Tourism Analysis 16(1) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 5–17
1083-5423/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354211X12988225899921
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Enhancing Rural Livelihoods Through Tourism Education and Strategic Partnerships: A Uganda Case Study

J. Michael Campbell,* K. MacKay,* and Christine Dranzoa†

*Health, Leisure, & Human Performance Research Institute, Kinesiology & Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
†Department of Wildlife and Animal Resources Management, Deputy Director of the School of Graduate Studies, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Recently, tourism has gained significant strides as a poverty reduction strategy for low income nations, including Uganda, where poor people constitute 61% of Uganda’s population, living below US$1 per day. In 2003, the Government of Uganda identified tourism as a priority export sector. This article provides a Uganda case study that focuses on enhancing rural livelihoods through tourism, specifically highlighting the interdependent themes of tourism training and partnership development as aims of a University of Manitoba—Makerere University cooperative program. Uganda is a country rich in natural and cultural resources with opportunities for sustainable tourism providing local impetus to support the conservation of wildlife and natural areas. The key to realizing this potential lies in the development of local capacity to research, manage, plan, interpret, and profit from the resources that are the foundation of sustainable tourism. The two universities are in partnership to develop a masters’ degree in sustainable community tourism. Specifically the article describes the curriculum development process for a master’s degree in sustainable community tourism at Makerere University, the creation of a strategic partners’ network for sustainable tourism and biodiversity conservation, and the relationship between the two processes linking higher education and community development with sustainable tourism. Challenges faced by the Canadian and Ugandan project participants, as well as solutions, next steps for implementation, and future research opportunities are also discussed.

Key words: Poverty alleviation; Community tourism; Uganda; Education; Partnerships

Address correspondence to J. Michael Campbell, Health, Leisure, & Human Performance Research Institute, Faculty of Kinesiology & Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 19–30
1083-5423/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354211X12988225899967
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Ecotourism Development and Challenges: A Kenyan Experience

Roselyne N. Okech

Tourism Studies, Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, NL, Canada

The word ecotourism, as noted by Western in 1992, emerged from terms like nature tourism and wildlife tourism to become a universal conservation catchword, an exemplar of sustainable use. The reassuring prefix gave nature tourism the legitimacy and recognition it lacked. Ecotourism potentially provides a sustainable approach to development. The benefits of ecotourism include an enhanced appreciation of natural environments, in terms of their intrinsic and economic worth for protection and conservation; the educational value of exposing visitors and locals to nature and conservation; and the potential of ecotourism to motivate the designation of additional natural areas for conservation and protection. Ecotourism has grown both vertically and laterally the past three decades. This article, therefore, highlights the: 1) issues that have defined the growth and practice of ecotourism, 2) selected ecotourism case studies, 3) challenges faced in marketing the product in Kenya over the last decade, and 4) security issues and reimaging. At a time when there is immense pressure on the environment, an immeasurable quest for benefits by communities, an increased search for interactive experiences by visitors, and great innovation by tourism businesses is needed and should be aimed at interpreting the practices that enhance connectivity between the partners of ecotourism.

Key words: Ecotourism; Development; Kenya; Benefits; Experiences

Address correspondence to Dr. Roselyne N. Okech, Assistant Professor, Tourism Studies, Grenfall Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1 University Drive, Corner Brook, NL, A2H 6P9, Canada. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 31–42
1083-5423/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354211X12988225900009
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism, Indigenous People, and the Challenge of Development: The Representations of Ovahimbas in Tourism Promotion and Community Perceptions Toward Tourism

Jarkko Saarinen*†

*Department of Geography, University of Oulu, Finland
†School of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Management, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

In Namibia the tourism industry is increasingly used as a medium for economic and social development goals in the country. By involving local communities the benefits of tourism are expected to trickle down to a local level where the tourist activities actually take place. These challenges highlight the need to discuss the nature of tourism and community relations and perceptions. First, the article overviews the role and representations of local people, namely Ovahimbas (or Himbas), in Namibian tourism promotion. Secondly, the article aims to analyze how the role of tourism is seen by the local Ovahimba communities in north western Namibia. The former overview is based on the contemporary tourism brochures while the latter is studied by using community interviews. Based on the tourism promotion, the representations of Ovahimbas are dominated by female depictions referring to historically constructed primitive, exotic, and erotic objects for Western tourists to explore. The Ovahimbas are trapped to play an unchanged static culture referring to a past in order to satisfy the expectations of nonlocal visitors. According to the interviews the local practices of tourism were seen as highly beneficial, however, and tourism-related developments were perceived positively. On the other hand, the position that local people placed themselves in tourism was referring to the same passive role also represented in the tourism brochures. It is evident that tourism development has not yet contributed sufficiently to community empowerment, participation, and control over tourism activities, for example, which are named as strategic aims in the national tourism plans and community-based policy goals in Namibia.

Key words: Community-based tourism; Representations; Indigenous tourism; Ovahimba; Namibia

Address correspondence to Jarkko Saarinen, Department of Geography, PO Box 3000, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Finland. Tel: +358 8 553 1716; Fax: +358 8 553 1693; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 43–55
1083-5423/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354211X1298822509945
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Pathways to Prosperity: Perspectives on the Informal Economy in Tanzania

Susan L. Slocum,* Kenneth F. Backman,* and Kenneth L. Robinson†

*Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
†Department of Applied Economics, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA

Pro-poor tourism recognizes the potential for entrepreneurial expansion through tourism in developing countries. However, defining the entrepreneurial market and recognizing the social and cultural construction of income earning possibilities has only been loosely approached in tourism literature. By taking an in-depth look at the strengths and weaknesses of growing the informal economy in Tanzania and utilizing Tanzania’s National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty, this article shows that the current policy agendas attempting to formalize the informal economy are negating the economic benefits intended to bring growth and prosperity to the country.

Key words: Informal economy; Second economy; Pro-poor tourism; Community development policy; Tanzania

Address correspondence to Kenneth F. Backman, Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Clemson University, 263 Lehotsky Hall, Clemson, SC 29634-0735, USA. Tel: 864-886-9049; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 57–66
1083-5423/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354211X12988225900081
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Africa’s Natural Heritage: Trouble in Paradise or New Opportunities in a World Looking for Experiences and Authenticity?

Karel Werdler

Tourism and Leisure Management Studies, INHOLLAND University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands In this article the author compares the regular (mass market) or common nature-oriented tourism on the African continent to some new and interesting features and examples from other leisure and tourism venues occurring today in tourism-generating countries. Recognizing the fact that the tourist of the 21st century has enough travel experience and is critical of both the services and the products offered, this article would like to show how traditional players in the nature-oriented leisure industry, such as museums and zoos, cope with their expectations and willingness to participate in presentations and educational exhibits.

Key words: Africa; Nature; Heritage; Authenticity; New opportunities

Address correspondence to Karel Werdler, M.A., Manager External Relations, Tourism & Leisure Management Studies, INHOLLAND University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Tel: 00-31-20-4951520 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 67–75
1083-5423/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354211X12988225900126
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

On Safari in Botswana: Describing the Product

Nerine C. Bresler

Tourism Management, School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

The purpose of this article is to elicit the motivations or push factors of self-drive visitors to game parks in northern Botswana, in order to describe the product. A survey was conducted and visitors’ experiences were observed. The most important motivations were nature, adventure, escape, and mega-fauna. It is suggested that promotion material should not only emphasize specific species (the Big 5) but also include camp-life, creating an image of relaxation away from daily routine, as well as overland safaris. The unique attributes of the destination should be used to differentiate it and provide the benefits visitors are seeking, thereby increasing visitation.

Key words: Self-drive visitors; Safari; Motivations; Visitor experiences

Address correspondence to Nerine C. Bresler, PhD., Academic Head, Tourism Management, School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa. Tel: (011) 559-1036/1012; Fax: (011) 559-1011; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 77–86
1083-5423/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354211X12988225900162
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Competitiveness of Southern African Development Community as a Tourist Destination

Haretsebe Manwa

Department of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana

Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a regional economic grouping of 14 countries. The region receives the majority of tourists to Africa. However, it has not managed to make a significant impact in terms of tourism arrivals as it attracts only 3.2% of the world’s tourism receipts. This article is based on the review of literature on SADC. The findings indicate that there are a number of factors that militate against successful marketing of SADC as a unique tourist destination. There are multiple stakeholders with competing interests; countries in the SADC region are at different stages of the destination lifecycle; there is stiff competition among SADC countries for the international tourists; lack of resources; South Africa’s domination of tourism industry in the region; lack of uniform standards as well as lack of uniformity in grading and classification of tourism facilities in the region. RETOSA with the responsibility of marketing and developing regional tourism was found to be highly ineffective. There are also exogenous factors that make the region uncompetitive.

Key words: Southern Africa; Destination competitiveness; Destination marketing; Tourism development; National tourism organizations; Regional tourism organizations

Address correspondence to Haretsebe Manwa, Ph.D., Department of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00701, Gaborone, Botswana. Tel: (+267) 355220; Fax: (+267) 3185102; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 87–97
1083-5423/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354211X12988225900207
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Destination Branding in Zimbabwe: From Crisis to Recovery

Joram Ndlovu* and Ernie T. Heath†

*Hospitality and Tourism School, Polytechnic of Namibia, Windhoek, Nambia
†Department of Tourism, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

After the liberation war of independence in April 1980, Zimbabwe wanted to disassociate itself from its negative past that is the colonial system, the war, the sanctions, and other social ills, which had contributed to negative publicity during that time. A new identity was chosen, named “Discover Zimbabwe.” The major challenge at that time was to gain acceptance of the brand and make it work. While the brand was associated with the successful transformation of the political system, the “Discover Zimbabwe” phenomenon did not gain favorable acceptance from industry practitioners, as they felt that there was no collaboration in the branding process. After a lengthy consultative process with sectarian bodies, a new brand was born, namely “Zimbabwe, Africa’s Paradise.” The aim was to develop a rounded theme that would address all the issues about brand association, perception, image, and positioning. This study sought to establish the key trends and developments in the destination and their impact on destination branding. The study used a quantitative research design to trace the current situation in Zimbabwe and its subsequent impacts on destination branding and positioning. The findings indicate that the political conflict has had a negative impact on the destination’s brand, “Africa’s Paradise.” Furthermore, it identifies a number of factors to be considered in destination rebranding and outlines the key challenges to position a tourism destination under uncertain conditions.

Key words: Destination branding; Positioning; Repositioning; Crisis; Tourism destination; Image

Address correspondence to Dr. Joram Ndlovu, Hospitality and Tourism School, Polytechnic of Namibia, P. Bag 13388, Windhoek, Namibia. Tel: +264 61 207 2556; Fax: +264 61 207 2356; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it