Tourism Analysis 16(3) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 219–241
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944386924
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Do Actors Really Agree on Strategic Issues? Applying Consensus Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions in Tourist Destination Communities

Pietro Beritelli

Institute for Systemic Management and Public Governance (IMP-HSG), Research Center for Tourism and Transport, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland

Consensus on strategic issues in tourist destination communities is an integral part of the extensive body of literature on destination planning and destination policy making. But while there are numerous contributions addressing methods and concepts for achieving explicit consensus, research on implicit consensus among decision-makers that increases the likelihood of collective action is lacking. This article focuses on individual perceptions of prominent actors in four European Alpine destinations and the question of whether they implicitly agree upon selected strategic dimensions. With the help of network data and the application of formal consensus analysis, the empirical research identifies whether there is one common truth and if so, which actors know the truth best and which are the ones who are bad informants or even create dissent. Despite the earlier and ongoing planning processes in the research sites, which involves most of these actors, and despite the explicitly agreed-upon destination strategies and plans, the results show only partial consensus. Against expectations, the best informants are not the most influential actors but rather those prominent individuals who reside in relatively marginal positions, at hierarchical middle levels and with limited responsibility. The results indicate that the less concerned some individuals are with a strategic dimension, the more likely they give the culturally correct answer, because they do not have to advocate or defend a differentiated position. Additionally, external individuals may catalyze the formation of consensus over time, but only after they have first destabilized stalemate perceptions and positions among the local actors. The article concludes with implications for destination planning that complement the current approaches.

Key words: Consensus analysis; Social networks; Destination planning; Strategic issues; Cultural consensus theory

Address correspondence to Prof. Dr. Pietro Beritelli, Assistant Professor, Institute for Systemic Management and Public Governance (IMP-HSG), Research Center for Tourism and Transport, University of St. Gallen, Dufourstrasse 40a, CH-9000 St. Gallen, Switzerland. Tel: +41 (0)71 224-2525; Fax: +41 (0)71 224-2536; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 243–257
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944386960
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Method for Estimating the State-Wide Economic Significance of National Park Tourism: The Case of Queensland

Sally Driml,* Richard P. C. Brown,† Roy Ballantyne,* Shane Pegg,* and Noel Scott*

*School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
†School of Economics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

This study devises a methodology to measure the economic significance of national park tourism, which is applied to the State of Queensland, Australia. Development of a methodology to provide this information is important to demonstrate the attraction of national parks to tourism and to provide a basis for government decisions on allocating funds for national park management. A strategic national park sampling logic was developed to allow surveys to be conducted in a stratified, representative sample of the over 500 Queensland parks. Data on expenditure by tourists were analyzed (employing sensitivity and risk analysis) to find the “national park-generated” component of tourist expenditure directly attributable to the attractions of the national parks. A deliberately conservative approach was taken to address the economic information needs of State Treasury Departments, which are responsible for allocating funding to park management authorities. The contribution to the gross state product (GSP) was estimated at $345 million annually, representing 4.9% of tourism’s contribution to GSP, or five times the current annual government expenditure on national park visitor management in the State of Queensland. Recommendations for some improvements to the methodology were developed based on the study conducted.

Key words: Tourism spending; National parks; Economic significance; Value added; Queensland

Address correspondence to Sally Driml, School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 259–270
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944387004
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Service Quality, Brand Loyalty, and Profit Growth in UK Budget Hotels

Yuksel Ekinci,* Dia Zeglat,† and Georgina Whyatt‡

*Business School, Oxford Brookes University, Wheatley Campus, Wheatley, Oxford, UK
†Faculty of Management and Law, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
‡Marketing and Operations Management, Business School, Oxford Brookes University,
Wheatley Campus, Wheatley, Oxford, UK

Although past studies advocate a positive impact of service quality on business performance, empirical studies investigating the nature of the relationship between service quality and profit growth in the hotel industry are limited. This study contributes to an ongoing debate as to whether service quality has a direct or indirect influence on profitability in the hotel industry. The data were collected from a national budget hotel company in the UK and the research hypotheses were tested through structural equation modeling via the LISREL software. The findings of the study found that service quality had a positive influence on brand loyalty and premium price. The effect of service quality on profit growth was indirect and mediated by premium price, brand loyalty, and sales growth.

Key words: Service quality; Profit growth; Brand loyalty; Budget hotels

Address correspondence to Yuksel Ekinci, Ph.D., Professor of Marketing, Business School, Oxford Brookes University, Wheatley Campus, Wheatley, Oxford, OX33 1HX UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 271–282
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944387040
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

When and Where to Buy Airline Seats on Third-Party Websites

Peter Raven, Rex S. Toh, and Frederick Dekay

Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA, USA

This is a 3-month time series study of airlines fares on three third-party websites (Expedia, Orbitz, and Travelocity), showing the level and changes of fares and their implications for traveler decisions as to when and where to buy airline seats. We discovered that it is best for travelers seeking the lowest fares to purchase tickets early, because fares tend to be volatile on the upside over time, culminating in the highest fares on the days of departure, and to fly on weekends. It is also best to check fares on as many websites as possible to get the lowest fare, because the evidence seems to suggest that fare parity does not exist, and not all airlines are represented on all third-party websites.

Key words: Airline fares; Third-party websites; Decision to purchase

Address correspondence to Rex S. Toh, Department of Marketing, Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122, USA. Tel: (206) 242-6189; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 283–294
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944387086
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Grey Nomads on Tour: A Revolution in Travel and Tourism for Older Adults

Ian Patterson,* Shane Pegg,† and Jillian Litster‡

*School of Tourism, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland Australia
†School of Tourism, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland Australia
‡School of Arts and Creative Enterprise, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia

The “grey nomad” phenomenon is a growth market in Australia. Grey nomads are one type of grey tourist, and are generally referred to as people who are aged 55 years and over, who independently travel around Australia by caravan or campervan for an extended period of time. This study used an ethnographic methodology to collect qualitative data from four couples who undertook an extended, multidestination holiday through the Northern Territory and the State of Western Australia. Narratives were used to illustrate a variety of themes that emerged about the everyday experiences of grey nomads on tour. Travel diaries, and a questionnaire that was completed at the end of the trip, were used as a means of investigating the nomad’s engagement with friends and family while “on the road.” This article argues that being “far away” physically did not necessarily mean that they were disengaged and isolated for their family and friends. Rather, the study results suggest that these ties were important connections that were maintained throughout their travels.

Key words: Grey nomads; Travel; Ethnography; Social connections

Address correspondence to Dr. Ian Patterson, Associate Professor, School of Tourism, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 295–304
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944387121
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Total Productivity in the Australian Hotel Industry: Estimating and Bootstrapping Malmquist Indices

A. George Assaf* and Frank Wogbe Agbola†

*Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
†Newcastle Business School, Faculty of Business and Law, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia

This article measures and decomposes the productivity of Australian hotels over the period 2004–2007, using a bootstrapped Malmquist index. The aim of this procedure is to seek out those determinants that explain the sources of productivity variation between Australian hotels. Two inputs and six outputs are used in the analysis, reflecting the operational characteristics of each hotel. The results indicate that most hotels in the sample experienced a significant increase in productivity, driven mainly by an increase in technology over the period analyzed. Factors that are found to be strong determinants of productivity include the location, size, and star rating of each hotel. Related market discussions of these findings as well as the policy implications of the study are provided.

Key words: Australian hotels; Small and medium enterprises (SMEs); Productivity; Malmquist; Bootstrap

Address correspondence to A. George Assaf, Assistant Professor, Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. Tel: +1413 5451492; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 305–314
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944387167
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Evaluating Tourist Attractions: The Case of Luang Prabang, Laos

Adrian R. Pritchard* and Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee†

*Department of Marketing, Coventry University, Coventry, UK
†School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

This article proposes the amalgamation of the categorization of attractions model (COA), the tourism area life cycle model, and the resort development model as a useful approach to audit a tourism destination’s portfolio of attractions and to aid in the planning process. The main tourist area of the Luang Prabang Province, Laos, was used as a case study to test the usefulness of combining the three models for a better analysis. Four categories—natural, cultural, contemporary, and future—were examined. The study revealed the country to be in the development stage of tourism, although Luang Prabang Province shows some of the characteristics of an international destination. The audit identified planned developments that could lead to the portfolio becoming unaligned with the nation’s tourism strategy. The process also revealed the existence and the potential for subgroups of attractions, termed associated attractions, which, in this case, emerge from natural and cultural attractions, but that are unlikely to exist without them. The study provides valuable information by investigating significant issues in tourism development particularly in an emerging market country.

Key words: Categorization of attractions (COA); Product portfolio; Resort development spectrum (RDS); Tourism area life cycle (TALC); Destination marketing

Address correspondence to Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ph.D., School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia. Tel: +61 7 3346 6246; Fax: +61 7 3346 8716; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 315–328
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944387202
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Modeling the Influence of Weather Variability on Leisure Traffic

Charles Shih* and Sarah Nicholls†

*Travel & Tourism Program, International College, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan
†Departments of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies, and Geography, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

Weather conditions often have an important influence on participation in recreation and tourism (R&T) activities, and many activities require specific sets of weather conditions to make them enjoyable or possible. Despite the intuitive nature of the relationship between weather and R&T participation, this topic has received little attention in the academic literature. This is even more surprising given increasing recognition of the likely implications of climate change for R&T activities. In light of this lack of research, the purpose of this article is to describe the development of a daily model of leisure traffic activity for a location within the US state of Michigan. Specifically, the model allowed investigation of the impacts of three sets of factors—weather conditions, economic conditions, and the availability of leisure time—on daily leisure traffic counts across the four seasons. Experimentation with a series of five functional forms revealed that a double-log formulation best fit the data. As expected, temperature had a statistically significant, positive effect on tourism traffic in spring, summer, and fall. Precipitation did not influence leisure traffic in the spring and summer seasons; in fall, however, a significant negative effect was detected, and this effect was even stronger in winter. The availability of leisure time had a highly significant, positive impact on daily leisure traffic. These findings have important implications for the providers of recreation and tourism opportunities, enabling them to model projected changes in leisure traffic with short-term and longer term variations in key variables such as temperature and precipitation. For example, destinations might consider the kinds of additional activities and facilities that could improve their attractiveness and competitiveness under projected conditions of climate change, and begin to incorporate those activities and facilities into their future planning and marketing efforts.

Key words: Leisure traffic; Weather variability; Climate change

Address correspondence to Sarah Nicholls, Departments of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies, and Geography, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1222, USA. Tel: (517) 432-0319; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 329–342
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944387248
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Personality and Motivation Matter in Touring Holidays: A Preliminary Investigation Into Heterogeneity Among Touring Travelers

John Gountas,* Sara Dolnicar,† and Sandra Gountas‡

*Murdoch University, Perth, Australia
†University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia
‡Curtin University, Perth, Australia

Touring travelers represent a significant market in Australia and are expected to play an even larger role in the future. Yet, to date, they are viewed and treated like one large homogeneous market. The aim of the present study was to question this assumption and investigate whether distinct segments exist among touring travelers. Results, based on an empirical study of 430 Australian travelers, indicate that at least two distinct segments can be constructed which differ in travel motivations, sociodemographics, and personality characteristics. These findings can be used to segment and harvest the market of tourist travelers through the development of targeted products and marketing messages.

Key words: Touring; Motivation; Segmentation; Independent travel

Address correspondence to Dr. John Gountas, Ph.D., Associate Professor in Marketing, Murdoch Business School, Murdoch University, MBS Building, Office 2.018, 90 South Street, Murdoch, Perth, Western Australia, 6150. Tel: 08-9360 2014; Fax: 08-9310 5004; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 343–359
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944387284
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of Potential Policy Responses to a Negative Tourism Demand Shock in Singapore

Xianming Meng, Mahinda Siriwardana, and Brian Dollery

School of Business, Economics and Public Policy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia

The 2008 global financial crisis had strong negative economic effects, particularly on tourism. Determining appropriate policy responses to mitigate these negative effects is thus important. Accordingly, this study employs recent Singaporean tourism survey data, updated Singaporean input–output tables, and a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to gauge the short-run negative impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on the Singaporean tourist sector and to simulate the effects of selected three policy responses. Our simulation results suggest that the GST deduction policy is more effective than an industrial subsidy policy. However, if the latter is used by government, then a tourism-focused subsidy policy is recommended since it is much more effective than the economy-wide industrial subsidy in terms of both tourism and the aggregate economy.

Key words: CGE modeling; Financial crisis; Tourism policy; Singapore economy

Address correspondence to Prof. Mahinda Siriwardana, School of Business, Economics and Public Policy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351 Australia. Tel: 2 6773 2501; Fax: 2 6773 3596; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 361–365
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944387329
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Sociocultural Strategies for Stress Reduction Among Hospitality Workers in Developing Contexts: The Case of Zimbabwean Chefs

Muchazondida Mkono

Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe

In the media, the chef profession is portrayed as exciting and glamorous. However, research on the ground reveals that the job is characterized by high levels of stress and burnout, resulting from long and unsocial working hours, poor remuneration, close and direct supervision, and few career advancement opportunities, among other factors. Although the problem of job stress and burnout in hospitality jobs is well recognized in the literature, most of the empirical research has largely overlooked African countries. This study is an attempt to investigate sociocultural strategies for coping with stress and burnout in a developing country context, and to analyze these interpretively within the relevant sociocultural framework. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 23 hotel chefs in the resort town of Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. The research concludes that any effective strategy for dealing with stress in the workplace can only be successful to the extent that it takes into account relevant sociocultural dynamics.

Key words: Stress; Burnout; Coping strategies; Sociocultural factors; Chefs; Hospitality; Zimbabwe

Address correspondence to Muchazondida Mkono, Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 367–371
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DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944387365
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Impacts of Natural Disasters on Regional Economies: An Overview

Rachel J. C. Chen

Center for Sustainable Business and Tourism, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA

The main purpose of this study addresses the vulnerability of the subgrouped regions to natural disasters and investigates trends in natural disasters and their impacts for the years 2000–2009 in various regions globally. Over the past two decades, the majority of economic loss, human suffering, and loss of life due to natural disasters has been reported in the Asia–Pacific region, with more than 89% of the total affected population and economic loss (42%) located in that region. Outside the Asia–Pacific region, Europe was subjected to more extreme temperatures, floods, and storms, while Africa experienced more epidemics, floods, and droughts. Tourism is sensitive to safety considerations, a phenomenon that varies in its effects across countries. It seems that the poorer and poorest countries suffer the greatest damage expressed as a fraction of gross domestic product (GDP). The overall magnitude of the economic damage is relatively large with respect to the GDP of each country in the affected region cumulatively.

Key words: Impacts of natural disasters; Regional economies; Tourism

Address correspondence to Rachel J. C. Chen, Ph.D., CHE, Director, Center for Sustainable Business and Tourism, 311 Conference Center Building, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4134, USA. Tel: 1-865-974-0505; Fax: 1-865-974-1838; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 375–384
1083-5423/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354211X13110944741361
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

The Nature of Tourism Studies

Arianne C. Reis* and Eric Shelton†

*Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Australia
†University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Nature-based tourism activities are highly modulated by how Nature has been constructed in modern Western societies. The way we have come to perceive what is “other-than-human” impacts on how we engage with, and experience, a location, a place, or a tourism space that is based on/around the natural world. This review discusses how this construct has been formulated by different social scientists and philosophers, and how these constructions impact on nature-based tourism experiences in contemporary societies. In this review article, Reis and Shelton argue that in order to advance and refine our understandings of nature-based tourism practices, tourism scholars need to acknowledge, or, better, explore, how the different meanings attached to “nature,” or the different “natures” constructed by societies, intervene and sometimes dictate tourism practices and experiences. Likewise, practices and experiences in tourism management/development provide an ever-changing context of human–nature relationships that highlight the worldmaking agency of tourism. Here, Reis and Shelton conclude by inviting scholars in Tourism Studies/Tourism Sciences to incorporate notions of embodiment, interagentivity, and indigenous perspectives, among others, into their discussions and analysis of nature-based tourism. (Review Editor’s abstract)

Key words: Constructions of nature; Nature-based tourism; Interagentivity; Worldmaking; Embodiment; Dualisms

Address correspondence to Arianne C. Reis, School of Tourism & Hospitality Research, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour Campus, Hogbin Dr, Coffs Harbour, NSW 2450, Australia. Tel: +61 2 66593696; Fax: +61 2 66593144; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it