Technology & Innovation 13(1) Abstracts

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Technology and Innovation, Vol. 13, pp. 5–25, 2011
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X13003853539948
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Nanoscale Self-Assembly for Delivery of Therapeutics and Imaging Agents

Mingnan Chen,* Jonathan R. McDaniel,* J. Andrew MacKay,† and Ashutosh Chilkoti*

*Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
†Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences,University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Self-assemblies are complex structures spontaneously organized from simpler subcomponents, primarily through noncovalent interactions. These structures are being exploited as delivery vehicles of therapeutic and imaging agents. They have two unique advantages in comparison to other vehicles: 1) they are able to assume complex structures that are difficult to attain by chemical synthesis, and 2) the dissociation of self-assembled structures can be triggered by external stimuli, which can serve as a mechanism of payload release. In this review, we discuss two naturally occurring (proteins and viral capsids) and five engineered self-assemblies (vesicles, micelles, proteins, hydrogels, and inclusion complexes) that are under development for delivery of drugs and imaging agents. For each class of self-assembled supramolecular structures, we examine its structural and physicochemical properties, and potential applications within the context of assembly, loading, and payload release.

Key words: Self-assembly; Vesicle; Micelle; Protein; Hydrogel; Inclusion complex

Address correspondence to Ashutosh Chilkoti, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0281, USA. Tel: 919-660-5373; Fax: 919-613-9116; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or J. Andrew MacKay, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA. Tel: 323-442-4118; Fax: 323-442-1390; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 13, pp. 27–37, 2011
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X13003853540072
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Multifunctional Chitosan Nanocarriers for Gene Therapy

Shyam S. Mohapatra,*†‡§¶ Subhra Mohapatra,*†§¶ Sandhya Boyapalle,*†¶ and Gary Hellermann*†‡¶

*USF Nanomedicine Research Center, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA
†Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA
‡Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA
§Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA
¶James A. Haley Veterans Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA

A vast array of technological advances in both nanotechnology and nanoscience has been achieved in the last decade, including advances in drug targeting and delivery applications. A diverse array of polymeric biomaterials, including chitosan, has been used to develop multifunctional nanoparticles, which carry not only the drug payload, but also targeting and imaging moieties. Chitosan represents a cationic polymer that is biodegradable and biocompatible and can be readily used for gene therapy. However, the safety of these nanogene particles has not been reported. This article reviews the properties of chitosan that make it one of the best nanocarriers for gene therapy, as well as addresses safety issues and recent developments of using chitosan as a theranostic.

Key words: Chitosan; Theranostic; Safety; Gene therapy


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 13, pp. 39–50, 2011
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X13003853539876
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Effects of Magnetite and Maghemite Nanoparticles on Bone Cell and Staphylococcus aureus Functions

Nhiem Tran* and Thomas J. Webster†

*Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
†School of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

Magnetic nanoparticles have been studied as drug delivery materials in recent years. The present research goal was to treat bone diseases (such as osteoporosis, bone fracture, and bone infection) by using surface-modified magnetic nanoparticles. To tailor particles for orthopedic applications, magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized and coated with calcium phosphate (CaP). The resulting nanoparticles were treated hydrothermally to promote crystalline properties in the CaP coating. Nanoparticles were characterized via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Xray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). TEM was also used to study osteoblast (OB) and bacteria nanoparticle uptake. OB proliferation experiments were conducted after 1, 3, and 5 days in the presence of the various iron oxide nanoparticles alone and CaP-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. OB proliferation experiments were also conducted after 1, 3, and 5 days in the presence of various concentrations of CaP-coated nanoparticles to examine a possible concentration dependence on OB density. Lastly, Staphylococcus aureus was incubated with different doses of Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 to determine the effect of these nanoparticles on bacteria activity. Results of this in vitro study demonstrated greater OB functions and inhibited bacteria functions in the presence of select magnetic nanoparticles. In summary, the results of this study showed that magnetic nanoparticles should be further studied for various orthopedic applications as they decrease bacteria function and promote OB function.

Key words: Magnetic nanoparticles; Nanotechnology; Bone; Osteoporosis; Calcium phosphate

Address correspondence to Thomas J. Webster, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02917, USA. Tel: 401-863-2318; Fax: 401-863-9107; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 13, pp. 51–62, 2011
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X13003853540036
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Three-Dimensional (3D) Scaffolds in Nano–Bio Interphase Research

Yvonne Davis,* Shyam S. Mohapatra,†‡ and Subhra Mohapatra*†‡

*Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
†Division of Translational Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Nanomedicine Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
‡Jame A. Haley Veterans Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA

The traditional two-dimensional monolayer cell cultures have profoundly expanded our knowledge of cellular responses to extracellular triggers and drugs and the mapping of intracellular signaling pathways. However, the cellular tissue architecture in vivo is distinctly different from those cultured in vitro in isolation and hence the development of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture methods represent a significant paradigm shift in terms of cellular responses to external stimuli and cell–cell interactions in vivo in diverse human diseases, including cancers. Furthermore, the concerted development of nanoscale materials and components are presently redefining the parameters of 3D cell cultures in cancer biology. This review focuses on recent advances in micro- and nanoscale technologies and biomaterials that further the development of 3D matrices, including scaffolds composed of fibers, sponges, and hydrogels. The advantages and disadvantages of these matrices and their applications in drug discovery and screening, drug delivery, and tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are discussed.

Key words: Scaffold; Matrix; Nanofibers; Hydrogel; Microfluidic; Cancer

Address correspondence to Subhra Mohapatra, Ph.D., Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B Downs Blvd., MDC 007, Rm#2523, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 13, pp. 63–74, 2011
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X13003853539993
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

The Future of Stem Cell Applications: Charting the Sea of Opportunity

John R. Sladek, Jr. and Kimberly B. Bjugstad

Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA

Current research that is focused on pushing the frontiers of potential stem cell therapeutics strongly suggests that millions of people worldwide who suffer from debilitating diseases can be helped with some form of intervention involving the use of human stem cells. The work ranges from “simple” replacement or restructuring of damaged organs, tissue, and cells, to developing methods for “reawakening” quiescent or repressed developmental cues for genesis of new cells to enable endogenous repair. The former takes advantage of knowledge of cellular defects that lead to disease and attempts to repair these deficiencies through replacement with similar or, in some cases, identical components. The latter attempts to stimulate inborn mechanisms that promote the generations of new cells and tissues with the ultimate goal of regenerating damaged body components. Considerable opportunities and challenges face those involved in stem cell research, some scientific and others societal/political. The future indeed is promising and although there are no assurances that cures will be found there is a strong scientific consensus among those involved that time, innovation, and some serendipity together will lead to cures. Those afflicted deserve no less.

Key words: Stem cells; Neurological disease; Human therapy

Address correspondence to John R. Sladek, Ph.D., Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Neuroscience Mail Stop 8315, P.O Box 6511, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Tel: (303) 724-0629; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 13, pp. 75–82, 2011
1929-8241/10 $90.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X13003853539902
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Solo Versus Concert Performance: Nanotechnology Research and Academic Performance Evaluation

Yashwant Pathak* and Charles Preuss†

*College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
†College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Nanotechnology research is growing. Looking at research papers published in the last two decades, it appears that many disciplines are contributing towards the development of nanotechnology research from chemistry, biology, engineering, polymer technology, and pharmacy to medicine. Nanotechnology research can involve many authors on a research paper. A problem is that the primary author receives all the credit with regard to promotion and tenure committees where the other authors may receive very little credit or recognition. However, each author has contributed significantly to the success of the research and without each author’s contribution the research would be unsuccessful. A solution is to give credit to each author in a systematic manner that is based on the author’s contribution to the project and their academic discipline.

Key words: Nanotechnology; Faculty evaluations; Promotion; Tenure

Address correspondence to Yashwant Pathak, M.Pharm., EMBA, M.S. (Conflict Management), Ph.D., Associate Dean for Faculty Affairs, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B Downs Blvd, MDC 030, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Tel: 813-974-1026; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it