Tourism Culture & Communication 11(2) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 11, pp. 71–82
1098-304X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830411X13215686205923
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Why the Gunarsa Art Museum Fails as a Tourism Attraction1

Neil Leiper* and Sun-Young Park†

*School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, NSW Australia
†School of Management, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA

The Gunarsa Art Museum is Bali’s distinctive cultural heritage exhibiting the world’s largest collection of classical Balinese paintings. However it fails as a tourist attraction, receiving very few visitors and little income. In this study, a multidisciplinary approach is used to analyze reasons for its failure based on observations, interviews, and theories on tourist attractions and strategic management. Potential solutions to revive and sustain the museum are also discussed. This study’s approach can be applied to other cultural heritage sites where income from tourism is crucial in the business model to understand and rectify failure factors, and to revitalize them.

Key words: Bali; Cultural heritage; Tourist attraction; Art museum; Strategic management

1This paper was accepted for publication prior to Professor Neil Leiper’s untimely death. During his academic career Neil made a substantial contribution to scholarly research into the relationship between tourism, culture and communication and Tourism, Culture & Communication is pleased to acknowledge this legacy and to continue publishing his contributions to the field.
Address correspondence to Sun-Young Park, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Management, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton Street, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 11, pp. 83–101
1098-304X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830411X13215686205842
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Culture as a Tourism Resource: The Case of North Cyprus (TRNC)

Tacgey Debes and Habib Alipour

Eastern Mediterranean University, School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Gazimagusa, TRNC, Mersin, Turkey

The aim of this article is to highlight the cultural aspects and components of a Mediterranean island where tourism is the main economic sector. Today, tourism is the gateway to the global world, where culture and heritage is a significant part of the tourism product. There are numerous studies indicating that cultural attractions are a fundamental motivation in a tourist’s decision to visit a destination. This study attempts to answer the question whether or not tourism planners and policy makers are aware of cultural values as a motivating factor while, at the same time, how do they go about upholding the values of cultural uniqueness in the context of the tourism industry, as well as in the society as a whole? What sort of plans/policies are in place to support or facilitate moving towards realizing these goals? An assumption made in this article is that, if governments and tourism policy makers do not clearly define their cultural parameters and values, along with appropriate strategies to restore/sustain their authenticity, it is likely that most of the cultural uniqueness associated with a particular destination will be underutilized and eventually lost. This, in itself, will undermine the product diversity of Northern Cyprus (formally known as the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus–TRNC), which is perceived or branded as nothing more than a sun, sea, sand destination. In this article a qualitative research strategy has been employed and in-depth semistructured interview questions have been administered to the informants in numerous culturally involved institutions. The study revealed that, notwithstanding the rich cultural assets and abundance of its heritage, Northern Cyprus has not been able to develop a clear strategy towards cultural and heritage planning for the purposes of tourists’ consumption, and also for the purpose of upholding certain aspects of cultural capital essential for social and economic progress. The study revealed that the approach of both policy makers and institutions have been superficial, and lack a fundamental understanding of the issues involved in achieving a sustainable harmony between culture as a tourism resource, and tourism as an economic tool.

Key words: Cultural/heritage tourism; Cultural commoditization; Cultural institutions; Authenticity and identity; TRNC (North Cyprus)

Address correspondence to Habib Alipour, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Eastern Mediterranean University, School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Gazimagusa, TRNC, Via Mersin 10, Turkey. Tel: +90 392 630 1392; Fax: +90 392 365 1584; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 11, pp. 103–116
1098-304X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830411X13215686205888
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Understanding Cambodian Tourism Development Through Contextual Education

Ariane Portegies, Theo De Haan, Rami Isaac, and Lucette Roovers

International Tourism Management and Consultancy, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands

Within a field that has prioritized ideas of a global tourism industry impacting on a local environment, less attention has been given to regional, cultural, and geographic differences and parallels. A problematic concern in the study of tourism was perhaps the lack of contextualization and the integration of the units of analysis (e.g., tourist destinations) to the larger regional structures and societal processes. We wish to take up the challenge to further disturb the foundations of the field and, more importantly, to participate in the advancement of a more pluralist discourse. A central component in this article is a 5-day study visit in Siem Reap, Cambodia as part of an Asia-based fieldwork of bachelor students in tourism development at NHT V University of Applied Sciences in Breda, The Netherlands. This study visit serves as an illustration of the contextual education approach developed in the tourism course and facilitated by the international classroom setting. This fieldwork’s philosophy and the inspirational encounters made possible by it is an attempt to address the challenges posed by the study of the dynamism and changing character of destinations. To conclude we will bring forward selected student experiences as well as dimensions of Cambodian history and society that have enriched our understanding of Siem Reap as a destination. This experience will fuel a discussion on knowledge production in tourism and on the added value of this contextual education approach. The repeated opportunity for our students to meet, think, and reflect on what they were confronted with created a possibility to uncover more than would have been possible via standard research methods using surveys and interviews.

Key words: Contextual education; Knowledge production in tourism; Tourism developments in Siem Reap; Cambodia; Asian perspectives; ITM C student encounters

Address correspondence to Ariane Portegies, M.Sc., Senior Lecturer International Tourism Management & Consultancy, NHT V Breda University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 3917, 4800DX Breda, Netherlands. Tel: 0031 (0)76-5332371; Fax: 0031 (0)76 5302295; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 11, pp. 117–130
1098-304X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830411X13215686205969
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Evaluating the Economic and Fiscal Impact of an International Cultural Heritage Festival on a Regional Economy: Folkmoot USA

Sandra Grunwell,* Inhyuck Ha ,† and Susan L. Swanger‡

*Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Business, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC, USA
†Economics, College of Business, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC, USA
‡Folkmoot USA Board of Directors, Accountancy, College of Business, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC, USA

Folkmoot USA is a 2-week annual large-scale international folklore festival celebration held in western North Carolina attracting approximately 75,000 attendees. This study examined the economic and fiscal impact of the 2007 Folkmoot USA international festival, developed an attendee profile to assist Folkmoot management and other area tourism professionals in their future planning and decision making, and compared findings to a similar study conducted in 2001. The IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) software modeling system and database was used to analyze more than 1,000 questionnaires collected from attendees, performers, and festival management during the 2-week festival. Findings revealed that the 2007 Folkmoot USA festival events induced spending on lodging, food and beverage sales, transportation, retail sales, and entertainment by attendees and performers, in addition to the operational expenditures of the festival itself. This spending infused the local economy by an estimated $4,025,684, increased state and local tax receipts by an estimated $343,702 and generated 56.6 jobs, reflecting an 88.8% increase in total economic impact over the previous study conducted in 2001. The profile of attendees of the 2007 festival revealed a shift of demographics to an older, largely female population compared to the 2001 study, information which is vital to the planning of future events and the overall sustainability of the festival.

Key words: Cultural heritage tourism; Festivals; Special events; Regional tourism; Tourist expenditures; Economic impact

Address correspondence to Sandra Grunwell, Associate Professor, Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Business, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723, USA. Tel: (828) 227-2154; Fax: (828) 227-7417; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it