Tourism Analysis 15(5) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 517–530
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12889831783198
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Individual-Based Approach to Modeling Tourism Dynamics

Peter A. Johnson and Renee E. Sieber

Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

To better understand the dynamics of tourism, emphasis in modeling is evolving from descriptive towards analytic, process-based approaches. We present a conceptual framework of tourism as a set of individual-based interactions between tourists and destinations occurring on a spatial, scaled landscape. We use agent-based modeling (ABM), a type of computer simulation, to operationalize this individual-based framework of tourism development and change, set in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. The model is used to generate a series of scenarios about the impact of visitation to rural destinations through modifying individual awareness and tourist mobility variables. The findings generated with this ABM demonstrate that the spatial location of a destination in relation to a network of other destinations has implications for how that destination can capitalize on changes to tourist destination awareness and mobility. The impact of spatial location is only apparent as a result of modeling the individual interactions of tourists and destinations. This research proposes that an individual-based approach can be used to better understand the spatial, multiscaled processes and dynamics that generate emergent patterns of impact.

Key words: Modeling; Individual-based framework; Simulation; Spatial

Address correspondence to Peter A. Johnson, Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada. Tel: (514) 527-9442; Fax: (514) 398-7437; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 531–544
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12889831783233
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

International Competitiveness in Hot Springs Tourism: An Application of the Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach

Cheng-Fei Lee* and Brian King†

*Department of Marketing Management, Shih Chien University, Neimen Shiang, Kaohsiung Campus, Taiwan, R.O.C.
†Centre for Tourism and Services Research, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

This study provides an evaluation of the potential of Taiwan’s hot springs tourism sector by proposing a model of competitiveness that has broad applicability to hot springs destinations. Using the analytic hierarchy process method to generate weightings for the various elements which contribute to destination competitiveness, the study prioritizes aspects of hot springs tourism which would benefit from further development. A panel of experts commented on the relative competitiveness of hot springs tourism in Taiwan and Japan, and concluded that hot springs proprietors need to reinforce their conservation efforts and engage in the sustainable use of hot springs and surrounding environments. They noted that governments should formulate and implement strategic destination planning and development to avoid a repetition of previous mistakes. The increasing Taiwanese preoccupation with good health and longevity and Taiwan’s rich endowment of high-grade natural hot springs produces a favorable environment development of the hot springs tourism sector. It also offers business opportunities to extend the appeal of hot springs tourism into health protection and medical treatment. The article concludes that Taiwan’s hot springs tourism sector has a promising future, but that concerted effort will be needed to match the product offerings of its competitors.

Key words: Hot springs tourism; Comparative analysis; Destination competitiveness; Analytical hierarchy process

Address correspondence to Cheng-Fei Lee, Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing Management, Shih Chien University, No. 200, University Rd, Neimen Shiang, Kaohsiung Campus, Taiwan, 845, R.O.C. Tel: 886-076678888, ext. 6126; Fax: 886-076678888, ext. 4251; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 545–554
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12889831783279
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Usefulness of Visitor Expectations Type Scales (VETS) for Tourist Segmentation: The Case of Cathedral Visitors

Leslie J. Francis,* Simon Mansfield,† Emyr Williams,* and Andrew Village‡

*Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit, University of Warwick, UK
†St. Mary’s Centre, Wales, UK
‡York St. John University, York, UK

This study applies Jungian psychological type theory to assess and to interpret the expectations of cathedral visitors. The Visitor Expectations Type Scales (VETS) were developed among 35 individuals trained and qualified as type practitioners and then tested among a sample of 157 visitors who also completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales. The data demonstrated: the coherence and internal consistency reliability of the VETS; the particular emphases placed by cathedral visitors on introverted expectations, feeling expectations, and perceiving expectations; and the complex relationship between visitor expectations (conceptualized in psychological type categories) and their personal psychological type profile. The VETS are commended as providing a more valid assessment of the psychographic segmentation of cathedral visitors than could be provided simply by the administration of a recognized measure of psychological type. Such assessment has implications for the marketing and management of cathedrals within the tourism industry.

Key words: Visitor Expectations Type Scales (VETS); Tourist segmentation; Cathedral visitors; Psychological type

Address correspondence to Leslie J. Francis, Warwick Religions & Education Research Unit, Institute of Education, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 2539; Fax: +44 (0)24 7657 2638; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 555–569
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12889831783314
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Whole-Family Research: Towards a Methodology in Tourism for Encompassing Generation, Gender, and Group Dynamic Perspectives

Heike A. Schänzel

Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

Families traveling with children represent one of the largest markets for the tourism industry. Methodological approaches to family tourism research are underdeveloped as the study of families requires a more holistic and critical approach. This article addresses this shortcoming by introducing whole-family research—a qualitative methodology used in family research that is inclusive of the group and individual perspectives of all family members. An application of this method to domestic family holidays in New Zealand is presented and associated methodological and theoretical issues are examined. The discussion is conceptualized within the family holiday experience literature and recent developments in qualitative tourism research. It introduces a triangular family group perspective that is inclusive of sociality and three-dimensionality rather than relying on one-dimensional (individual) or two-dimensional (dyadic or gendered) perspectives. An analytical framework that transcends the complexity and multidimensionality of the current whole-family study is presented. Methodological issues considered include access to families, diversity of family forms, ethical considerations with children, inclusion of fathers, and projective techniques. Included are three examples from the findings to illustrate the merits of whole-family research: the perspectives of the fathers, children, and group dynamics. The potential of this research methodology in exploring gender, generational, and group dynamic dimensions in tourism are highlighted.

Key words: Family holidays; Whole-family methodology; Triangulation; Children; Social tourist experience; Critical approach in tourism

Address correspondence to Heike A. Scha¨nzel, Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, 24 Lambton Quay, Wellington 6140, New Zealand. Fax: +64-4-463 5084; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 571–583
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DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12889831783396
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Testing the Role of Authenticity in Cultural Tourism Consumption: A Case of Mauritius

|Haywantee Ramkissoon*† and Muzaffer Uysal‡

*Tourism Research Unit, Department of Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
†School of Sustainable Development and Tourism, University of Technology, Mauritius, Pointe-aux Sables, Mauritius
‡Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA

Tourists’ interests in traveling to natural and cultural heritage sites of different destinations in the quest for authenticity have fueled the growth of the cultural tourism industry in such economies. The purpose of the present study is to broaden the understanding of authenticity’s various interpretations in the cultural tourism consumption context. Data were collected at 10 selected cultural and natural heritage sites in the island of Mauritius. Structural equation modeling was employed on a total sample of 600 tourists after a pretest. Path analysis was used to examine the effect of felt authenticity on tourists’ intentions to consume cultural heritage attractions. Results indicated that the issue of authenticity is fundamental in destinations hosting unique natural and cultural resources increasingly sought by the modern traveler. The study enriches the theoretical and practical contributions of felt authenticity as a determinant of tourists’ intentions to consume cultural authenticity in small island destinations.

Key words: Authenticity; Cultural tourism; Small island; Mauritius

Address correspondence to Haywantee Ramkissoon, Tourism Research Unit, Department of Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Room 172, Building 902, Berwick Campus, PO Box 1071, Narre Warren VIC 3805, Australia. Tel: (+613) 9904 7252; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 585–589
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12889831783431
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
Multiple On-Site Winery Festivals: Tourist Motivations, Winery Festival Destination Performance, and Repatronage Intention

Donetta K. Poisson and Rachel J. C. Chen

Department of Retail, Hospitality, and Tourism Management, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA

Little research has been done focusing on multiple festivals and those wineries hosting on-site festivals specifically located in the Southeastern US. The goal of this study was to employ multiple winery festivals to more fully understand winery tourists’ motivations by examining push factors and pull factors of the attendees for on-site winery festivals located in the Southeastern US. The study utilized a gap measure between guest expectations and what the venue delivered by way of the attributes of the destination. Cluster analysis was performed to assess various market segments. The reliability scores produced from analysis of the motivation survey questions rated 0.860, indicating a relationship exists between the reliability of the instrument and the data obtained.

Key words: On-Site winery festivals; Tourist motivations; Winery festival destination performance

Address correspondence to Dr. Rachel J. C. Chen, Department of Retail, Hospitality, and Tourism Management, University of Tennessee, 247 Jessie Harris Bldg., Knoxville, TN 37996-1911, USA. Tel.: 1-865-974-0505; Fax: 1-865-974-5236; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 591–597
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12889831783477
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
Process to Prototype: Insights for Museums and Nonprofit Attractions

Cherylynn Becker* and Elizabeth La Fleur†

*Department of Management, University of Southern Mississippi, Long Beach, MS, USA
†Department of Marketing, University of Southern Mississippi, Long Beach, MS, USA

This research takes a pluralistic approach by combining quantitative and qualitative research methods to identify three distinct prototypes for funding and maintaining museum operations. A three-stage process is introduced to segment nonprofit aviation museums by geographic region, funding sources, and population and visitor statistics. Analysis of the outcome leads to the identification of three operational strategies pursued by museums: the community partnership, the philanthropic proprietorship, and the controlling sponsorship. Propositions are presented to guide future research.

Key words: Museums; Tourist attractions; Aviation museums; Nonprofit sector; Theory development

Address correspondence to Cherylynn Becker, Department of Management, University of Southern Mississippi, 730 East Beach Blvd., Long Beach, MS 39560, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 601–611
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12889831783512
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review
History and Tourism: Intertextual Representations of Florence

Russell Staiff

Cultural Heritage & Tourism Studies, Centre for Cultural Research, School of Social Sciences, University of Western Sydney, Penrith South, Australia

The act of worldmaking involves various and complex representations that “produce” places, cultures, institutions, individuals, and heritages. The subject has emerged as a strong concept in the recent conceptuality of Tourism Studies/Tourism Sciences. In this review article, Staiff makes it clear that a lead heritage locale or tourist destination city like Florence (and visitors to Florence!) is (are) unavoidably ensnared in such practices. In this article, the reviewer explores the interrelationship between the various historical representations of the city, and in particular, the myth of Renaissance Florence and the recent revisionist constructions of the 15th century. It suggests that a process of intertextuality is at work in both “tourist Florence,” as a place, and in the way the visitor makes sense of the city within networks of meaning continually being created. Further, this review article explores the coincidence of Florence as a specular culture in the 15th century—one where everything is deemed to mirror everything else—and a tourist display culture in the 21st century and what this coincidence reveals about the role of representation in the past and the role of representation and worldmaking in the present through the mediating agency and authority of tourism, and its collaborative inscriptive industries.

Key words: Worldmaking; Tourism; Representation; Intertextuality; Florence

Address correspondence to Russell Staiff, Cultural Heritage & Tourism Studies, Centre for Cultural Research, School of Social Sciences, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC NSW 1797, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it