Event Management 15(1) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 15, pp.1–12
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599510X12901814777907
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A History of Quebec—Branded: The Staging of the New France Festival

Alexandra Arellano

School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Festivals are now well-established city positioning tools and destination branding instruments. Often developed within parameters of identity, lifestyle, and image management, branding through festivals can also be successfully achieved through the involvement of history and politics of memory. This article explores the New France Festival that stages the “Quebec’s New France” brand as the renewal of Frenchness. By looking at the staging of the festival in the space of the city, performances, and references to local identities, it is argued that primarily targeting local residents for regional tourism can efficiently be done through the use of history. In addition to raising the city’s cultural profile and visibility, encouraging international repositioning, and fostering economic development, festivals that celebrate history create a resonance with people, which stimulates a sense of belonging, and can contribute to a strong branding process.

Key words: Festivals; History; Identity; Branding; Authenticity; Local population

Address correspondence to Alexandra Arellano, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 125 University St. MNT, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp.13–23
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599511X12990855575024
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Taste of Tourism: Visitors’ Motivations to Attend a Food Festival

Wanching Chang* and Jingxue (Jessica) Yuan†

*Tourism Department, I-Shou University, Kaoshiung, Taiwan
†Department of Nutrition, Hospitality & Retailing, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA

Food festivals can offer a whole host of sensory experiences for visitors while engaging with a destination and its people. Understanding visitors’ motivations to attend a specific food festival is beneficial for both community developers and festival professionals when implementing an effective marketing strategy in order to promote the event. This study applied a festival motivation framework incorporating three interacting components as the foundation to study food festival motives. The factor analysis results revealed six delineated motivational dimensions of visitors attending a regional food festival in Texas. Findings indicated patrons attended the food festival for generic leisure and travel needs, event-specific experiences, and extrinsic motives. Marketing implications are discussed along with the findings.

Key words: Food festivals; Festival motivation framework; Visitors’ motivations

Address correspondence to Wanching Chang, Assistant Professor, Tourism Department, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp.25–36
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599511X12990855575060
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Measuring Event–Brand Congruence

Jan Drengner, Steffen Jahn, and Cornelia Zanger

Department of Marketing, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany

Event–brand congruence is crucial for the success of event marketing and sponsorship. However, a number of different approaches to measure the construct have been used. Additionally, there is no agreement on the main drivers of global congruence judgments. The present research addresses these issues. Results show that measuring global congruence with either single-item or multiple-item measures leads to different results and interpretations. Semantic differentials appear to be least suited in this respect. Regarding single-items measures, reasons pro and con their use are identified. Moreover, results show that image-based, functional-based, and user-based congruence should be considered jointly as important antecedents of global event–brand congruence.

Key words: Congruence; Event marketing; Event sponsorship

Address correspondence to Dr. Jan Drengner, Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, Chemnitz University of Technology, Thueringer Weg 7, 09107 Chemnitz, Germany. Tel: +49 371 531 341 58; Fax: +49 371 531 261 39; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp.37–48
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599511X12990855575105
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Analysis of Image and Loyalty in Convention and Exhibition Tourism n China

Tracy (Ying) Lu* and Liping A. Cai†

*School of Human Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
†Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

The purpose of this study is to examine image–loyalty relationship in the context of convention and exhibition tourism in China. Drawn on the concept of product levels, the image construct in convention and exhibition tourism is conceptualized as a total package of images at event, venue, and destination levels. Attendees’ perceptions of these images were investigated in relationship to their satisfaction and loyalty to events and host destinations. The data collected from 242 attendees at the conventions and exhibitions in China was analyzed through structural equation modeling. The study found that the image package influences attendees’ loyalty to events. Among the three levels, venue image is the most influential. Event image does not have an impact on attendees’ loyalty to host destinations, while venue and destination images have a significant positive impact. In addition, attendees’ satisfactions with events, venues, and destinations influence their overall satisfaction, but have no impact on their loyalty. The findings of the study contribute most to the knowledge of image–loyalty framework by broadening the image concept to include consumers’ perceptions and experiences of other related objects. This and other implications were discussed for event planners, organizers, and destination marketers that attempt at Chinese convention and exhibition market.

Key words: Image; Loyalty; Satisfaction; Convention and exhibition tourism; China

Address correspondence to Tracy (Ying) Lu, Assistant Professor, School of Human Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, 102 Erikson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp.49–61
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599511X12990855575141
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Service Quality Dimensions Perceived by Film Festival Visitors

Jowon Park,* Guiok Lee,† and Minkyung Park‡

*Division of Cultural Industry Policy Research, Korea Culture & Tourism Institute, Seoul, Korea
†Department of Communication Arts, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea
‡School of Recreation, Health, and Tourism, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA

Film festivals represent one of the most rapidly expanding areas of cultural events worldwide. While local communities and government agencies recognize film festivals as a means of promoting tourism, still dominantly regard them as a cultural activity. As a result, film festival organizers mainly focus on programming, while visitor services and visitor satisfaction at the film festivals have rarely been considered in film festival planning and management. Despite the importance of visitor satisfaction and service quality provided at the film festivals, little research has been done to understand how visitors perceive service quality in the film festival context. Thus, this study attempts to identify underlying dimensions of service quality and how service quality affects visitor satisfaction within the context of film festivals. We identified five factors as the most important dimensions of service quality within the film festivals: responsiveness, auxiliary amenities, quality of facilities, program content, and accessibility. The findings illustrated substantial differences in the relative importance of service quality dimensions in influencing the satisfaction when comparing local and nonlocal visitors. The results of the study provide useful insights into film festival organizers and destination marketers who are engaged in the process of planning and supporting film festival tourism for their communities.

Key words: Film festivals; Service quality; Visitor satisfaction; Film festival tourism

Address correspondence to Minkyung Park, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Recreation, Health, and Tourism, George Mason University, 10900 University Blvd. 4E5, Manassas, VA 20110, USA. Tel: 1-703-993-2062; Fax: 1-703-993-2025; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp.63–75
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599511X12990855575187
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sporting Events and the Use of Alcohol by University Students: Managing the Risks

Shane Pegg,* Ian Patterson,* and Megan Axelsen†

*School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, Australia
†Events & Student Experience Coordinator, The University of Southern Queensland, Australia

Recent media releases have highlighted the increasing problem that binge drinking and excessive alcohol consumption is creating among Australian youth. Yet despite these concerns, it would appear that little attention has been given to this core problem by many sport event organizers beyond the standard security measures. The Australian University Games, the largest event of its type held annually in the Southern Hemisphere, attracts more than 6,500 participants as well as 1,700 different teams and support staff for 1 week of scheduled sporting and social activities. Despite its size and complexity, only limited research had been undertaken to date with respect to the motivations, behavior, and perspectives of young adults attending this type of university-related sport tourism event. The primary aim of this exploratory study was to identify the underlying motivations for students to participate in the Australian University Games in Brisbane, Australia, and their subsequent use of alcohol during the event. Importantly the study also sought to determine whether a relationship existed between the participants’ motivations and their predisposition to engage in alcohol consumption. Study results found that socializing and being with friends were critical factors for the participants. It was also found that alcohol consumption figured prominently in the lives of the majority of attendees. These findings have provided strong support for the provision of a cohesive and purposeful social program as a major component part of the wider sporting based activities, and needs to be seen as a critical factor in the successful staging of future sports events such as the University Games. Results also highlighted the need for event organizers to schedule more social activities, which are paramount when seeking to effectively reduce the level of risk as well as need for better profiling of event participants, which needs be implemented by management in the event preplanning stage.

Key words: Youth; Alcohol; Sport tourism; Motivations

Address correspondence to Dr. Shane Pegg, Senior Lecturer, School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, Ipswich Campus, 11 Salisbury Road, Ipswich Qld 4305, Australia. Tel: +61 (07) 3381-1025; Fax: +61 (07) 3381-1012; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp.77–90
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/152599511X12990855575222
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Segmenting Event Attendees Based on Travel Distance, Frequency of Attendance, and Involvement Measures: A Cluster Segmentation Technique

Rodney B. Warnick,* David C. Bojanic,† Apurv Mathur,* and Deepak Ninan*

*Hospitality and Tourism Management Department, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
†Marketing Department, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA

The purpose of this study was to conduct a postevent evaluation for the Great New England Air Show to apply a cluster segmentation technique using travel distance, purchase decision involvement, and frequency of attendance among its current visitors as measures to improve marketing applications and to further examine the economic significance of the event. A cluster analysis procedure identified four groups of attendees: 1) Locals, 2) Highly involved enthusiasts, 3) First timers/nonloyals, and 4) Fringe attendees. Significant differences were identified across the four cluster segments on individual involvement, number of times attended, distance from the event, length of trip, likelihood to return, expenditures per person, average age, and income. A graphic mapping technique was provided to visually depict the dispersion of the markets. Market applications suggestions were made as these segments were identified and to provide this segmentation method as a strategy to more accurately measure the economic significance of the event.

Key words: Air shows; Involvement; Cluster segmentation; Economic significance; Visual mapping of markets; Travel distance; Special events

Address correspondence to Rodney B. Warnick, Ph.D., Hospitality and Tourism Management Department, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, 107 Flint Lab, 90 Campus Center Way, Amherst, MA 01003-9247, USA. Tel: 413-545-6629; Fax: 413-545-1235; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp.97–103
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/978182311X13007152913811
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Chapter 1

An Unexpected Challenge

Thomas B. Anderson

Incentive trips are rewards for hard work. They are a way for a company to motivate and reward employees for meeting sales. They are also a lot of work for event planners. The pressure is to create a “once in a lifetime” experience. Planners rely heavily on the staff to make the trip memorable. What do you do when a wildcat strike occurs the morning before the first of three large incentive trips?

Potential Questions for Discussion or Testing
1. Was there any way for the planner to have prepared for the strike?
2. What other options could have been presented to the client?
3. How would you create a staffing schedule for this situation?
4. How would you handle crossing a picket line?
5. What suggestions do you have for dealing with a strike while you are on-site?
6. How do you notify guests of a strike?
7. What would you do if you received a bomb threat?
8. Evaluate the planner’s solutions and suggest alternative strategies.
9. What effect did all the necessary changes have to the budget of the event?
10. Outline a policy for dealing with guests who were unhappy with the experience.

Thomas B. Anderson, CMP, is currently Manager of Conferences & Events for the Technology Services Industry Association, the largest technology services association in the world, with a constituency of over 60,000 members representing all the major players in technology as well as a strong SMB component. He plans and manages major events and trade shows, worldwide. Prior to joining TSIA, Tom was Division President and ran UNIGLOBE Main Events, a third-party convention and meeting planning company that was a wholly owned division of UNIGLOBE Travel International, the retail agency chain. His business background includes a variety of management positions with government agencies: Canada Tourism, Tourism Toronto; suppliers: Pala Mesa Golf Resort, Masterpiece Entertainment and The Group Planners destination management; and travel retailers: UNIGLOBE Travel International and Carlson Motivation (formerly P. Lawson Travel Canada). Tom has spearheaded the planning and execution of meetings and events worldwide for a wide variety of companies and clients, ranging from 50 to 6,500 attendees. Recognized as a leader in the meeting and convention industry for over 25 years, Tom is a Past President of Meeting Professionals International (MPI) San Diego Chapter, a member of ASAE, and has his Certified Meeting Professional (CMP) accreditation.

Full text available at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/mea

Chapter 2

Newly Merged International Company Plans Meeting

Philip W. Arbuckle

Designing an event to encourage a corporate culture through team-building activities can be challenging to say the least. Add to that an international component, a recent acquisition, and a new executive with accessibility challenges and language restraints and you have a recipe for potential disaster. This case study illustrates a solution to dealing with all these issues and preserving the essence of the meeting objectives.

Potential Questions for Discussion or Testing
1. What additional considerations could a speaker with accessibility challenges require?
2. What types of team-building exercises could you create that could have been used in this situation?
3. What other meeting formats could have been used in this situation?
4. How important are symbolic gestures in a meeting of this nature?
5. Explain how you believe the changes impacted the attendees.
6. Did the changes to the event affect the meeting objectives?
7. Diagram a new staging design to accommodate accessibility issues.
8. Make suggestions for dealing with potential language problems.
9. What impact would the changes have on the budget?
10. Design a floor plan that includes a stage with a ramp and translation services.

Philip W. Arbuckle, MBA, CMP, is President of MeetingTrack Inc. and has over 20 years of experience in business communication and learning environments in the area of conference management. Philip’s experience includes international meeting and business practices in conjunction with federal, state and city governments, embassies, and consulates through trade missions, forums, congresses, business and tourism development. He has worked in television and stage production and is a published author. He has written speeches for a variety of business and political leaders. He was previously the executive director for a Switzerland-based medical association providing educational conferences and exhibitions for their world-wide membership. Philip is a member of several meeting industry organizations including Meeting Planners International and Professional Conference Management Association, the ASAE, and serves in several leadership roles. He earned a BA and an MBA from MidAmerica Nazarene University and holds several industry certifications including a Masters in Travel. Currently Philip splits his time between France and the US.

Full text available at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/mea

Chapter 3

Fundraiser: Razed by Tornado

Sandy Biback

All the planning and preparation in the world cannot stop nature from happening and affecting your outcomes. Add to that a client who is determined to go ahead, against all the evidence and advice to the contrary. So how do you make the best of a bad situation? This case study offers some advice.

Potential Questions for Discussion or Testing
1. Identify challenges in this event.
2. Develop a risk management plan.
3. What challenges could have been avoided?
4. What advantages/disadvantages were there in continuing the event?
5. What advantages/disadvantages would there have been in moving the event to an alternative
date?
6. What were the legal implications of doing the event under the circumstances given?
7. What type of insurance could have been purchased to protect the financial interests?
8. How would you have dealt with the client’s insistence to continue with the event?
9. What are the financial implications for this event?
10. Develop an argument to convince your client to move the date of the event.

Sandy Biback
, CMP, CMM Principal, is the owner/operator of Imagination+ Meeting Planners Inc., which managed a wide range of events. She has designed and taught event planning curriculum at George Brown College in Canada, as well as the University of Las Vegas Nevada and Centennial College in Canada. Sandy has won numerous awards, including MPI Toronto Meeting Planner of the Year, CanSPEP’s Award for Mentorship, and an Award of Excellence for Teaching from George Brown College. Sandy has been a member of the meetings industry for over 30 years. She is an active member and has served as President of the Canadian Society of Professional Event Planners (CanSPEP), and currently services as the Director of Student Affairs for PCMA Canada East. She was a member of MPI and SITE (Society of Incentive Travel Executives). In addition, Sandy served as the Co-chair for the Resumes and Work Orders Panel for APEX and was a founding member of the Canadian Council Advisory Committee that published Meetings & Conventions: A Planning Guide.

Full text available at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/mea

Chapter 4

You’re Never Too Old to Learn

Linda M. Robson

Children’s events offer a unique set of challenges; add a volunteer-run event staffed by teenagers and you are volunteering as well. I can imagine you are probably thinking anyone who would do this has to be crazy. Possibly, but it was a tremendous learning experience and a satisfying feeling to develop something that is an important community service. Education Day at the Acton Fall Fair is an example of the importance of developing educational content, researching history, soliciting sponsorship, as well as emergency planning and staff training.

Potential Questions for Discussion or Testing
1. Identify challenges in this event.
2. Identify risks.
3. Develop a strategy for training volunteers.
4. Suggest other alternatives for increasing agricultural educational content.
5. Evaluate strategies and suggest alternatives.
6. Develop a sponsorship strategy for this event.
7. Conduct a SWOT analysis.
8. What challenges would have been present if the event was not held prior to the fair’s opening?
9. What are the advantages and/or disadvantages to having the midway closed during the event?
10. What are the advantages and/or disadvantages to having the concessions closed during the event?

Linda M. Robson, Ph.D., is an international and domestic planner and has over 20 years of volunteer experience. She has planned events in New Zealand, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic, the United States, and Canada. Linda has planned academic conferences, opening ceremonies, sports tournaments, and children’s events. Linda obtained her Ph.D. at the University of Waterloo and her research interests are the event industry, risk, and risk perception. She has a Master of Tourism Administration degree from George Washington University, an Event Management Certificate from George Washington University, and Special Event Coordinator designation from Ontario Tourism Education Corporation. Linda belongs to PCMA and MPI and is a member of the APEX Education Advisory Council. She was on the founding board of the George Washington University Tourism Alumni Network in 2006 and served as the President-Elect and President. Linda has been a speaker at MPI and ISES events, as well as several academic conferences. She has also written several articles for both industry and academia. She is currently an Assistant Professor at Endicott College in Massachusetts in the School of Hospitality Management.

Full text available at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/mea

Chapter 5

The Dos & Don’ts of Exhibiting on a Small Budget

Molly Suzanne Wolfsehr

Venturing into the world of Trade Shows can be an exciting experience. Trade Shows allow greater exposure and the opportunity for a large ROI. Budgets and research are key elements to being successful in developing an appropriate strategy. This case study illustrates some challenges and offers ideas for designing a Trade Show strategy.

Potential Questions for Discussion or Testing
1. Identity the top three challenges of this event.
2. Identify the most glaring aspect of inexperience. How does this affect the strategy?
3. Evaluate the strategy and suggest improvements.
4. Identify the importance of budget recommendations and allocation.
5. How does the budget dictate the planning process?
6. What are the advantages of diving into a complex strategy with little experience?
7. Evaluate the metrics of success and suggest improvements.
8. How important is experience and/or mentorship?
9. Identify subject matter experts that could have alleviated the situation above.
10. Recommend an alternative strategy for the booth build.
11. What would you do differently?

Molly Wolfsehr is an event professional with 8 years of event planning experience. She has gained perspective and experience by working in a variety of event fields from catering and facility rental to event and product marketing. She has contributed to nationally televised programs, live educational and promotional online events, corporate and social affairs ranging from 10 to more than 2,500 attendees. She is currently a member of the Northern California ISES Chapter and MPI. Molly is currently an event manager at AnimationMentor.com, a global for-profit online animation school that provides online education teaching students skills to succeed in the entertainment industry.

Full text available at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/mea

Chapter 6

Hot Times in Portland

Mark Yonskie

Site inspections are part of every event; there are checklists galore that list elements that must be checked. What happens when the organizing event planner cannot conduct a site inspection, either because of budget or other reasons? Read on to find out.

Potential Questions for Discussion or Testing
1. What would you do if someone else was conducting a site inspection?
2. Was this an issue that could have been identified?
3. Develop a checklist for a site inspection.
4. Evaluate strategies and suggest alternatives.
5. How important is a site inspection to the success of an event?
6. Suggest alternatives when cost prohibits a physical site inspection.
7. Brainstorm other issues that could have been a problem for this event.

Mark Yonskie is a corporate communications professional with more than 20 years of end-to-end trade show and meeting planning experience in the consumer electronics and photo industries. In addition to assisting in creating interactive corporate experiences, Mark engages various audiences via public relations and employee communications. A graduate of Bethany College and an avid volunteer, Mark thinks quickly on his feet to deliver excellent customer service to his clients.

Full text available at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/mea

Chapter 7

Where’s the Truck?

Mark Yonskie

Transporting exhibition materials can be involved. It requires that you schedule the transportation so that budget requirements are met, and that materials arrive in time for set-up. There are many factors that can affect transportation, specifically weather and traffic. This case study demonstrates how personal lives can be a factor as well.

Potential Questions for Discussion or Testing
1. What would you have done if your booth materials had not arrived?
2. What is the cost of shipping materials by air? By ground?
3. What else could have been done if there was no money to purchase new materials?
4. How could this have been avoided?
5. Draw a booth design using common, easy-to-find materials.
6. Brainstorm ideas to deal with this situation.
7. Brainstorm ideas for booth design.

Mark Yonskie is a corporate communications professional with more than 20 years of end-to-end trade show and meeting planning experience in the consumer electronics and photo industries. In addition to assisting in creating interactive corporate experiences, Mark engages various audiences via public relations and employee communications. A graduate of Bethany College and an avid volunteer, Mark thinks quickly on his feet to deliver excellent customer service to his clients.

Full text available at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/mea