Tourism Review International 14(1) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 14, pp. 3–15
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427211X12954639814812
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Group Package Tour and Sociability: Contesting Meanings

Bente Heimtun

Finnmark University College, Alta, Norway

This article explores midlife single women’s positive and negative perceptions of and experiences with the sociability offered on group package tours. Qualitative data were gathered from 32 women through two sets of focus group interviews and “solicited” diaries. The women focused on the joy of bonding with the other tourists in the group. This feeling gave them a sense of social inclusion in tourism spaces that were often constructed solely for families and people traveling with significant others. For some of the women, group membership was thus an agreeable substitute when lacking travel companionship. However, the somewhat enforced sociability with strangers imbued in group package tours also clashed with the midlife single women’s need for independence and freedom of choice. This ambivalence suggested that group tour membership also was challenging for the women. In order to attract and accommodate to the needs of midlife single women tour operators should thus be aware of the complexity of this subject position.

Key words: Midlife; Single; Gender; Bonding; Conflicts

Address correspondence to Bente Heimtun, Finnmark University College, Follumsvei 31, 9509 Alta. Norway. Tel: +47 78 45 05 00; Fax: + 47 78 43 44 38; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 14, pp. 17–28
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427211X12954639814858
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cruise Line Industry and Caribbean Tourism: Guests’ Motivations, Activities, and Destination Preference

Victor Teye* and Cody Morris Paris†

*School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
†Middlesex University Dubai, Dubai, UAE

This study examines passengers’ motivations for taking a cruise vacation, their travel-related activities while on vacation, and their preferences to return to each destination for a land-based vacation. The study is based on a survey of cruise passengers on a 10-day itinerary with six ports-of-call from Miami, Florida to the Caribbean. Five underlying dimensions of cruise passengers’ motivations were found: Convenience/Ship Based, Exploration, Escape and Relaxation, Social, and Climate. The findings of the study indicate that while the majority of respondents participated in shore excursions and a diverse range of activities in port, they had mixed rankings of destinations on the itinerary. Generally, passengers ranked the more developed destinations higher, spent more money in port, and traveled further from the port area. Furthermore, destinations that were ranked high were also those that respondents indicated preference to return for land-based holidays, suggesting that the satisfaction with a port destination and the activities participated in could influence passengers’ intent to return.

Key words: Cruise destination; Caribbean; Motivation; Activities; Land-based vacation; Tourist satisfaction

Address correspondence to Victor Teye, School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, 411 N. Central Avenue, Suite 500, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 14, pp. 29–42
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427211X12954639814894
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Economic Impacts of Domestic Tourism in the Rural Developing World: A Case Study of Zhangjiajie City, China

Fengyuan Xie,* R. Geoffrey Lacher,† and Sanjay K. Nepal‡

*School of Management, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China
†Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
‡Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

This article examines the economic impact of tourism in and around China’s Zhangjiajie City, a destination known for its protected areas and natural beauty. It is a rather unique case in that it is a natural attraction in the developing world that attracts predominately domestic tourists. Based on the analysis of published governmental statistical data, this study concludes that tourism has accelerated the economic development of the region, transformed the industrial base of the region, and that tourism is gradually emerging as the dominant economic sector. It concludes by discussing future threats to Zhangjiajie’s tourism-centric economy.

Key words: National park; Economic impact; Tourism development; Zhangjiajie; China

Address correspondence to Sanjay K. Nepal, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. Tel: 519 888 4567, ext. 31239; Fax: 519 746 0658; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it



Tourism Review International, Vol. 14, pp. 43–46
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427211X12954639814939
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Whether a Shock Has a Temporary or Permanent Effect on Visitor Arrivals n Singapore

Chew Ging Lee

Nottingham University Business School, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Testing for the nonstationarity hypothesis is important in tourism research. If a visitor arrivals series is nonstationary, the occurrence of a shock will have a permanent effect on the series. This research note tests the nonstationary hypothesis on the monthly data of visitor arrivals in Singapore from seven main source countries with Zivot and Andrews unit root test. This unit root test is used in this study because it allows for one endogenous break in the series. The obtained results suggest that each of these series is nonstationary, indicating that shocks to visitor arrivals in Singapore are permanent.

Key words: Nonstationarity; Visitor arrivals; Time series; Singapore; Shock

Address correspondence to Chew Ging Lee, Nottingham University Business School, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Tel: +6(03) 8924 8259; Fax: +6(03) 8924 8019; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 14, pp. 47–54
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427211X12954639814975
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Commentary

Good, Better, Or Best: Selecting The Right Strategy

Stephen W. Litvin

Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA

The hospitality and tourism industry, providing guests with an intangible product, is highly focused upon the need to provide a quality service product. But, in these difficult economic times, should we necessarily be striving for optimum quality? One needs to be “good,” but does it pay to be best? The purpose of the commentary that follows is to focus hospitality and tourism marketers and managers on issues of importance as they strive to best allocate their resources to remain competitive in a challenging marketplace.

Key words: Service management; Competitive environment; Pricing

Address correspondence to Stephen W. Litvin, Professor, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424, USA. Tel: 843-953-7317; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it