Event Management 14(2) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 14, pp.91–106
1525-9951/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599510X12766070300849
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Residents’ Perception of The Social-Cultural Impacts of the 2008 Formula 1 Singtel Singapore Grand Prix

Elaine Cheng* and Nigel Jarvis†

*Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore
†University of Brighton, UK

The Formula 1 Grand Prix was held in Singapore for the first time in September 2008. While Singapore had previous experience hosting international events, nothing in the past could be compared to this inaugural event because it brought with it a unique set of impacts, as evidenced by past research into car races held elsewhere. For this reason, this study explores how this major motor sport event impacted its host residents through their perceptions of social-cultural aspects. This is important because it can affect the well-being and quality of the life of local residents, two necessary antecedents for their continued support of the car race in the future. A survey of 96 residents was conducted to elicit responses to host residents’ perceptions of social-cultural impacts of the F1. Chi-square analysis was used to explore relationships between different types of respondents and their perceived social-cultural impacts. Residents were largely homogenous with regard to attitudes toward the positive and negative impacts, although there were more discrepancies associated with the negative issues. Results were compared to previous studies of car race events and social exchange and social representation theories were used to help contextualize the data. While residents largely supported the F1 event suggestions were provided so as to better manage the social-cultural impacts.

Key words: Social impacts; Motor sport events; Resident perceptions; Social exchange theory; Social representation theory

Address correspondence to Nigel Jarvis, School of Service Management, Greynore Building, University of Brighton, 49 Darley Road, Eastbourne, UK BN20 7UR. Tel: +44 1273 643628; Fax: +44 1273 643649; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 14, pp.107–125
1525-9951/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599510X12766070300885
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Critical Analysis of the Motivational Factors That Influence Event Attendance in Family Groups

Katie Foster and Peter Robinson

University of Wolverhampton, Walsall Campus, Walsall, UK

The aim of this study was to identify the motivational factors that influence families to attend events as there is limited information available regarding family events motivation. This study bridges the gap between event organizers and the “family” to find out which events families choose to attend and why. Results identified that children are a major determining factor within the event decision-making process for a family. Results also show that previous research regarding “top motivational factors” for individuals is not the same for families as they are willing to compromise and attend an event that their children will find satisfying, which, in turn, results in satisfied parents and a successful day out. Families are not interested in the novelty or uniqueness of an event; they just want to spend time together.

Key words: Family motivation; Event motivation; Children; Motivation; Events; Sociology; Leisure; Motivation typology; Family

Address correspondence to Peter Robinson, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall Campus, Gorway Road, Walsall WS1 3BD, UK. Tel: 01902 323149 or 07944 284042; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 14, pp.127–136
1525-9951/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599510X12766070300920
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Are You Proud?: The Influence of Sport and Community Identity and Job Satisfaction on Pride of Mega-Event Volunteers

May Kim,* Min Kil Kim,† and Michael A. Odio†

*Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
†University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Volunteers are a core component in the operation of mega-sporting events. Pride from being a part of a particular event is an important motive for volunteers to get involved initially, and to return to mega-sporting events. However, previous research has not studied the pride of volunteers after the event. In the current study, volunteer pride was measured after an international mega-event ended and volunteer duties had been completed. The results showed that sport and community identities strongly influenced volunteer pride. However, after volunteer job satisfaction was included, the influence of sport and community identities diminished. The findings suggested that event managers should focus on effective volunteer management as well as volunteer recruitment.

Key words: Volunteers; Pride; Identity

Address correspondence to May Kim, Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-701, Korea. Tel: 82-2-3290-2310; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 14, pp.137–148
1525-9951/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599510X12766070300966
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Determinants of Visitor Expenditure at the Aardklop National Arts Festival

Martinette Kruger, Melville Saayman and S. M. Ellis

Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

The Aardklop National Arts Festival is one of the most popular arts festivals in South Africa and, given the economic value of the festival, an understanding of expenditure patterns and the determinants influencing spending behavior is vital to the festival marketers/organizers—especially from a sustainability point of view. Therefore, the aim of this article is to investigate the sociodemographic and behavioral determinants that influence visitor expenditure at Aardklop, based on visitor surveys conducted at the festival in 2008. Regression analysis was applied to establish the most significant determinants and results indicate that higher income, occupation, age, people paid for, tickets purchased, and attendance of other festivals are significant determinants influencing the amount of money spent by visitors at the festival. These findings will not only generate strategic insights on marketing for the festival, but knowledge of these determinants can also lead to a greater economic impact, as well as a competitive advantage.

Key words: Aardklop Arts Festival; Determinants of spending; Marketing

Address correspondence to Martinette Kruger, Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies, School for Business Management, North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus), Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, South Africa 2520. Tel: 082 724 4354; Fax: 018 2994140; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 14, pp.149–156
1525-9951/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599510X12766070301000
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Summer Camps as a Means to Recruit Prospective College Students

Linchi Kwok,* Deborah C. Fowler,† and Jingxue (Jessica) Yuan†

*Department of Hospitality Management, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA
†Nutrition, Hospitality, and Retailing, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA

Recent literature has revealed summer camps, as educational and scientific events, can be used as an effective tool to recruit prospective college students in engineering, nursing, and some science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to test six research questions regarding the relationships between summer camp participants’ satisfaction level and their intention to attend the camp again, intention to recommend the camp to others, intention to attend other camps hosted by the same academic program, intention to attend other camps hosted by the same university, intention to apply to the host academic program after high school, and intention to apply to the host university after high school. Fifty-eight campers from a Fashion Camp and a Native American Camp participated in this study. Quantitative data analysis with one-tail Pearson’s correlation helped answer the research questions and confirmed the relationships between variables exist. Practical implications, limitations, and agenda for future studies are discussed.

Key words: Summer camps; Recruit; Prospective college students

Address correspondence to Linchi Kwok (Lingzhi Guo), Syracuse University, 316 Lyman Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA. Tel: 315-443-2162; Fax: 315-443-2735; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 14, pp.157–165
1525-9951/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599510X12766070301046
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Economic Impact of College Sporting Events: A Case Study of Division I-A Football Games

Sangkwon Lee, John Harris, and Mark Lyberger

School of Foundations, Leadership, & Administration, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA

In sport management, economic impact studies are often used to estimate the economic benefits of sport events, sports facilities, and sports teams. Many studies have focused on the measurement of hallmark or mega-events but few have focused on the impact of smaller scale repetitive events. The objective of this study was to estimate total spending and economic impact on the local economy of visitors to college football games and then to assess the value of the sport to the community. Using the input–output model, the study calculated the economic impact of these events on sales, income, value-added, and employment of the community. Key misapplications in economic impact analysis and costs associated with sporting events are also discussed.

Key words: Economic impact analysis; College sporting event; Economic contribution

Address correspondence to Sangkwon Lee, Assistant Professor, School of Foundations, Leadership, & Administration, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242-001, USA. Tel: 330-672-7018; Fax: 330-672-4106; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 14, pp.167–182
1525-9951/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599510X12766070301082
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Analysis of Service Provision and Visitor Impacts Using Participant Observation and Photographic Documentation: The National Cherry Blossom Festival

Minkyung Park, Margaret J. Daniels, Russell Brayley, and Laurlyn K. Harmon

School of Recreation, Health, and Tourism, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA

Using participant observation and photographic documentation, a study of the National Cherry Blossom Festival was conducted to evaluate service provision and impacts on National Mall and Memorial Parks (National Mall) resources. Specifically, the researchers examined the adequacies of National Park Service facilities and services to meet festival visitors’ needs as well as assessed human impacts on the natural and cultural resources in the National Mall. The study results suggested that the nature of this cultural event led to intense, concentrated consumption and usage of facilities, services, and natural resources, making it difficult for management to keep up with visitor demand and risking long-term degradation of the natural resources. Detailed recommendations set forth a plan of action to protect the natural resources while not overly constraining visitor behaviors. Managers of large and small cultural festivals around the globe subject to these same carrying capacity issues can benefit from the recommendations put forth in this study. Additionally, the participant observation and photographic documentation methods applied in this study can be utilized in evaluating visitor behaviors and impacts in festival and event contexts.

Key words: Cultural events; Resource protection; Visitor impacts; Participant observation; Photographic documentation

Address correspondence to Margaret J. Daniels, Tourism & Events Management, School of Recreation, Health, and Tourism, George Mason University, 10900 University Blvd., MS4ES Bull Run Hall, Room 202, Manassas, VA 20110-2203, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it