Tourism Analysis 16(4) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 393–403
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13149079788819
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Exploring the Effects of Perceived Service Provider Sincerity on Consumers’ Emotional Stateand Satisfaction During Service Consumption

Sandra Gountas,* Felix Mavondo,† Michael Ewing,† and John Gountas‡

*School of Marketing, Curtin University, Bentley Campus, Western Australia
†Department of Marketing, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
‡School of Business, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia

A holistic approach to satisfaction and its effects seems to be particularly important in high-affect, high-involvement, and extended duration services such as those offered by many travel and tourism providers. This means understanding the complexities of service provision and its processes. Consumers value service interaction that appears sincere. For this reason, organizations expect service providers to manage their service “performance” to reflect a genuine display of positive emotions towards the customer, which has a direct impact on customer satisfaction and possibly overall life satisfaction. This study explores consumers’ perception of sincerity and tests its effects on positive emotions and satisfaction in an extended duration service. The findings indicate that perceived service sincerity positively influences consumers’ emotions during a service and has important direct and indirect effects on life satisfaction, service satisfaction, and intention to repurchase. Implications for managers and opportunities for further research are discussed.

Key words: Service providers; Sincerity; Consumers; Emotions; Satisfaction

Address correspondence to Dr. Sandra Gountas, School of Marketing, Curtin University, Bentley Campus, Western Australia. Tel: +61 8 9266 3882; Fax: 61 8 9266 3937; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it



Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 405–418
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13149079788873
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Competitor Detection: An Investigation of Consumers’ Perceived Similarity

Amata Ring* and Karin Teichmann†

*Chair of International Marketing, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
†Department of Strategic Management, Marketing, & Tourism,Innsbruck University School of Management, Innsbruck, Austria

This article focuses on the consumer’s perception of skiing destinations in terms of competitive position in consumers’ minds. More specifically, the article explores factors that shape individuals’ perceptions about which destinations compete with each other while centering on the categorization process itself. To detect competitors in customers’ minds, unconstrained sorting data is used. Results are further analyzed by means of three different methods: hierarchical clustering, (spherical) MDS, and nondisjunctive clustering. A comparison of the findings shows that all three approaches produce rather consistent results. National boundaries are the dominant factor for the categorization of skiing destinations. In addition, the emotional element of luxury is a relevant criterion to detect competing destinations. The study provides theoretical and managerial implications.

Key words: Skiing destinations; Competition; Unconstrained sorting data; Nondisjunctive clustering

Address correspondence to Amata Ring, Chair of International Marketing, University of Vienna, Brünnerstraße 72, 1210 Wien, Austria. Tel: +43 1 4277 38098; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 419–429
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13149079788891
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Pre- and Posttrip Factors Influencing the Visitor Experience at a Battlefield Commemorative Event: Gallipoli, a Case Study

John Hall,* V. John Basarin,* and Leonie Lockstone-Binney†

*Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia
†Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

Battlefield tourism is a major component of national and international tourism. This article sets out to provide a holistic understanding of the preevent factors influencing attendance at an event commemorating a famous World War I battle and to follow the cycle through to gain an understanding of what postevent factors influence event satisfaction and how this translates into recommending behavior. The Anzac Day commemorative event at Gallipoli, Turkey, provides the backdrop for this study. A two-step process was used to gather information from Australians partaking in the Gallipoli commemorations in 2007. A preevent questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of respondents while they were in transit from Istanbul to Gallipoli for the commemoration. In total, 482 preevent questionnaires were obtained. Step two of this process saw an exit questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of participants on the return journey to Istanbul, resulting in 331 completed postevent questionnaires. The pre- and postevent datasets were separately analyzed using factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) where appropriate. The findings highlight the role of various event attributes, most prominently the ceremonial and experiential aspects of the Anzac Day commemorations, in encouraging visitor satisfaction and further flow-on effects for recommending behavior.

Key words: Battlefield tourism; Commemorative event; Pre- and posttrip visitation; Gallipoli

Address correspondence to Associate Professor John Hall, Deakin Business School, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia. Tel: 0392445054; Fax: 0392445544; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 431–442
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13149079788936
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Wine Tourism Experience and Consumer Behavior:The Case of Sicily

Vincenzo Asero and Sebastiano Patti

Faculty of Political Science, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

Wine tourist behavior-based research is essential to the development of wine tourism and to help wine producers to manage wine tourist demand. Wine tourism has increased substantially in the last decade throughout the whole Italian peninsula. Sicily, which represents an area becoming ever more a center of attraction concerning wine tourism, so far lacks research regarding winery visits and wine tourists in general. This article focuses on the wine tourism experience and consumer behavior, aiming to explore attitudes and characteristics of wine tourists in Sicily. To better understand the wine tourism phenomenon a survey was carried out in 16 member wineries of the Movimento Turismo del Vino, using a self-administered questionnaire. This research is exploratory and the results are very similar to those observed in other surveys. Hence, the Sicilian wine tourists are likely to correspond to the wine tourist’s profile defined on the basis of similar research.

Key words: Wine tourism demand; Consumer behavior; Wine tourism in Sicily

Address correspondence to Vincenzo Asero, University of Catania, Faculty of Political Science, DAPPSI, Via Vittorio Emanuele, 8, 95131 Catania, Italy. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 443–460
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13149079788972
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Comity or Conflict? A Qualitative Study on Host–Guest Relationship in Second Home Tourism

Serena Volo

School of Economics and Management, Competence Centre in Tourism Management and Tourism Economics (TOMTE), Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy

Studies on second home tourism in Italy have focused mainly on statistical estimations of tourist flows in small destinations where the prevalence of second homes is suspected to account for a significant fraction of the destination’s domiciles or a significant amount of tourism activity. These studies, however, have generally overlooked the character and magnitude of local social attitudes and their effects on this constantly growing form of leisure activity. The present study sought to advance the understanding of the level of social comity or conflict existing between second home owners and local residents in an Italian province. Using the long interview process documented by McCraken in 1988, data for the investigation were collected from both second home owners and permanent residents. The interaction between sociocultural and economic factors in the creation of comity and conflict were modeled and theoretical implications drawn for future empirical predictive second home tourism model building, and practical implications have been drawn for local strategic planning and policy development.

Key words: Residential tourism; South Tyrol; Local community; Long interview; Residents’ perception

Address correspondence to Serena Volo, School of Economics and Management, Competence Centre in Tourism Management and Tourism Economics (TOMTE), Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 461–470
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13149079789016
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Correcting for Response Style Effects on Service Quality Measures

Thomas Mayr and Andreas H. Zins

Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna, Austria

Response style effects due to question items, answer formats, and cultural factors have gained considerable attention in marketing research. However, the published work in this field only addresses effects based on measurements in the realm of Likert-type answer formats. This study sheds light on the variations in estimated response style effects using conventional rating-based agreement/disagreement scales and contrasting them with confirmation/disconfirmation scales typically applied to service quality measurement. An empirical study within the passenger airline industry highlights substantial differences using ANOVA analysis. They are partly due to different item scales used as the basis for calculating response styles, partially due to the scale types, and are almost independent from language (cultural) differences. In general, the results give initial directions for calculating response style effects, which, nevertheless, merits more experimental testing.

Key words: Cross-cultural research; Response style effects; Measurement scales comparison

Address correspondence to Andreas H. Zins, Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, MODUL University Vienna, Am Kahlenberg 1, A- 1190 Vienna, Austria. Tel: +43 1 3203555 800; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 471–481
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13149079789052
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Entrepreneurial Intention Among Tourism Undergraduate Students in Egypt

Dalia Mohammad Soliman

Department of Tourism Studies, Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, Helwan University, Egypt

This study examines entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate tourism students in Egypt and the effect of specific beliefs and subjective norms on this intention. It also investigates students’ perceived motives and barriers to entrepreneurship. Although there have been many studies handling students entrepreneurial intention, only a limited number of studies have focused on tourism students’ entrepreneurial intention, and it is worth noting that from an educational perspective, investigating entrepreneurial intention of tourism students may play a role in the design of tourism curricula. Furthermore, there is a shortage of studies explicating entrepreneurial intention in the Middle East countries. Thus, the current study helps in filling this gap. A sample of undergraduate tourism students in Egypt was surveyed. Results showed that the majority of students have intention to start their own business after graduation. They perceive that lack of entrepreneurial education is their main barrier to entrepreneurship. Implications for educators and governmental bodies and succeeding research directions are highlighted.

Key words: Tourism students; Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial intention

Address correspondence to Dalia Mohamed Soliman, 10 Abu al-maaly street, Agouza, Giza, Egypt. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 483–491
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13149079789098
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Do External Shocks Have a Permanent or a Transitory Effect on Thailand’s Tourism Industry?

Ali Salman Saleh,* Reetu Verma,† and Ranjith Ihalanayake‡

*Accounting, Economic, Finance, and Law Group, Faculty of Business and Enterprise, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia
†School of Economics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW, Australia
‡School of Economics and Finance, Center for Tourism and Services Research, Faculty of Business and Law, Victoria University, Footscray VIC, Australia

Given the number and the frequency of external shocks encountered by Thailand in the last two decades, this study identifies the number and the location of the breaks and tests to determine whether the breaks have a transitory or a permanent effect on international tourist arrivals to Thailand for its top 10 source countries using both univariate and panel unit root tests with structural breaks. The findings suggest that break dates coincide with the Asian financial crisis, the September 11 attack, and the SARS and the bird flu outbreaks. The univariate unit root tests with structural breaks reject the null hypothesis of a nonstationarity in tourist arrivals from all countries. Furthermore, panel unit root tests with one and two structural breaks also reject the joint null hypothesis of a nonstationarity. These findings imply that external shocks have only a transitory effect on tourist arrivals and Thailand’s tourism sector will return to its long-run equilibrium path.

Key words: External shocks; Tourism; Unit root hypothesis; Thailand

Address correspondence to Ali Salman Saleh, Accounting, Economic, Finance, and Law Group, Faculty of Business and Enterprise, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia. Tel: +613 9214 8791; Fax: +613 9819 2117; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 493–498
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13154360475934
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Research Note

Dynamic Property of a Tourism Destination Network

Masahiro Yabuta*† and Noel Scott†

*Faculty of Economics, Chuo University, Japan
†School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia

The development pattern of a tourism destination network is a factor in determining the growth of each tourism destination. This research note provides an analytical framework to investigate the dynamic properties of a tourism destination network and separately estimate the individual and destination benefits from destination network development. The method assumes network development is a dynamic process and uses estimates from expert assessors to measure the changes in network properties over time.

Key words: Networks; Destination management; Dynamic process; Linkage effect; Network effect; Fuzzy set theory

Address correspondence to Masahiro Yabuta, Ph.D., Professor, Faculty of Economics, Chuo University, 742-1, Higashinakano, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan. Tel: 0426743386; Fax: 0426743425; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 499–503
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13154360475961
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Impacts of International Tourism on Economies in the Asia–Pacific Region: Opportunities and Challenges

Rachel J. C. Chen

Center for Sustainable Business and Tourism, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA

The main purpose of this article is to briefly overview the impacts of international tourism on economies in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific region, defined by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) as encompassing Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania, has been forecast to be a primary focus of the worldwide tourism industry in the 21st century. The region has been recognized as one of the most promising blossoming markets for tourism demand and supply, with export earnings of US$1,002 billion and 124 million jobs by the year 2019, a phenomenon that will result in positive economic growth and an increase in the gross domestic product (GDP). Increased job opportunities, enhanced economic growth, decreases in political barriers, easing of travel restrictions, and more effective tourism campaigns have been the main factors fostering tourism growth in the Asia-Pacific region.

Key words: Asia-Pacific region; International tourism receipts; Foreign capital; Tourism infrastructure

Address correspondence to Prof. Rachel J. C. Chen, Director of Center for Sustainable Business and Tourism, 311 Conference Center Building, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4134, USA. Tel: 1-865-974-0505; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it