Tourism Culture & Communication 10(2) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 10, pp. 83–99
1098-304X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/109830410X12815527582747
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Paradise Without People: Exclusive Destination Promotion

Charlotte M. Echtner

Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Certain stereotypes exist about island destinations, especially the so-called “tropical island paradise.” There are also stereotypical depictions of the inhabitants of these places that either emphasize or exclude certain characteristics and roles. This article examines the portrayal of people in the tropical island destination of Mauritius. By conducting a detailed content analysis of a sample of tourist brochures, two significant exclusions in the representation of Mauritius are uncovered. Firstly, Mauritius is portrayed as being mostly devoid of people and secondly, there is an obscuration of the diverse ethnicity of the local population. Using postcolonial theory, the practical and ideological implications of such “exclusive” destination promotions are discussed, drawing particular attention to the origins and control of these representations. It is argued that these representational issues have relevance not only for Mauritius but also for other “island paradises.”

Key words: Marketing; Representation; Brochure; Island; Image

Address correspondence to Dr. Charlotte M. Echtner, Adjunct Professor of Tourism Management & Sustainable Development, Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 1N4. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 10, pp. 101–116
1098-304X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/109830410X12815527582783
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sense of Place, Community, and Nature Management in Ogasawara, Japan: Investigating the Obeikei Narrative

Paul A. Cunningham

College of Intercultural Communication, Rikkyo University, Tokyo, Japan

Multidisciplinary place studies are reviewed in order to provide a theoretical foundation on which to examine the Obeikei narrative, especially those who lived through the US Navy era (1945–1968) and who are now struggling to find their footing within the local community. The Obeikei sense of place and community are explored in terms of “getting by” within the Japanese hegemonic space, and “let nature be” within the discourse of nature management. The US Navy era was found to have a strong impact on the individual and collective identities of the Obeikei, given the unrestricted ecological encounters it allowed and the sociocultural values that emerged and formed the basis of everyday life and sense of community at this time. An examination of the Obeikei narrative provides insight into their attitudes towards nature, and why they have been reluctant to participate in the ecotourism project under way at this location—currently vying for World Heritage listing.

Key words: Place; Community; Nature management; Ecotourism; Ogasawara; Japan

Address correspondence to Paul A. Cunningham, Ph.D., College of Intercultural Communication, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501, Japan. Tel: (81) 3-3985-4894; Fax: (81) 3-3985-4867; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 10, pp. 117–135
1098-304X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/109830410X12815527582828
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Dinosaurs in Thai Culture And Tourism

Erik Cohen

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel

Dinosaurs are extinct, but enjoy a great popularity in contemporary popular culture, as fierce monsters or amiable “dinos.” Various dinosaur sites around the world are popular tourist attractions. While tourists’ engagement with living animals has attracted growing attention in tourism studies, “dinosaur tourism” has been little investigated. The article points out the peculiarities of tourist engagement with an extinct species, particularly with regard to the (objective) authenticity of various dinosaur attractions. In a case study of the emergence and development of dinosaur tourism in Thailand, the penetration of the dinosaur culture into the country, the discovery of dinosaur fossils, and the establishment of different types of dinosaur attractions, specifically excavation sites, museums, and theme parks, are discussed. The article focuses on the most popular type of attractions, the dinosaur museums, in which “authentic reproductions” of dinosaurs are exhibited. The museums have been at first established by the national authorities in the vicinity of major dinosaur finds in the Northeast of the country, in an effort to develop tourism to the region. The provinces harboring the principal dinosaur finds, and the Northeast (Isan) region as a whole, were branded Thailand’s “Land of Dinosaurs.” The museums became popular with domestic visitors, but failed to attract significant numbers of foreign ones, owing to their relative remoteness and isolation. A recent trend is noted to establish new, more centrally located dinosaur museums, away from the dinosaur excavations, but closer to major population concentrations.

Key words: Tourism; Dinosaurs; Thai culture; Thailand

Address correspondence to Erik Cohen, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 10, pp. 137–147
1098-304X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/109830410X12815527582864
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Burnishing Nationalism: Touring Burns and Authenticity in Scotland

Kalyan Bhandari

Crichton University Campus, Rutherford/McCowan Building, University of Glasgow, Dumfries, UK

This article argues that museums are an effective tool in the assertion of a sense of nationhood. In order to validate this argument this article examines the question of authenticity in three museums in the southwest of Scotland dedicated to Robert Burns and how they convey a sense of nationhood. Examples have been used to show how an authentic past is narrated to visitors, including the presentation of artifacts that are reproductions or unoriginal, the use of language in brochures that are an assertion of the past, and restoration efforts in the town of Dumfries. The data collected at the three museums compiled from the author’s field notes indicate that Scotland is presented as primordial, ancient, original, and distinctive—all of which are concepts associated with nationalism. Given Robert Burns’ reputation as an iconic national figure, the role of authenticity in the museums plays a semiotic role in presenting a symbolic version of national identity.

Key words: Nationalism; Authenticity; Museums; Scotland

Address correspondence to Kalyan Bhandari, Crichton University Campus, Rutherford/McCowan Building, University of Glasgow, Dumfries DG1 4ZL, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1387 702057; Fax: +44 (0)1387 702005; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 10, pp. 149–157
1098-304X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/109830410X12815527582909
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Commodification of Culture in Jeolla Province, Korea: The Frame of Cultural Tourism

Youngsun Shin

Department of Tourism Management, Honam University, Gwangju, South Korea

Cultural tourism constitutes an alterative strategy of sustainable local development for improving quality of life. The main objective of this type of tourism is to transform the regions, which are characterized by cultural resources, into ideal places for vacation, residence, or business. This article aims to identify the commodification of culture in Jeonnam, which is the result of the development of cultural tourism in Jeolla Province. Furthermore, this article reveals the cultural commodification from the perspectives of the tourists, the community, and the regional government and also discusses the efforts to restore the culture and the future cultural tourism in Jeolla Province.

Key words: Cultural tourism; Commodification; Tourist destination; Jeolla Province; Korea

Address correspondence to Youngsun Shin, Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism Management, Honam University, 330 Eodeungro, Gwangsan-Gu, Gwangju, 506 714 South Korea. Tel: +82-(0)62-940-5587; Fax: +82-(0)62-940-5116; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 10, pp. 159–174
1098-304X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/109830410X12815527582945
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Promoting Norway Abroad: A Content Analysis of Photographic Messages of Nature-Based Tourism Experiences

May Kristin Vespestad

Department of Business Administration and Social Sciences, Harstad University College, Harstad, Norway

Growing interest in tourism experiences is evident in the tourism industry. The concern with creating memorable experiences is an area of increasing importance for both the industry and researchers alike. The focus within the experience economy to date has been on culturally derived experiences, whereas the ones based on natural resources have been more scarcely debated. To maintain a position in the international tourism market, there is clearly a need to develop promotion strategies that will attract the attention of the increasing market of nature-based tourists. The intent of this study is to compare how Norwegian nature-based tourism experiences are visually communicated towards two international markets. The visual aspect of promotion is addressed by analyzing and comparing photographs used in brochures and on websites, directed at the Russian and the British market. As a result of the literature review a matrix is introduced as a framework for further research on photographic messages. The content analysis of the photographs shows minor differences in the way the Russian and British market is addressed, demonstrating that the analyzed material is nearly standardized. Tangible attributes are emphasized as well as natural features of landscape. The article adds to existing literature as it provides a framework, within which to study promotion and perceptions of photographic messages. Furthermore, the article contributes to increased knowledge on how nature-based tourism is advertised.

Key words: Nature-based experiences; Cross-cultural comparison; Brochure and Internet promotion; Content analysis; Norway

Address correspondence to May Kristin Vespestad, Research Scholar, Department of Business Administration and Social Sciences, Harstad University College, Harstad, Norway. Tel: + (47) 77 05 82 18 or + (47) 99 22 30 42; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it