Tourism Analysis 15(6) Abstracts

Return to Tourism Analysis Main Page>

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 617–635
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12889831783350
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Have Low-Cost Carriers Influenced Tourism Demand and Supply? The Case of Alghero, Italy

Manuela Pulina,*† and Isabel Cortés-Jiménez‡

*School of Economics and Management (TOMTE), Free University of Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy
†CRENoS, Italy
‡Tourism and Travel Research Institute & AQR-IREA, Nottingham University Business School, Nottingham, UK

This article analyzes how the introduction of low-cost carriers has influenced tourism activity in a European destination, namely the town of Alghero (Italy). This can be addressed via a multiple stage approach. Firstly, a descriptive analysis highlights the dynamics of tourism demand and supply in the past three decades. Secondly, a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model with intervention variables is employed to highlight the influence that low-cost flights have had on the town of Alghero. Finally, the relationship between demand and supply is analyzed via a Granger test. The findings indicate that low-cost carriers have influenced both domestic and international tourism demand, albeit to differing degrees. The article offers policy direction on how tourism infrastructures should be developed according to an economic and environmental sustainability perspective.

Key words: Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA); Low-cost carriers; Tourism demand and supply; Urban policy

Address correspondence to Manuela Pulina, School of Economics and Management (TOMTE), Free University of Bolzano, Piazza dell’Università, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 637–648
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12904412049776
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Effect of Memorable Experience on Behavioral Intentions in Tourism: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

Jong-Hyeong Kim, J. R. Brent Ritchie, and Vincent Wing Sun Tung

Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

This study develops and tests a model to investigate the effects of memorable tourism experiences on future behavioral intentions (e.g., revisiting). A structural equation modeling analysis reveals that the memorable experiential components of involvement, hedonism, and local culture positively affect behavioral intention to revisit the same destination, repractice the same tourist activities, and generate positive word-of-mouth publicity. The research findings contribute to a better understanding of memorable tourism experiences and the experiential factors that enhance positive behavioral intentions. The theoretical and managerial implications of the study results are discussed in detail.

Key words: Tourism experience; Memorable experience; Behavioral intentions

Address correspondence to J. R. Brent Ritchie, World Tourism Education & Research Centre, Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 649–661
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12904412049811
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Developing Tourism Clusters and Networks: Attitudes to Competition Along Australia’s Murray River

Clare Lade

School of Management, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia

This article explores the importance and degree of network development within the tourism industry of four regional centers located along one of Australia’s well-known river systems, the Murray River. Cluster theory serves as the broad theoretical orientation, with the attitudes towards competitive behavior and the receptiveness to cluster development examined and reported in the article. The results gathered and analyzed imply that those regions which have fully adopted the clustering concept are inclined to be more successful also in terms of tourism expenditure and overnight tourist visitation. Business clustering may be used as a means of stimulating local businesses to contribute to their own development and therefore raising the competitive advantage of a region, providing the correct local leadership and cooperation between sectors constituting the industry exists.

Key words: Business clusters; Cooperation; Competition; Networks

Address correspondence to Dr. Clare Lade, School of Management, Faculty of Law and Management, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086, Australia. Tel: +61 (0) 3 9479 2361; Fax: +61 (0) 3 9479 1010; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 663–672
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12904412049857
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


A Study of the Effects of Leisure Time on China’s Economic Growth: A Neoclassic Growth Model

Xiang Wei,* Hailin Qu,† and Emily Ma‡

*Center of China Leisure Economics Research, International Studies University, Beijing, P.R. China
†School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
‡School of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Nathan, Queensland, Australia

The aim of this study is to assess the effects of leisure time on China’s long-run economic growth. Two compensation effects of leisure are introduced into the growth model to assess if leisure choice-set affects economic growth in the long term. Time series data covering 23 years (1981–2003) are used in the study, and a neoclassic growth model is employed to analyze the data. The result shows a weak and negative relationship between leisure time and China’s long-term economic growth.

Key words: Leisure time; Economic growth; Time series analysis; Neoclassic growth model; China

Address correspondence to Hailin Qu, Ph.D., Regents Professor and William E. Davis Distinguished Chair, School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA. Tel: 405 744-6711; Fax: 405 744-6299; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 673–687
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12904412049893
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Revised Importance–Performance Analysis for Assessing Image: The Case of Cultural Tourism in Britain

Yi-De Liu

Graduate Institute of European Cultures and Tourism, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan

Destination image is critical to the success of any destination, particularly because of how it affects the level of satisfaction with the tourist experience. Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA) and its revision were selected for destination positioning analysis in this study. The first aim of this article is to extend the traditional IPA approach and provided an option for destination positioning analysis. The measurement of image related to cultural tourism has received little attention in the tourism literature. Consequently, in this exploratory research, the first step is to conceptualize cultural tourism and determine the main attributes involved in its image measurement. Then, the scale developed was tested in an empirical manner. A questionnaire was used to examine the importance of 19 destination attributes for Taiwanese tourists who visited Britain’s cultural tourism attractions and to determine how they rated Britain’s performance with respect to these attributes postvisitation. This information was subsequently incorporated into the traditional and revised IPA grids. Then implications for destination positioning were provided by classifying the image attributes into factors so that the British destination management organizations can make better decisions about how to improve the perceived image. The result confirms the importance of tangible and Britain-specific cultural assets, such as authentic sights, historic architecture, museums and galleries, literary and artistic sites, as well as British customs and way of life. They can be pull factors for tourists looking to do something quintessentially British. However, adequate resources have to be allocated to improve the welcome, gastronomy, as well as the expense of visiting Britain, not only because they are the major weaknesses but also because tourists regard them as prerequisites. Moreover, attributes such as festivals/events and lively atmosphere can delight the tourists and strongly enhance overall satisfaction.

Key words: Destination image; Destination positioning; Cultural tourism; Importance–Performance Analysis; Three-factor theory

Address correspondence to Dr. Yi-De Liu, Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of European Cultures and Tourism, National Taiwan Normal University, 4F, Bo-Ai Building, No. 129, Hoping E. Rd., Sec. 1, 106, Taipei, Taiwan. Tel: +886-2-7734-3955; Fax: +886-2-3343-2404; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 689–700
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12904412049938
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Investigation of Systematic Risk Determinants in the Casino Industry

Yeon Ho Shin, Murat Hancer, Jerrold Leong, and Radesh Palakurthi

Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

This study examined financial measures that constitute determinants of systematic risk in the casino industry. Multiple regression analysis, one-way ANOVA, and independent sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the measures. Leverage and liquidity were positively related to systematic risk yet growth rate was negatively related. Furthermore, it was confirmed that different sectors of the casino industry had different level of risk. Findings suggest that casino managers in different sectors of the casino industry should use different financial strategies to reduce risk. Casino investors should also understand the unique financial characteristics of different sectors of the casino industry. Finally, casino managers should focus on developing well-planned customer activities, such as gaming tournaments or special events, to protect casinos from experiencing high-risk seasons.

Key words: Systematic risk; Beta; Casino; Hospitality industry; Risk analysis

Address correspondence to Yeon Ho Shin, 210 HESW, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA. Tel: 1-405-744-8645; Fax: 1-405-744-6299; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 701–712
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12904412049974
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Pattern of International Tourist Arrivals and Revenue Estimates for Malaysia: 2002–2007

K. Jayaraman,* Soh Keng Lin,† Ishak Ismail,† and Wooi Leng Ong*

*Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
†School of Managment, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

This article discusses the applications and the results of the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) forecasting model to predict the international tourist arrivals into Malaysia using the monthly data from January 2002 through December 2007. Based on the arrivals and the average length of stay, the revenue was computed and the time series forecast model was fitted to estimate the total revenue for the Malaysian tourism industry. International arrivals into Malaysia remained resilient and have been dominant by Asian visitors. The five Asian countries, namely Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, Brunei, and China, together accounted for 75.3% of the international tourist arrivals into Malaysia and contributed to 66.5%, of the Malaysian tourism revenue for the year 2007. The forecasting models were also fitted for tourists coming into Malaysia from these five countries for future planning and managerial applications. It is worthwhile to mention that the forecasted arrivals and revenue for the year 2008 almost coincide with the actual Malaysian official tourism figures and the variation is negligible, which strengthens the validity and the robustness of the fitted models.

Key words: International tourist arrivals; Tourism revenue; Forecasting models; Seasonal decomposition

Address correspondence to Dr. K. Jayaraman, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains, Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 713–724
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12904412050017
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Effects of Residency and Entertainment Events on Quality, Satisfaction, and Future Intentions

Kakyom Kim,* Ann-Marie Weldon,* and Tarun Malik†

*The Hospitality College, Johnson & Wales University, Charlotte, NC, USA
†Academic Affairs, Johnson & Wales University, Charlotte, NC, USA

Entertainment shows/events are becoming an increasingly great interest to entertainment organizations as a useful basis for attracting and retaining visitors. A total of 8,446 individuals surveyed by the Charlotte Regional Visitors Authority (Charlotte, NC) were used for analysis to explore significant differences in three quality dimensions (the show, the services/areas, and the staff treatment), along with visitor satisfaction and future intentions 1) between local and nonlocal visitors and 2) across five different types of the entertainment shows/events (Concert, Comedy, Broadway, Family, and Others). Results of multiple MANOVA procedures suggest significant differences in the quality dimensions, satisfaction, and future intentions between local and nonlocal visitors and across the different types of the entertainment shows/events. Accordingly, several implications relevant to marketing efforts and actions needed are discussed for practitioners and researchers.

Key words: Art and entertainment; Service quality; Satisfaction; Future intentions

Address correspondence to Kakyom Kim, Ph.D., CHE, Assistant Professor, The Hospitality College, Johnson & Wales University, 801 West Trade Street, Charlotte, NC 28202, USA. Tel: (980) 598-1528; Fax: (980) 598-1520; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it



Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 725–728
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12904412050053
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
Previous Trip Satisfaction, Destination Images, and Probability of Future Visitation

Sunghyup Sean Hyun* and Richard R. Perdue†

*Division of Tourism and Convention, Pusan National University, Pusan, Korea
†Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

This study extends the existing tourism literature by examining the relationship between previous trip satisfaction, destination image favorability, and repeat visitation intentions. The study involved a secondary analysis of data collected by a state destination marketing organization in the Southeast US. Factor analysis was used to reduce 19 destination image measures into three factor scores. OLS Regression was used to examine the effects of previous trip satisfaction on repeat visitation intentions, while controlling for destination image favorability. The study concludes that, when controlling for destination image favorability, previous trip satisfaction still has a substantive effect on repeat visitation intentions, implying a need for continued theoretical development understanding the effects of previous destination visitation on repeat behavior.

Key words: Tourism; Revisit intention; Destination image; Satisfaction

Address correspondence to Sunghyup Sean Hyun, Division of Tourism and Convention, Pusan National University, Pusan, Korea. Fax: 82-51-512-1853; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 729–734
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12904412050099
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
Tourist Attribution and the Moderating Role of Loyalty

Suh-Hee Choi and Liping A. Cai

Purdue Tourism and Hospitality Research Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

This study conceptualizes a three-dimensional model of tourist attributional process which explains how tourists account for negative experiences. The three dimensions are locus (internal vs. external), stability (stable vs. unstable), and globality (global vs. specific). Each of them mediates the relationship between negative tourism experience and satisfaction. The model suggests that tourist attribution to internal, unstable, and specific factors leads to higher levels of overall satisfaction after negative experiences. Furthermore, the model posits that loyalty is a variable that moderates tourists’ negative experiences on their attribution. The relationships conceptualized in the model illustrate that the same destination experience can lead to different levels of satisfaction. In particular, a negative experience does not necessarily result in a lower level of satisfaction.

Key words: Tourist attribution; Negative destination experience; Attribution theory; Tourist satisfaction; Tourist loyalty

Address correspondence to Suh-hee Choi, Purdue Tourism and Hospitality Research Center, Purdue University, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA. Tel: +1 765 586 5545; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 735–740 1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12904412050134
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
Branding Authenticity

Deepak Chhabra

School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

This article explores the link between authenticity expectations and tourist satisfaction at heritage sites using a consumption model of authenticity. The population in focus is a subset of Generation Y in the US. In doing so, it offers important perspectives on strategic brand management for heritage sites so that proactive strategies can be formulated. The results show that authenticity has become an important performance indicator of heritage tourism. It enriches tourist experience and satisfaction and is a crucial measure to gauge marketing success.

Key words: Authenticity; Branding; Generation Y; Consumer satisfaction

Address correspondence to Dr. Deepak Chhabra, Ph.D., School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Mail Code 4020 411, N. Central Ave., Ste. 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690, USA. Tel: 1 602 496 0172; Fax: 1 602 496 0853; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
, Vol. 15, pp. 743–754
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12904412397860
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review
Diving Into the Contexts of In-Between Worlds: Worldmaking in Medical Tourism

Tomas Mainil,*† Vincent Platenkamp,* and Herman Meulemans†

*Centre for Cross-Cultural Understanding (CCU), NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, the Netherlands
†Research Centre for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (CELLO), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

In this review article, the authors contextualize the contemporary practice of medical tourism in terms of the concept of worldmaking, which was introduced (in this journal) with two articles a year or two ago by Hollinshead. Here, the authors first contextualize medical tourism in terms of “worldmaking” per medium of the observations of the corporeal realms identified by Alexis de Tocqueville almost 200 years ago. In 1835, de Tocqueville wrote with enthusiasm tinged with nostalgic regret about the new world of American democracy that he then saw as the world of the future. A serious rupture in history took place of which he became a most relevant critic. But there have been (according to Mainil, Platenkamp, and Meulemans) many ruptures since then: that is, there have been short periods of “in-between worlds” that became ever more anchored in the timeline of Western history. Today, they argue that tourism as a field of expertise, practice, and knowledge is intertwined with several other networks of expertise. It is responsible (itself) for many small “ruptures” in these modern times. Mass tourism can be seen as such a shift. Sustainable tourism and the attention paid to climate change would be another such shift. And the authors of this review argue that an interesting and deep-seated case in this regard is medical tourism. They argue here that medical tourism has a great deal of worldmaking capacity, especially by means of the Internet and international marketing tools. It arises in the interstices of the interacting networks of a global world. It crosses borders in line with emerging power structures in a global network, but it also meets local resistance or regional obstacles that are related to other networks. In between these worlds of human experience, various interactions of perspectives on the concept of health itself come to the surface. Within the field of medical tourism different stakeholders play a role in a worldmaking process. Our reviewers from the Low Countries thereby argue that medical tourism itself is responsible for a Tocquevillean rupture within and across our global network society. In their view, medical tourism also constitutes a new hybrid—that is, as a hybrid medical paradigm that seems to be appearing within the performative and productive world of tourism. (Abstract by the Reviews Editor, Keith Hollinshead)

Key words: Worldmaking; Rupture; In-between worlds; Hybridity; Medical tourism; Network society; Enunciation

Address correspondence to Tomas Mainil, Lecturer in Research Methodology and Researcher at Centre for Cross-Cultural Understanding (CCU), NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, the Netherlands. Tel: 0032477941932; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it