Event Management 15(4) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 15, pp. 315–327
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599511X13175676722483
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Eliciting the Dynamics of Leading a Sustainable Event: Key Informant Responses

John Ensor,* Martin Robertson,† and Jane Ali-Knight*

*Edinburgh Institute for Festival and Event Management, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, Scotland
†School of International Business & Centre for Services and Tourism Research, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

Within the event management literature relating to network development and festival sustainability  there is a paucity of research that analyzes the perception of festival sustainability by festival leaders. After an initial review of the context of sustainability, network theory, and an identification of the changing set of competencies for effective leadership, an exploratory and explanatory investigation is made to elicit and identify the critical factors that key informant festival leaders associate with sustainable festivals. The main purpose of this study is to attain a greater depth of understanding of festival leaders’ attitudes towards the dynamics of creating and directing sustainable festivals. In-depth interviews with five elite festival leaders helped to generate the elements of a repertory grid from which a “triading” method was used to elicit constructs. Of the constructs identified, the most significant relate to four areas: the event subject focus; the leadership; the funding; and the organizational culture. The research also revealed that festival leaders conceive sustainability not as an environmental concern, but as a matter of festival survival. Suggestions are then drawn as to the future role of the repertory grid method in identifying and managing stakeholder visions, and future lines of research investigation and application.

Key words: Festival directors; Leaders; Creativity; Sustainability; Elicitation; Repertory grid

Address correspondence to John Ensor, Edinburgh Institute for Festival and Event Management, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, Scotland. Tel: +44 (0) 131-455-4385; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp. 329–341
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599511X13175676722528
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Risk Management: Event Managers’ Attitudes, Beliefs, and Perceived Constraints

Sacha Reid* and Brent Ritchie†

*Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Nathan, Australia

†School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Australia

Events draw large crowds of people together within defined spaces and as such have the potential to have significant impacts. Occupational health and safety requirements, legal duty of care, and the capacity of organizations to deal with risks and crisis are important considerations for the sustainability of event organizations and events themselves. To date there has been a paucity of research analyzing the adoption and implementation of event risk management by event organizers, and in particular the influence that managerial attitudes and beliefs may have on the implementation of risk planning behavior. This article aims to identify event managers’ attitude and beliefs concerning risk management as well as explore social influencers and perceived constraints to implementing risk management planning. The research adopts a qualitative methodology to address the research aim and uses Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework for exploring event managers’ risk, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived constraints. Semistructured interviews with 11 event managers were undertaken, drawn from South East Queensland, Australia. Respondents had positive event risk planning attitudes, which were influenced by beliefs relating to safety, compliance, decision making, and professionalism. However, seven perceived constraints were also identified as important in influencing risk planning in an event context. The findings suggest event managers’ attitudes, beliefs, and perceived constraints vary considerably based on previous experience, size of event organization, and level of professionalism. The article discusses these findings and recommends future research to inform more sustainable event practices in the future.

Key words: Risk management; Planning; Events, Theory of planned behavior

Address correspondence to Dr. Sacha Reid, Lecturer, Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia. Tel: +61 (7) 3735-6559; Fax: +61 (7) 3735-6743; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp. 343–359
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599511X13175676722564
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Blended Festivalscape and its Sustainability at Nonurban Festivals

David Gration,*† Charles Arcodia ,* Maria Raciti,† and Robyn Stokes*

*School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Australia
†Faculty of Business, University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia

This article identifies the major elements of festivalscapes at nonurban festivals and their implications for sustainable site management by event organizers. While research on the need to maintain and reinvigorate the servicescapes of retail precincts (e.g., shopping malls) and hotels is well documented, the same cannot be said of event venues and sites. There is a notable absence of research that explores how nonurban festival sites can maintain their unique natural environment attributes while sustaining consumer interest through incremental changes in the overall festivalscape. Two Australian festivals, Woodford Folk Festival (Woodford, Queensland) and the National Country Music Muster (Gympie, Queensland), are used in this article to illustrate the need for management intervention to create blended festivalscapes that achieve environmental, social, and economic goals—a Triple Bottom Line (TBL) measure of success.

Key words: Servicescape; Blended festivalscape; Nonurban; Festival; Triple bottom line; Sustainability

Address correspondence to David Gration, Lecturer, Teaching and Research Fellow, Faculty of Business, University of Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, QLD 4558, Australia. Tel: +61 (7) 5459-4460; Fax: +61 (7) 5430-1231; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp. 361–372
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599511X13175676722609
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Green Business Events: Profiling Through a Case Study

Bill Merrilees* and Kathryn Marles†

*Department of Marketing, Griffith Business School, Griffith University
†Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel, and Sport Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University

There is an ever increasing emphasis being placed on business, in general, to address not only issues of sustainability, and more specifically the issues associated with reducing the negative environmental outcomes of business activity. While some events incorporate environmental sustainability as a core part of their brand, there is less documented evidence that the strategies of “reduce, reuse, and recycle” have been adopted in the more “mainstream” business events sector. This article analyzes green practices of business events through a case study approach. The evidence suggests a green exhibition business event profile: an overarching environmental policy foundation, reusing materials through subcontracting and a comprehensive, cost-driven set of green practices emphasizing energy conservation and waste minimization. The green practice mix of exhibition business events differs from other event types.

Key words: Green events; Business events; Green practices; Practice mix

Address correspondence to Professor Bill Merrilees, Department of Marketing, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222, Australia. Tel: +61 (0)7 5552-7176; Fax: 61 (0)7 5552-9039; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp. 373–386
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599511X13175676722645
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Potential Conservation Benefits of Wildlife Festivals

Glen T. Hvenegaard

Department of Science, Augustana Campus, University of Alberta, AB, Canada

Wildlife festivals promote a variety of social, educational, economic, recreational, and community development goals. As ecotourism activities, wildlife festivals should also promote conservation goals. This article examines five potential conservation benefits of wildlife festivals which can be generated by providing: 1) incentives to establish protected areas; 2) revenue for wildlife and habitat management; 3) economic impact to nearby areas, encouraging residents to conserve wildlife; 4) alternatives to other uses that cause more environmental damage; and 5) support for conservation by educating local and nonlocal participants. The discussion includes wildlife festival examples, along with research and management needs.

Key words: Wildlife festivals; Benefits; Objectives; Conservation; Economic impact

Address correspondence to Glen Hvenegaard, Professor of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus, 4901-46 Avenue, Camrose, Alberta T4V2R3 Canada. Tel: (++1) 780-679-1574; Fax: (++1) 780-679-1590; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 15, pp. 387–399
1525-9951/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599511X13175676722681
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Community Involvement in Festivals: Exploring Ways of Increasing Local Participation

Phil Rogers* and Constantia Anastasiadou†

*Brisbane, QLD, Australia
†School of Marketing, Tourism and Languages, Craiglockhart Campus, Edinburgh Napier University, UK

Despite the existence of measurement indicators for the social impacts of festivals, there has been limited research on how communities feel part of and contribute to the festival experience. This study examines how festivals involve local people and identifies ways of appraising and widening community participation. To this end, the organizers of four community-based festivals in Edinburgh were interviewed and a focus group discussion featuring members of the public with a community interest was held. By combining relevant literature with the primary research findings, a framework to assess community involvement in festivals is proposed consisting of five indicators: involvement of schools; volunteering opportunities; participation in decision making; accessibility; and business cooperation. After further development and testing, the proposed framework could help organizers, councils, and tourism bodies improve their understanding and identify better ways of involving local people in the festivals that impact on their communities.

Key words: Community; Participation; Involvement; Indicators; Festivals