to Dr. Sebastian Filep (att: Ms. Sharon Attwell), Centre for Tourism and Services Research, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia. Tel: +61 3 9919 4911; Fax: +61 3 9919 5278; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 411–424
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12864727453142
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The North Cyprus Conference Sector: Establishing A Competitive Advantage

Julide Oral And Julie Whitfield

School of Tourism, Bournemouth University, Poole, Dorset, UK

North Cyprus had recently positioned itself as a conference destination. Given external and internal factors such as political isolation and the over dependency on casino tourism, policy makers have recognized the importance of the conference sector in creating sustainable growth for North Cyprus’s tourism-driven economy. Increasingly, Turkish conference organizers are choosing North Cyprus as a destination to host conferences. As such, Turkish conference organizers were questioned via an Internet-based questionnaire to determine attributes considered important within the conference destination selection process. An Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) was performed; the findings identified that North Cyprus was perceived as a high performer with reference to: ease of accessibility, distance of destination, conference venue and accommodation price, safety and security, climate, hospitality, quality, quantity, and availability of hotel rooms. However, in relation to North Cyprus, a unique application of IPA identified macro- and microdestination attributes that North Cyprus should improve on: transportation within destination, availability of technological resources, the range of conference venues, conference staff training, destination’s marketing activities, and quality of local restaurants. The findings provided implications for destination managers in terms of branding, as well as conference venue and accommodation providers in terms of targeting conference organizers more effectively and promoting North Cyprus to conference sector stakeholders.

Key words: Turkish Republic of North Cyprus; Conference sector; Importance-Performance Analysis; Business tourism; Casino

Address correspondence to Dr. Julie Whitfield, School of Tourism, Bournemouth University, Dorset House, Talbot Campus, Poole, Dorset, BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: (+44/0) 1202 965158; Fax: (+44/0) 1202 515707; Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 425–434
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12864727453188
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cruise Passengers Expenditure Analysis and Probability of Repeat Visits to Costa Rica: A Cross Section Data Analysis

Juan Gabriel Brida and Wiston Adrián Risso

School of Economics and Management, Free University of Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy

The present article considers the cruising expenditure in Costa Rica as a key variable in the economic analysis of the cost and benefits associated with the cruise industry. We applied a rarely accessible and very good quality database collected by the Costa Rica Tourism Board (ICT) to estimate our econometric models. We estimate a cross-sectional regression model for the cruising expenditure, showing the existence of different tourist profiles that are related to the expenditure levels. In particular, heavy spenders are distinguishable from the other segments in terms of age, hours spent out of the ship, nationality, income levels, and their spending pattern. In addition, we also use the data to analyze the determinants of the probability of returning. We show that this probability depends positively on the level of satisfaction declared by the passenger and the number of hours spent out the ship, among other variables. We also show that older visitors are more likely to return than younger ones; first-time visitors are also more likely to return than repeat visitors and tourists whose income is larger than US$41,000 are more likely to return than other visitors. Finally, men are more likely to return than women.

Key words: Cruise industry; Costa Rica; Expenditure; Economic impact; Repeat visitation

Address correspondence to Juan Gabriel Brida, School of Economics and Management, Competence Centre in Tourism Management and Tourism Economics (TOMTE), Free University of Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy. Tel.: +39 0471 013492; Fax: +39 0471 013 009; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 435–445
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12864727453223
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Is the Tourism-Led Growth Thesis Valid? The Case of The Bahamas, Barbados, and Jamaica

Diaram Ramjee Singh,* Allan S. Wright,* Carolyn Hayle,† and Roland Craigwell‡

*Department of Management Studies, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica
†Tourism and Hospitality Unit, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica
‡Department of Economics, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados

This article seeks to investigate whether there is a causal relationship between tourism growth and economic growth in the Bahamas, Barbados, and Jamaica. Several empirical studies have advanced evidence to support the idea that tourism growth promotes economic growth in a number of countries. Using the cointegration test and a vector autoregression model, this article was able to establish that no equilibrium exists between tourism receipts and gross domestic product in any of the countries studied. The Granger Causality Test, however, does confirm the existence of a short-term relationship.

Key words: Tourism; Economic growth; Cointegration; Causality

Address correspondence to Diaram Ramjee Singh, Department of Management Studies, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 447–4591083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12864727453269
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Box-Cox Estimation of International Tourism Demand for Nicaragua

Manuel Vanegas, Sr.

Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul–Minneapolis, MN, USA

The objective of this research was to estimate with linear, log-linear, and Box-Cox specifications of Nicaragua tourism exports to the developing countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and the developed country of the US. Using Zellner’s seemingly unrelated regression procedure, estimates from the three approaches are compared to address: functional form selection; structure and influencing factors, such as income, relative prices, and travel costs; and identification of demand parameters, in particular elasticity values. The corresponding short-run income elasticity values range from a low of 1.5 for Costa Rica to a high of 2.21 for El Salvador with an average of 1.88. The results attest to the strength of the income effect in increasing tourist arrivals and that Nicaragua will benefit differently from income increases in the origin countries. The coefficients of the price variables have the hypothesized negative signs for all 15 countries. The short-run price elasticity values range from −0.59, the lowest value of all for Honduras, to −1.15 the largest for Guatemala. These results could indicate a moderate degree of substitutability of Nicaragua tourism for domestic tourism. With regard to the coefficients of the surface costs, in the short-run, tourists from El Salvador and Guatemala are in fact more sensitive to changes in surface costs. With respect to the US tourists we emphasize the importance of air transportation costs, with elasticity values greater than unity. The findings of this tourism disaggregated origin market approach could help policy makers and the private operating sectors tailor tourism marketing, commercialization, and promotion strategies to fit specific markets.

Key words: Nicaragua; Elasticity values; Origin markets; Box-Cox estimation; Seemingly unrelated regression (SUR)

Address correspondence to Manuel Vanegas, Sr., 3579 E. Wyatt Way, Gilbert, AZ 85297, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 461–470
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12864727453304
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Toward A Halal Tourism Market

Mohamed M. Battour,* Mohd Nazari Ismail,† and Moustafa Battor‡

*Faculty of Business and Accounting, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
†Department of Business Policy and Strategy, Faculty of Business and Accounting, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
‡Faculty of Commerce, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

This article begins by explaining the concept of Islamic Shariah. It explains the sources of Shariah as well as its higher objectives. The article focuses on the implications of observance of Shariah in the tourism and hospitality industries. Following this is a description of the recent phenomena of “Halal tourism” and “Islamic Hospitality” illustrated through selected examples from Muslim countries in Asia and the Middle East. The development of “Islamically oriented” standards is also discussed giving rise to new concepts such as “Shariah-compliant,” which refers to Islamic consideration of being alcohol free, gambling free, and the availability of “Halal” food. Lastly, the article discusses future trends and challenges related to Halal tourism.

Key words: Islamization; Shariah; Halal tourism; Hotel; Marketing

Address correspondence to Mohamed M. Battour, Faculty of Business and Accounting, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel: 603-26173024; Fax: 603-79552975; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 471–484
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12864727453340
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Host Community Attitudes Toward Tourism Development: The Triggered Tourism Life Cycle Perspective

Deepak Chhabra

School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

This study examines the current stage of tourism in Ladakh (India) using both face-to-face interviews and a survey comprised of open-ended questions. It hypothesizes that the evolution of host community attitudes as tourism moves from one life cycle stage to another is the combined influences of triggers such as the social exchange, social disruption, Lamarckian, and Chaos theories. This modified tourism life cycle (TLC) framework is termed as the Triggered TLC framework. A strong influence of identified triggers is noted at various stages and a favorable disposition towards tourism development in the later stages of the life cycle is detected. These findings offer important implications for both the policy makers of tourism in Ladakh and the local residents.

Key words: Tourism life cycle; Host community attitudes; Social exchange theory; Chao theory; Lamarckian theory; Triggers

Address correspondence to Deepak Chhabra, School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Mail Code 4020, 411 N. Central Ave., Ste. 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690, USA. Tel: 602-496-0172; Fax: 602-496-0953; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 485–488
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X864727453386
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
Tourism Income Multipliers for Latin American Countries

D. H. Ramjee Singh

Department of Management Studies, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica

This note provides estimates of the tourism income multiplier for countries in Latin America. The well-known Keynesian formulation of the concept forms the basis on which the estimates were derived. Except for a few destinations, such as Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Paraguay, the actual sizes of the estimated multipliers are fairly consistent with those obtained for other developing countries. The implication is that developing countries share some common features that retard their ability to extract more benefits from the tourist industry.

Key words: Multiplier; Keynes; Size; GDP

Address correspondence to D. H. Ramjee Singh, Department of Management Studies, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 489–496
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12864727453421
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
Elasticities of Demand for Tourism in Nigeria: An ARDL Approach

Abiodun S. Bankole and M. Adetunji Babatunde

Department of Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

This study empirically examines aggregate tourism demand function for Nigeria between 1995 and 2005 using quarterly data. The total tourist arrivals into Nigeria are related to world income, relative prices, and transportation cost. The ARDL approach is employed to compute the short- and long-run elasticities of income, price, and transportation cost variables and the CUSUM and CUSUMSQ is implemented for stability tests on the aggregate tourism demand function. The empirical results indicate that income, transportation cost, and relative prices are the variables explaining the total tourist arrivals to Nigeria and a stable tourism demand function exists.

Key words: Tourism; unrestricted error correction model (UECM); Bound testing; Nigeria

Address correspondence to M. Adetunji Babatunde, Department of Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 499–512
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12864727693669
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review
Tourism Studies and Confined Understanding: The Call for a “New Sense” Postdisciplinary Imaginary

Keith Hollinshead

Tourism Studies, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK

Recently, in Current Issues in Tourism, Coles, Hall, and Duval produced a very well-received inspection of the state of Tourism Studies/Tourism Management and acutely stated the case for the much more frequent and rigorous use of postdisciplinary forms of research in the (above) twin fields. This succeeding review article in Tourism Analysis is an update of a like “call-to postdisciplinarity,” which has been in steady gestation over the last decade, and it is now published here as one that seeks to augment the well-reasoned, panoramic thinking of Coles, Hall, and Duval by clarifying the kinds of “new sense” and “open to the future” dialogic understandings that such a turn towards or engagement with postdisciplinary insight would conceivably entail. While Coles, Hall, and Duval have so capably surveyed the distinctions between (mainly) postdisciplinary styles of inquiry and interdisciplinary ones, this review article now seeks to provide an introductory critique of the kinds of postdisciplinary awarenesses that Tourism Studies/Tourism Management now ubiquitously need. In this examination of the demand for flexible forms of understanding that can more readily interpolate the often difficult-to-distill identifications and the new-register aspirations of populations today—notably those in ambiguous/hybrid postcolonal settings—this critique draws on Gilroy and Bhabha to help map the ambivalent terrain of the world’s many new enunciations (i.e., the freshly vivified/revivified projections of culturehood). Thereafter, it beckons the bricoleurship approaches (i.e., the slow/tall-in-reflexivity/high-in-demonstrability interpretative ’soft science’ approaches) of Kincheloe to help researchers achieve those sought forms of postdisciplinary criticality. Hopefully, there are nowadays not just a few universities and colleges preparing researchers and practitioners for service in Tourism Studies/Tourism Management (on each continent) who can recognize the need to more than occasionally escape the confines of restrictive/overinstitutionalized “old sense” interpretations of the world, and support or replace them with other and fresher sorts of postdisciplinary (or extradisciplinary?/adisciplinary?) understandings that are not so restrictively ruled and regulated by the often-acute disciplinary normalizations of yesteryear.

Key words: Knowledge dimensions; Disciplinary canonicity; Dialogic understanding; Postcoloniality; Worlding; Thirdspace/Third Space; Bricoleurship; Fantasmatics; New sense/plural sense/multiple sense understandings; Open to the future understandings

Address correspondence to Prof. Keith Hollinshead, Professor of Public Culture, Department of Tourism Studies, University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury Luton LU2 8LE Bedfordshire, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it