Tourism in Marine Environments 7(1) Abstracts

Return to Tourism in Marine Environments main page>

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 1–14
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X1282677278757
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Influence of Scuba Divers’ Personality, Experience, and Demographic Profile on Their Underwater Behavior

Ghazali Musa, Wong Tong Seng, Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi, and Masoud Abessi

Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Scuba diving activity is known to cause detrimental impact on the marine environment and its sustainability. This study explores the influence of divers’ personality, experience, and demographic profile on their underwater behavior. Data were collected using convenience sampling among divers in Malaysia. A total of 302 questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The results show that divers are generally responsible underwater. Scuba diving experience parameters of duration of involvement, number of dives, self-rating experience, and diving frequency influence underwater behavior. Divers with high neuroticism are more likely to be irresponsible, while high agreeableness personality factor is related to more responsible behavior underwater. Based on the results the authors provide some managerial recommendations in order to promote responsible scuba diving activities.

Key words: Scuba divers; Personality; Experience; Underwater behavior

Address correspondence to Ghazali Musa, Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel: (603) 7967 3972; Fax: (603) 7967 3810; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 15–27
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X12826772784793
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Extent and Economic Value of Manta Ray Watching in Maldives

R. Charles Anderson,* M. Shiham Adam,† Anne-Marie Kitchen-Wheeler,‡ and Guy Stevens§

*Malé, Republic of Maldives
†Marine Research Centre, Male´, Republic of Maldives
‡School of Biology, University of Newcastle, UK
§Four Seasons Resort, Landaa Giraavaru, Republic of Maldives

Manta rays, Manta alfredi, are a major attraction for tourist divers and snorkelers in the Republic of Maldives (central Indian Ocean). The aims of this study were to assess the extent and economic value of manta ray watching in the Maldives, by surveys of tourist numbers at manta diving sites, and from interviews with experienced divers. Ninety-one manta dive sites were identified, where tourists made an estimated 143,000 dives and over 14,000 snorkels annually during 2006–2008. This was estimated to be worth about US$8.1 million per year in direct revenue. The growth of manta ray watching has provided support for both research and conservation in the Maldives. However, there are indications that at the most popular manta dive sites the large numbers of visiting divers and snorkelers may be having a negative impact on manta numbers. There is a need for improved tourist education, and perhaps for regulation of diver numbers at some sites.

Key words: Manta ray; Maldives; Wildlife tourism; Economic value

Address correspondence to R. Charles Anderson, P.O. Box 2074, Male´, Republic of Maldives. Tel: (+960) 3327024; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 29–38
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X12826772784838
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Professional Development Needs in Croatia’s Marine Tourism Industry: Harbormasters Identify the Management Skills That Require Improvement

Ljudevit Pranić and Neven Šerić

A Faculty of Economics at University of Split, Split, Croatia

While skills and knowledge of harbormasters are critical drivers of sustainable development and management of marine tourism, very little scholarly research has been done to assess the professional development needs of harbormasters. This study addresses this gap by empirically investigating the perceived importance of the professional needs of harbormasters in the Croatian marine tourism industry. Specifically, the goals of this research are to determine what marine tourism management skills need improvement, what skills can be improved through training, and which training courses might fulfill managerial expectations. A two-page self-completed questionnaire written in Croatian was adapted from previous research and administered to a population of Croatian harbormasters. Professional development needs among Croatian harbormasters are identified to provide guidance for future harbormaster development planning. Implications and limitations are presented in the subsequent sections of the study.

Key words: Marine tourism; Marine management; Harbormasters; Professional needs; Development needs

Address correspondence to Ljudevit Pranić, Ph.D., Faculty of Economics at University of Split, Matice hrvatske 31, 21000 Split, Croatia. Tel: ++385 021/430-749; Fax: ++ 385 021/430-701; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 39–41
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X12826772784874
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

How Effective Are Posted Signs to Regulate Tourism? An Example With New Zealand Fur Seals

Alejandro Acevedo-Gutierrez,* Lisa Acevedo,† Olga Belonovich,‡ and Laura Boren§

*Department of Biology, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA, USA
†Bellingham, WA, USA
‡Department of Wildlife & Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
§LJBoren Marine Mammal Consultants, Richmond, New Zealand

Increased tourism has augmented harassment to wildlife and posted signs are commonly used to manage such interactions. This study determined whether signs increased tourist compliance with regulations to remain >10 m from New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) at Kaikoura Peninsula. We observed 362 tourist groups interacting with seals. The percentage of groups in which all members respected the posted distance was similar whether tourists saw the signs or not [60.6% vs. 65.9%; G(1) = 0.98, p = 0.32]. Results indicate that posted signs were ineffective in increasing compliance to regulations and suggest that alternative approaches must be considered to increase regulation compliance and better manage interactions between tourists and wildlife.

Key words: Marine tourism; Compliance with regulations; Tourism management; Posted signs; Conservation

Address correspondence to Alejandro Acevedo-Gutie´rrez, Department of Biology, Western Washington University, 516 High St., MS9160, Bellingham, WA 98225-9160, USA. Tel: +1 360 650 3653; Fax: +1 360 650 3148; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 43–53
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X12826772784919
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

Recent Advances In Whale-Watching Research: 2009–2010

E. C. M. Parsons*† and Carol Scarpaci‡

*Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA
†University Marine Biological Station Millport (University of London), Isle of Cumbrae, Glasgow, UK
‡School of Engineering and Science (Ecology and Sustainability Group), Victoria University, Victoria, Australia

Whale-watching research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and fields of study, including monitoring the biological impacts of whale-watching activities on cetaceans and assessments of the effectiveness of whale-watching management and regulations, to the sociological and economic aspects of whale watching on communities hosting such activities. This article is the latest in a series of annual digests, which describes the variety and findings of whale-watching studies published over the past year, since June 2009.

Key words: Whale watching; Code-of-conduct; Regulations; Management; Whale watchers; Protected areas

Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons, Department of Evnironmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it