Technology & Innovation 12(2) Abstracts

Return to Technology & Innovation main page>

Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 79–88, 2010
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12858510212160
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Commentary
Bionics in Action: The Nature of Invention

Franco Lodato

College of The Arts, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Life has been performing design experiments for 3.8 billion years and the best ideas on the planet today are those that perform well while economizing on energy and materials. Whatever a company’s design challenge, the odds are high that one or more of the world’s 30 million living creatures have not only faced the same challenge, but have evolved effective strategies to solve it, thriving. This article explores how bionics and biodesign have been critical to Franco Lodato’s trend-setting products. Strategies can range from the mimicry of nature to conceptual abstractions. In one of his projects, a woodpecker provoked a fresh look at the design of an ice axe. In another, the exterior shells of lobsters and other crustaceans suggested a layered polymer design for the coverings of rugged cell phones.

Key words: Biodesign; Biomimicry; Innovation; Product development; Sustainability

Address correspondence to Franco Lodato, 1895 Harbor Pointe Circle, Weston, FL 33327, USA. Tel: 954-667-3563; Fax: 954-283-8989; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 89–97, 2010
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12858510212322
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Commentary
The SciFlies Innovation Model: Citizen to Scientists Micro Funding Network for Accelerated Discovery and Innovation Policy Feedback Coupling

David Fries,*† Larry Biddle,* Michelle Bauer,* Phyllis Race,* and Sylvia Raymond*

*Office of Innovation, SciFlies, St. Petersburg, FL, USA
†College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, USA

New sources of capital and information flow are of continual interest in the research and development sector. The SciFlies innovation acceleration model is a new cyber-based science research funding infrastructure effort seeking to build innovation capacity. The tangible elements of this model are: 1) to create a new source of public funding for scientific innovation through microinvestments by the general population, bringing a transformative event into the Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) space; and 2) to create a framework for public input and feedback into government science and innovation policy management. The SciFlies Network enables, for the first time in over 50 years, the first new source of funds into the R&D field beyond the traditional three funding sources: industrial R&D, government granting agencies, and foundation granting agencies. The new funding source will fill in the gap in seed project funding sources and enable greater discovery and proof-of-concept experimentation in the research community, as well as provide gap funding opportunities to help enhance innovation and technology translational activities. This cyber infrastructure can enhance discovery and innovation by bringing people and resources together across institutional, geographical, and cultural boundaries. The cyber social forum can enable connected people to directly fund and accelerate science and technology research projects selected online by citizen donors. A key aspect of the social network is the maintenance of profiles of scientists, and relationships between science researchers and donor-citizens to help foster greater public involvement in science research dynamics. An additional element of the network is a secondary feedback model overlay between the network and innovation policy makers. This overlay provides a pathway for investment activities to be mined for trends that can be fed directly back into technology forecasting and planning research  within industry and government. A long-term outcome of this effort will be to elevate the profile of STEM within the US. Scaling this project to global accelerated discovery networks will occur through innovation diffusion.

Key words: Innovation; Crowd sourcing; Informal science education; Research; Science network

Address correspondence to David Fries, 755 19th Avenue N., St. Petersburg, FL 33704, USA. Tel: 727-480-5135; Fax: 727-823-7856; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 99–113, 2010
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12858510212368
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Review
Laser Probes for Chemical Sensing and Remote 3D Mapping

Dennis K. Killinger

Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

While the laser is 50 years old and is being celebrated by several laser conferences this year, it was actually an invention looking for an application for close to 20 years after its first experimental demonstration in 1960. However, lasers are no longer just being used for scientific research, but are starting to have significant technical applications in the consumer market. One such application that is starting to be used more in industry and commercially is the use of laser beams as optical probes of the surrounding environment, both in a physical imaging or mapping sense, but also for the real-time detection of selected atmospheric gases and chemical species. This article is a sampling of some of the wide variety of uses for laser beams as optical probes of the environment by the author’s research group and others, and is designed to introduce the reader to some of the different ways that laser probes can be used for chemical sensing and remote 3D mapping.

Key words: Laser sensors; Laser probes; Optical detection; Lidar

Address correspondence to Dennis K. Killinger, Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue/PHY114, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Tel: 813-974-3995; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 115–128, 2010
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12886526353166
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Review
Innovation and Technology in Electric Field-Mediated Drug and Gene Delivery

Richard A. Gilbert* and Joseph D. Hickey†

*Center for Molecular Delivery, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
†Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA

The use of an electric field as an essential component of a drug or gene delivery-based cancer tumor treatment protocol represents an intricate blend of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics that triggered an innovation in tumor treatment ultimately supported by scores of patents. There are four interlocking components of electric field-mediated agent delivery. The pulse generator, the applicator, and the agent are the tangible elements while the fourth, the actual treatment delivery protocol, is responsible for the integration of the three physical elements into a successful treatment. Each of the four components of an electric field mediated delivery system has its own blend of science and mathematics that invokes the engineering required for a viable technology that is more than the sum of its parts. This review of electroporative technology interlaces the technology’s innovative and developmental milestones with key science and math concepts that were precursors to connected intellectual property and emphasizes the strong commitment to science and mathematics that is required to implement the engineering to generate a new technology.

Key words: Electroporation; Electrochemotherapy; Electrogene therapy; Electric field-mediated molecule delivery

Address correspondence to Richard Gilbert, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue/ENB0118, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Tel: (813) 974-7738; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 129–141, 2010
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12858510212287
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Review
Agricultural Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: A Need for Inventiveness

Dean F. Martin, Deanna R. Ward, and Barbara B. Martin

Institute for Environmental Studies, Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Some 70% of the pharmaceuticals produced in the US (16,000 tons in 2000) are added to food animal diets to control bacteria and enhance growth rates. These practices and the ramifications are reviewed against a backdrop of diet selection, especially corn-rich diets for cattle. A heavy reliance on tetracyclines, for example, has propagated antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Also, acidosis and related problems, arising from corn-rich diets, require antibiotics that would not be needed on a diet of forage. In addition, the reliance on two important pharmaceuticals, monensin and tetracyclines, has led to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A need for creative solutions and inventiveness is evident. Practices that would reduce overreliance on pharmaceuticals are considered. Perhaps the obvious solution, cessation by law that has proven effective in other nations, is not a likely option in the US.

Key words: Pharmaceuticals; Octolig; Encapsulation; Review; Environment; Animal agriculture; Innovation; Technology

Address correspondence to Dean F. Martin, Institute for Environmental Studies, Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler, Tampa, Fl 33620-5250, USA. Tel: (813) 974-2374; Fax: (813) 974-3203; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 143–152, 2010
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12858510212124
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Removal of Selected Pharmaceuticals Using Octolig®, a Supported Chelating Agent

Wen-Shan Chang, Dean F. Martin, and Meagan Small

*Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

The possibility of removing certain pharmaceuticals from wastewater was tested using Octolig®, a commercially available material with polyethyldiamine moieties covalently attached to high-surface area silica gel. Selected drugs and drug models were subjected to column chromatography for removal by means of ion encapsulation, the effectiveness of which would depend upon having appropriate anionic functional groups. Removal of methylene blue with quaternary ammonium groups was (statistically) unsuccessful. In contrast, complete success was attained for removal of each of three xanthenylbenzenes (rose bengal, eosin Y, erythrosine) that have both phenolic and carboxylic acid groups, as is the case with two of the top five prescribed drugs in the US. Moreover, quantitative removal was obtained for zinc phthalocyaninetetrasulfonate (ZPS) and lissamine green B, which have sulfonate groups. Finally, quantitative removal was obtained for amoxicillin, one of the top five most prescribed drugs in the US (in 2008).

Key words: Pharmaceuticals; Dyes; Octolig®; Encapsulation; Amoxicillin; Zinc phthalocyaninetetrasulfonate (ZPS); Lissamine green B

Address correspondence to Dean F. Martin, Institute for Environmental Studies, Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, Fl 33620-5250, USA. Tel: (813) 974-2374; Fax: (813) 974-3203; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 153–169, 2010
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12858510212241
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Computational and Cell Line Studies of the Iron–Taxol Complex: Improving Stability and Water Solubility

Thomas Manning,* William Hoover,* Greg Kean,* Jessica Thomas,* Brittani McLeod,* Magan Ogden,* William Wilbanks,* Giso Abadi,† and Dennis Phillips‡

*Department of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA, USA
†University of Sunderland, Sunderland, UK
‡Mass Spec Lab, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA

Iron(III) binds a number of molecules such as siderophores and aminocarboxylates via an octahedral, hexavalent geometry. In a computational study, the natural product, taxol is examined in a series of complexes, built in Spartan, and tested using the semiempirical PM3 method. These complexes involved either: 1) six bonds from iron to oxygen and/or nitrogen in the taxol structure, or 2) five iron–oxygen and/or nitrogen (Fe–O, Fe–N) bonds, with the sixth site being occupied by a water molecule. Using a concept called the aqueous stability factor (ASF) the prominent iron–taxol complexes showed the shortest Fe–O bond distances, indicative of a strong covalent bond, resulting in a more stable molecule and higher water solubility in comparison to taxol alone. The complexes with the most favorable aqueous stability factors (Jm/D) are presented. Results from the iron–taxol complex also showed that by simply shifting 1 or 2 Fe–O bonds, the polarity of the complex will change, qualifying it as a polarity adaptive molecule. Mass spectral data are presented that provide evidence for the existence of the iron–taxol complex. The complex, which was developed in the lab, was also tested by the National Cancer Institute’s 60 cell line panel with results showing an average log(GI50) of −6.57.

Key words: Taxol; Siderophore; Taxol stability; Semiempirical PM3; Cell line; Solubility

Address correspondence to Dr. Thomas Manning, Department of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, 1500 N Patterson Street, Valdosta, GA 31602, USA. Tel: 229-333-5798; Fax: 229-245-2458; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 171–185, 2010
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12858510212205
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Development of a Green Technology Approach to Marine Natural Products Synthesis: Mineral-Based Microbial Amplification System to Make Bryostatins

Thomas Manning,* Riland Jones,* Brett Little,* Carissa Lannon,* Greg Kean,† and James Nienow‡

*Department of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA, USA
†College of Medicine, Mercer University, Macon, GA, USA
‡Biology Department, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA, USA

Microbial amplification chambers (MACs) are chemical and material mixtures that allow marine microbes, particularly bacteria, to colonize and reproduce. Many marine natural products are produced by marine microbes that enjoy a symbiotic relationship with a larger marine organism (i.e., bryozoans, coral, and sponge). The composition of MACs is devised to provide both a chemically and physically friendly medium for the microbes to grow and produce the desired natural product. Using an artificial medium avoids the extensive harvesting of sessile organisms and eliminates massive by-catch of other marine organisms. The process involves a colonization step, which can last several weeks and takes place in the host organisms ecosystem (i.e., Gulf of Mexico), a grow out stage that takes place in a runway, and finally an extraction step. It is then moved to a secondary environment where microbes can flourish and the desired natural product harvested. In this article we focus on the production of the bryostatins from an ecosystem in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The process is closer to aquaculture than it is to organic synthesis methodologies. This approach adheres closely to the EPA’s 12 principles of green chemistry.

Key words: Bryostatin; Natural product; Mass spectrometry; Microbial amplification chamber

Address correspondence to Dr. Thomas Manning, Department of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, 1500 N Patterson Street, Valdosta, GA 31602, USA. Tel: 229-333-5798; Fax: 229-245-2458; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it