Tourism Review Interntational 13(3-4) Abstracts

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Volume 13, Number 4

Tourism Review International, Vol. 13, pp. 223–236
1544-2721/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427210X12741079930470
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

In the Line of Fire: The Challenges of Managing Tourism Operations in the Victorian Alps

Dale Sanders* and Jennifer Laing†

*School of Marketing, Tourism and Leisure, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia
†Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, Narre Warren, Victoria, Australia

Understanding the impact of bushfires on tourism operations in Australian national parks and regional communities is of growing importance, with evidence of their increased frequency and severity linked, in part, to climate change. This is particularly critical for Australian alpine regions, given their greater emphasis on the summer season in the wake of lighter winter snowfalls. This article focuses on management issues and challenges of maintaining tourist operations within the Victorian Alps post-bushfire, including operator reactions to the bushfires and their subsequent implementation (or not) of crisis management and disaster recovery strategies. It is based on a qualitative study involving semistructured interviews with 13 tour operators based in the Mt. Buller and Alpine National Parks. Findings of this study suggest that the majority of operators will experience some impact on their business after the fires, albeit to different degrees, and point to a paucity of forward recovery planning. Operators expressed their concerns about prolonged negative media attention about the fires, but did not have strategies in place to deal with this issue proactively. There appears to be scope for assisting operators on the ground with disaster recovery, including the provision of more positive and timely media communication.

Key words: Bushfires; Tourism operators; Crisis management; Recovery planning; Government; Media

Address correspondence to Dr. Jennifer Laing, Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, PO Box 1071, Narre Warren Victoria 3805, Australia. Tel: + 61 3 9904 7048; Fax: + 61 3 9904 7130; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 13, pp. 237–246
1544-2721/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427210X12741079930515
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourist Response to Climate Change: Regional and Metropolitan Diversity

Elspeth Frew* and Caroline Winter†

*School of Management, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
†School of Business, University of Ballarat, Victoria, Australia

Tourism contributes to climate change through energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, both largely generated by transport. One means to reduce the volume of greenhouse gases generated by tourists is to encourage a modal shift to transport with lower emissions such as trains and buses. This study considered the factors influencing metropolitan and regional residents in their selection of tourism transport mode. The study found that time, cost, and convenience were the main lifestyle and experience factors influencing their choice. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the need to adapt behavior in the light of climate change.

Key words: Australia; Transport; Domestic holidays; Train; Car

Address correspondence to Dr. Elspeth Frew, Senior Lecturer, School of Management, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086, Australia. Tel: 61 3 9479 2333; Fax: 61 3 9479 1010; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 13, pp. 247–261
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DOI: 10.3727/154427210X12741079930551
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Destination Management Organizations and Tourism Crisis Management Plans in Florida

Lori Pennington-Gray, Ignatius Cahyanto, Brijesh Thapa, Elaine Mclaughlin, Cindy Willming, and Sandy Blair

Center for Tourism Research and Development, Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Destination management organizations (DMOs) at the local level are at the forefront of crisis management planning for the tourism industry. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of the role of DMOs in the event of a crisis. While crisis preparedness of an organization is based on the respective crisis plans, minimal attention has been given to the analysis of DMO’s crisis management plans in the US. The nature of organizational crisis plans can be analyzed through the use of multiple variables. This study examines DMO crisis plans in Florida that are designed specifically for the tourism industry, and are analyzed based on geographical location, bed tax revenues, and the number of employees. The results indicate that revenues play a significant role in determining the level of tourism crisis management preparedness within DMOs.

Key words: Destination management organization (DMO); Tourism crisis plan; Visitors; Florida

Address correspondence to Lori Pennington-Gray, Center for Tourism Research and Development, Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management, University of Florida, PO Box 118209, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Tel: 352-392-4042; Fax: 352-392-7588; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 13, pp. 263–273
1544-2721/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427210X127410079930597
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Vacations as Sweepstake Prizes: Tourism in the Service of Selling

Adam Weaver

Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

Many sweepstakes feature vacations as prizes. Manufacturers of non-tourism products use such prizes to increase sales. This article draws upon the concept of theming and applies it to an exploratory study of sweepstakes and vacation prizes. Purposeful thematization is widespread, extending from shopping malls to large cruise ships to Las Vegas casinos. With respect to sweepstakes, theming invites consumers to make connections between the product that is for sale and the prize. Central to marketing is the presentation of goods in such a way as to create desire for commodities, and thus enlarge their markets. The pleasures of tourism are familiar to, and resonate with, a broad base of consumers. Through sweepstakes and vacation prizes, tourism—an activity linked to fantasy, escape, and “the extraordinary”—is used to foster the consumption of everyday, non-tourism products. An effort is made to link tourism’s symbolic meanings, often absent from the rationalized flow of daily life, to these products. Allusions to tourism have therefore expanded into the realm of routine shopping and consumption. The main contribution of this work is to articulate a conceptual link between tourism-related sweepstake prizes and the frequently-purchased consumer goods they are used to promote.

Key words: Sweepstakes; Vacation prize; Theming; Marketing

Address correspondence to Adam Weaver, Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. Tel: +64-4-463 5375; Fax: +64-4-463 5180; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Tourism Review International, Vol. 13, pp. 157–171
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DOI: 10.3727/154427210X12684119879521
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Veblen and the Theory of the Backpacker Leisure Class: Status Seeking and Emulation in the Australian Contemporary Tourist Economy

Wendy Hillman

Institute for Health and Social Science Research, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Health, CQUniversity, North Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia

In 1899 Thorstein Veblen wrote a seminal monograph on the subject of consumption and leisure. His work, The Theory of the Leisure Class, is one of the most enduring examples of status-seeking individuals’ conspicuous consumption and conspicuous leisure practices, particularly when applied to the tourist industry, and furthermore, is still relevant in today’s economic climate. This article develops an independent theory of backpackers and how they can be perceived as undertaking conspicuous consumption and conspicuous leisure practices. This is done using Veblen’s work as a foundation. Qualitative methods using in-depth interviews and participant observation techniques are employed to obtain data from 41 participants. The findings serve to highlight the fact that Veblen’s thesis is as relevant today as it was when it was written in 1899.

Key words: Veblen; The theory of the leisure class; Backpackers; Conspicuous consumption; Conspicuous leisure; Australia

Address correspondence to Wendy Hillman, Lecturer in Sociology, Institute for Health and Social Science Research, Building 32, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Health, CQUniversity, Bruce Highway, North Rockhampton, Queensland, 4702, Australia. Tel: +61 7 4930 9289; Fax: +61 7 4930 6460; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 13, pp. 173–181
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DOI: 10.3727/154427210X12684119879567
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Comparison of Student Spring Break and Their “Normal” Behaviors: Is the Hype Justified?

Stephen W. Litvin

Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business and Economics, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA

Student spring break behaviors have been a topic that has received a fair amount of scrutiny in the academic literature. This research takes another look at the topic, with the main focus of the current study a comparison of student spring break behaviors with benchmarked student behaviors exhibited during the balance of the school year. The psychographic concept of sensation seeking is applied to help better understand these behaviors. The research suggests that student spring break behavior is substantially unchanged from their “normal” behavior, and that those who engage in risky spring break behaviors are the students the sensation-seeking literature would indicate are most likely to do so, regardless of their vacation setting.

Key words: Spring break; Sensation seeking; Student travel behavior

Address correspondence to Professor Stephen W. Litvin, School of Business & Economics, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424, USA. Tel: 843-953-7317; Fax: 843-953-5697; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 13, pp. 183–200
1544-2721/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427210X12684119879594
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Predictors of Customer Preference for Online Versus Offline Air Travel Booking

Zu-Hsu Lee* and Kuangnen Cheng†

*School of Management, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA
†KNC Travel Agency, San Francisco, CA, USA

Airlines increasingly use their own websites to sell products directly to customers. Because Internet-based distribution is low cost, this means lower prices for the consumer. To compete with such sales channels, global distribution systems (GDS) firms have made ready-made online booking tools available for conventional walk-in travel agencies. This presents such agencies with a choice—to use online or more traditional offline methods in dealing with their customers. This study has two goals: to identify a small set of predictive factors that effectively forecast customer preferences, and to demonstrate the utility of such factors for predicting customer choices. We began by designing and executing a detailed questionnaire fielding some 300 respondents, then applied hypothesis testing to extract important factors from the data, and finally, used the logistic regression methods applied with these factors to efficiently predict customer choices. The findings indicate that the majority of customers believe that online booking is cheaper and faster than offline. However, booking choice is strongly influenced by whether cost or service is the paramount emphasis. If customers want lower prices, they will typically book online. If they want service—such as help making special travel arrangements—they will usually choose offline.

Key words: e-Commerce; Consumer marketing; Internet; Travel agency; Service operations

Address correspondence to Zu-Hsu Lee, School of Management, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601, USA. Tel: (845) 575-3000, ext 2081; Fax: (845) 575-3640; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 13, pp. 201–211
1544-2721/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427210X12684119879648
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

College Students’ Destination Selection Behaviors: Gender-Focused Marketing Approach

Kakyom Kim* and Ick-Keun Oh†

*Hospitality College, Johnson & Wales University, Charlotte, NC, USA
†Department of Tourism Management, Keimyung University, Daegu, South Korea

Gender-focused research has received a great deal of attention among leisure and travel scholars. However, the concept of gender differences in consumers’ destination selection behaviors has been neglected in the tourism literature. A sample obtained from an online survey was investigated to assess gender differences in such behaviors. Findings suggested six factors related to destination selection items and gender significantly differed in the factors. This study concludes gender-blind marketing strategies concerning destination selection behaviors are not appropriate for the young travel market. The findings are discussed for designing and positioning successful destination marketing for the youth.

Key words: Gender differences; Destination selection; Young travel market

Address correspondence to Kakyom Kim, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Hospitality College, Johnson & Wales University, 801 West Trade Street, Charlotte, NC 28202, USA. Tel: (980) 598-1528; Fax: (980) 598-1520; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Volume 13, Number 3