Tourism Analysis 16(5) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 509–524
1083-5423/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354210X12864727453106
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Determinants of Length of Stay: A Parametric Survival Analysis

António Gomes de Menezes and Ana Moniz

Department of Economics and Management, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal

Length of stay is one of the most important decisions made by tourists as it conditions their overall expenditure and stress caused on local resources. This article estimates survival analysis models to learn the determinants of length of stay as survival analysis naturally lends itself to study the time elapsed between arrival and departure. It is found that sociodemographic profiles, such as nationality and gender, and trip attributes, such as repeat behavior, travel motive, and type of flight, are important determinants of length of stay. This article’s results are important to design marketing strategies that effectively influence length of stay.

Key words: Length of stay; Survival analysis; Tourism demand modeling

Address correspondence to António Gomes de Menezes, Department of Economics and Management, University of the Azores, Rua da Máe de Deus, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Portugal. Tel: +351-296650084; Fax: +351-296650083; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 525–533
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13202764960546
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Home Stay: A Rural Tourism Entrepreneurship Business

Hamira Zamani-Farahani

Department of Tourism and Hospitality, West Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

This article addresses the concept and characteristics of home stay programs as a new rural tourism product. Home stay is a combination of rural tourism, agro-farm tourism, cultural tourism, and recreation activity operated under minimal funding by small entrepreneurs from villages, by assistance of the government in Malaysia. This study presents an overview on the development, procedures, operation, evaluation, and limitations of the home stay program as a rural tourism entrepreneurship business. Implications of the results of this study and suggestions are also discussed.

Key words: Home stay program; Host–guest interaction; Rural tourism; Tourists’ experiences; Host attitudes; Malaysia


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 535–542
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13202764960582
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Service Quality in the Airline Industry: Comparison Between Traditional and Low-Cost Airlines

Tae-Hong Ahn* and Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee†

*Department of Tourism, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
†School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

The aim of this study is to assess service quality in the airline industry from the customer’s perspective, explore how perceived service quality affects customer satisfaction and loyalty-related behavior, and whether the factors affecting service quality, customer satisfaction, and loyalty differ between full-service and low-cost airlines. The data were collected through questionnaires based on previous research and 153 were completed by passengers who had traveled by air in the previous 6 months. Traditional airline passengers have significantly higher perceived service quality and customer satisfaction. However, there is no significant difference in loyalty-related behavior. Overall service quality has significant influence on customer satisfaction in both traditional and low-cost airlines. However, the effect of service quality on behavioral intentions is only significant for traditional airlines. The results suggest that management of traditional and low-cost airlines should maintain service quality as it affects customer satisfaction.

Key words: Service quality; Airline industry; Low-cost airlines; Customer loyalty

Address correspondence to Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ph.D., School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia. Tel: +61 7 3346 6246; Fax: +61 7 3346 8716; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 543–555
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X 13202764960627
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Interpreting Franchisors’ Preferences in the Travel Agency Industry: The Case of Spain

J. M. Ramirez-Hurtado,* F. M. Guerrero-Casas,* and F. J. Rondan-Cataluña†

*Department of Economy, Quantitative Methods and Economic History, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain
†Department of Marketing, University of Seville, Seville, Spain

Travel agency industry is one of the most important and relevant activities of franchise in many countries. One key aspect necessary for the suitable development of the franchise system in any country is the expansion of the franchisors. For this challenge to be a success, the franchisors must select the franchisees correctly. In this work the characteristics of potential franchisees preferred by franchisors are analyzed. A study was made in one of the most dynamic and important industries of the franchise system, that of travel agencies, and it used a combination of the methodologies of conjoint analysis and principal component analysis. The results show the profile preferred by the franchisors and give a ranking of the most important characteristics that the franchisors look for in travel agency franchisees.

Key words: Franchising; Preferences; Travel agency; Conjoint analysis; Principal component analysis


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 557–570
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13202764960663
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Relationships of Social Capital to Downtown and Retailer Performance: Do Tourist Towns Differ From Nontourist Towns?

Cornelia Droge,* Patricia Huddleston,† and Rodney C. Runyan‡

*Department of Marketing , The Eli Broad College of Business, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
†Department of Advertising, Public Relations and Retailing, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
‡Department of Retail, Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN , USA

“A hundred friends are worth more than a hundred rubles” (Russian proverb). This research focuses on small retail businesses in nonurban, downtown areas of tourist destinations. These retailers, as well as the downtown in which they are located, have access to two intangible resources: local (social) capital between retailers and consumers and social network ties among retailers. Social capital and social network theory provide a theoretical foundation. The research first assesses the direct effects of these two independent constructs on downtown versus small retailer performance. Second, the authors argue that downtown performance impacts small retailer performance, making downtown performance a partial mediator. The impact of local capital and social ties on small retailer performance is thus hypothesized to be both direct and indirect, through downtown performance; this enables effects decomposition. Third, the authors explore whether the hypothesized relationships hold equally in tourist versus nontourist towns: are the strengths of the betas (i.e., the slopes) the same, given that tourist towns are more likely to be marketed? The results show that social ties impact downtown performance, which in turn impacts firm performance, but the strengths of paths are not the same across tourist versus nontourist towns. Implications for tourism professionals are offered.

Key words: Social capital; Location strategy; Tourism; Small retailers

Address correspondence to Rodney C. Runyan, Department of Retail, Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Tennessee, 245 Jessie Harris Bldg., Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Tel: 865-974-4594; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 571–581
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13202764960708
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Shanghai’s High-End Hotel Overcapacity in 2011 and Beyond: How Bad it Could Be and Why?

Tianshu Zheng* and Zheng Gu †

*Department of Apparel, Educational Studies, & Hospitality Management, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
†William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Disregarding the oversupplied market, Shanghai’s high-end hotel sector has been experiencing rapid expansions in past two decades, especially after the city won the bid to host the World Exposition 2010. New projects are in the pipeline and more developments are expected in the future. This study attempts to identify the magnitude of overcapacity for Shanghai’s four- and five-star hotels in the year of 2011 by forecasting monthly market demand and comparing the forecasts with expected monthly capacity. It also provides forecasted monthly demand on Shanghai’s four- and five-star hotels in the years of 2012 and 2013 to be used as references by stakeholders of the industry. In addition, this study attempts to provide the reasons behind the overcapacity and provides stakeholders with suggestions regarding future hotel developments in Shanghai. Box-Jenkins procedure was used and Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models were developed for the forecasting.

Key words: Shanghai; High-end hotels; Demand forecasting; Seasonal ARIMA; Box-Jenkins; Overcapacity; 2010 World Expo


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 583–599
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13202764960744
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Examining the Role of Entrepreneurial Experience and Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy on SMTE Performance

Rob Hallak,* Noel J. Lindsay,† and Graham Brown*

*School of Management, University of South Australia, Australia
†Entrepreneurship, Commercialisation and Innovation Centre, The University of Adelaide, Australia

This research examines how entrepreneurial experience and entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) of tourism entrepreneurs affect the performance of small and medium tourism enterprises (SMTEs). The conceptual structural model reflecting these interrelationships is examined in terms of data collected from 298 SMTE entrepreneurs in regional South Australia. Contrary to the findings of studies conducted in nontourism contexts, entrepreneurial experience was not related to ESE nor to enterprise performance. How long one has been in a tourism enterprise or how many enterprises an individual has owned is not a good predictor of whether that entrepreneur will be able to develop a high performing SMTE that contributes toward economic wealth and job creation in the community. Entrepreneurial self-efficacy, rather than entrepreneurial experience, is a significant predictor of enterprise performance among SMTEs. This raises a number of questions. If experience gained through operating an SMTE does not contribute toward entrepreneurial confidence or entrepreneurial performance, what does? Are tourism entrepreneurs so different from entrepreneurs found in other industries that theories require modification when applied in tourism? The findings suggest that destination managers and policy makers need to understand the importance of entrepreneurial self-efficacy if they wish to enhance performance within the industry.

Key words: Entrepreneurial self-efficacy; Experience; Small and medium tourism enterprise (SMTE); Performance; Structural equation modeling

Address correspondence to Rob Hallak, Ph.D., Lecturer in Management, School of Management, University of South Australia GPO Box 2471, City West Campus, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Tel: +61 8 8302 0474; Fax: +61 8 8302 0512; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 601–615
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13202764960780
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Community-Based Tourism Planning: An Application of the APPA Approach to Ansted, West Virginia

Jinyang Deng,* Douglas Arbogast,† and Steve Selin*

*Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources Program, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
†Travel Green Appalachia, Fayetteville, WV, USA

Rural communities throughout the world have been struggling with developing effective ways to improve their quality of life while without losing their rural atmosphere. Community-based tourism planning has been regarded as an effective means of achieving this dual goal. This article applied the Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action (APPA) approach to a rural community town of Ansted in West Virginia, USA, whereas the tourism assets, tourism development priorities and challenges, and tourism products/markets were identified for the town. In addition, residents’ attitudes toward tourism development in the town were also examined. The results indicate that local residents’ attitudes were highly positive and homogeneous. The majority did not believe that issues from increased tourism would be a problem for the community. Rather, they were more disposed toward tourism development for local economic development and benefits. The article concludes that tourism planning for the town cannot be conducted and implemented independent of regional planning and development that involve other factors or economic activities such as coal mining in this study. In addition, community-based tourism planning cannot be separated from community planning as a whole and should be integrated into other aspects of community development programs.

Key words: West Virginia; Attitudes; Community; Tourism; Planning; Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action (APPA)

Address correspondence to Jinyang Deng, Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources Program, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 617–621
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13202764960825
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Segmenting the Cruise Market : An application of Multiple Correspondence Analysis

Cody Morris Paris * and Victor Teye†

*Middlesex University Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
†Business School, Ghana Institute of Management & Public Administration (GIMPA), Accra, Ghana

The cruise line industry is one of the fastest growing travel sectors, and an industry with a high rate of repeat business. This study contributes to the understanding of potential repeat visitors by segmenting cruise tourists based upon their intent to cruise in the future. The purpose of this research note is to reflect on the segmentation method applied. Respondents were asked to respond to questions about their intentions to cruise in the future, and were able to answer yes, no, or not sure, thus making a traditional factor-cluster approach using principal components analysis (or similar) not feasible. This study uses a two step method that combines Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) with a k-means cluster analysis, to segment the sample based on responses to five questions about future cruising intentions.

Key words: Correspondence analysis; Market segmentation; Cruise tourism; Repeat visitors; Caribbean

Address correspondence to Cody Morris Paris, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Middlesex University Dubai, Knowledge Village, Block 16, PO Box 500697, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Tel: +971 04 433 1776; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 623–628
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13202764960861
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Predictors of Terrorism-Related Air Travel Reductions and Associated Tourism Impacts

Elizabeth A. Stickel

Lundquist College of Business, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA

This study observes the potential decrease in air travel as a result of terrorist attacks in relation to individuals’ sociodemographic variables and media usage. Drawing from a sample of 2,023 respondents in the 2008 General Social Survey data set, this study seeks to identify market segments that have been most significantly impacted by terrorism events since September 11, 2001. Data are analyzed through direct logistic regression, resulting in a statistically significant model, χ2 (10, N = 685) = 25.40, p = 0.005. Results show two significant predictors of a terrorist-based decision to reduce air travel: occupational prestige and gender. Conclusions reveal the sociodemographic profile defining the market segment that has reduced air travel because of terrorist activity. Finally, recommendations are provided for enhancing and delivering marketing advertisements to this market segment.

Key words: Terrorism; Tourism; Sociodemographic market segmentation

Address correspondence to Elizabeth A. Stickel, Graduate Teaching Fellow, Lundquist College of Business, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1208, USA. Tel: 1 (907) 209-8515; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 629–636
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13202764960906
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

The Economic Impact of a Heritage Tourism Attraction on a Rural Economy: The Great Smoky Mountains Railroad

Inhyuck “Steve” Ha * and Sandra S. Grunwell†

*Economics, College of Business, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC, USA
†Hospitality & Tourism Management, College of Business, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC, USA

Cultural heritage tourism has emerged as both an important economic tool and marketing tool when seeking a competitive advantage in the tourism industry. This study examined the economic impact a heritage railway has on a regional rural economy, namely the Great Smoky Mountains Railroad (GSMR), a member of American Heritage Railways. Findings revealed the GSMR has exerted a profound effect on the region. It has contributed significantly to the regional economy, and has provided excellent value for the services rendered based on visitor satisfaction ratings. It has helped to diversify the regions tourism offerings, enhance its uniqueness and revitalize its tourism industry. Results from this study will assist GSMR management in the future planning and development of its heritage railway train excursions and marketing strategies.

Key Words: Heritage tourism; Heritage railway; Economic impact

Address correspondence to Inhyuck “Steve” Ha, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Economics, College of Business, Western Carolina University, 224C Forsyth Building, Cullowhee, NC 28723, USA. Tel: 828-227-3008; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it