Tourism in Marine Environments 7(3-4) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 99–112
1544-273X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162570
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Editorial

A Field Engages: Papers From the 6th International Coastal and Marine Tourism Congress

Marc L. Miller,* Jan Auyong,† Michael Lück,‡,§ Mark Orams,‡,§ Peter B. Myles,¶ and Jeff Wilks#

*School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
†Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR, USA
‡School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
§New Zealand Tourism Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
¶Kyle Business Projects, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
#School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia

Coastal and marine tourism has the potential to radically transform natural and social systems. Responsibilities for the condition of complex natural and social systems are properly addressed in the context of sustainable development. Tourism governance—regarded as more than management—concerns structures and processes that can be described and improved in accordance with societal values. Papers from the 6th International Coastal and Marine Tourism Congress illustrate how the African ubuntu dynamic gives meaning to tourism and facilitates positive touristic outcomes. Maturation of the field will be stimulated with studies of such issues as globalization and environmental change, cultural and biological diversity, social and ecological health, governance, and social and environmental justice.

Key words: Tourism governance; Sustainable development; Conservation; Ubuntu

Address correspondence to Marc L. Miller, School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, University of Washington, 3707 Brooklyn Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98105-6715, USA. Tel: +1 206 543 0113; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 113–120
1544-273X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162615
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Aspects of the Legal Environment of Coastal and Marine Tourism in South Africa

Patrick H. G. Vrancken

Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa

Until the end of apartheid, tourism and marine affairs in South Africa were deliberately confined to the white minority and left largely unregulated. This article is the first integrated description of the new legal landscape resulting from the wide-ranging entrenchment of human rights, the development of a complex system of tourism legislation, the updating of maritime legislation, as well as new legislation to better regulate the management of the national environment. It concludes by alluding to the substantial resources that must be mobilized as a matter of urgency to implement and enforce that legislation in such a way as to give effect to the spirit of ubuntu.

Key words: Environmental law; Human rights; Marine law; Tourism law; Ubuntu

Address correspondence to Patrick H. G. Vrancken, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, University Way, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Tel: + 27 41 504 2200; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 121–132
1544-273X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162651
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Industry in Decline? The Evolution of Whale-Watching Tourism in Hervey Bay, Australia

Sheila Peake

International Relations, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia

This article examines the evolution of whale watching in Hervey Bay, Queensland in relation to the Butler tourism life cycle model, and Duffus and Dearden’s conceptual framework for wildlife tourism. It analyses official visitation data, wildlife records, tour operations information, and interviews with tour operators and the protected area management agency. The results indicate that changing visitor and commercial operator numbers and profiles, increasing regional competition, and a changing relationship with the protected area managers may be symptomatic of a maturing industry that has reached a watershed point in its sustainability. The findings of this research have implications for tourism stakeholders including planners, protected area managers, and tour operators in relation to changing sector demands and proactive adaptation to those changes.

Key words: Whale watching; Tourism life cycle model; Hervey Bay

Address correspondence to Sheila Peake, International Relations, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland 4558, Australia. Tel: +61 7 54 301247 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 133–140
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162697
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Optimization of Mariculture Sites in the Tourism Area of Seribu Islands, Java Sea, Indonesia

Wiwin Windupranata * and Intan Hayatiningsih†

*Hydrographic Science and Engineering Research Division, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia
†Geodetic and Geomatic Engineering Doctorate Program, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia

The Seribu Islands are located in the Java Sea about 50 km northwest of Jakarta, Indonesia. The islands and surrounding waters support tourism, fishing and mariculture, transportation, waste disposal, mining, energy production, and environmental protection. Mariculture has become an important fisheries component since its products are highly valued and command good prices on the export market. However, mariculture sites, mostly located close to the 14 inhabited Seribu Islands, may potentially conflict with tourism and have become an issue in the development of the area. A Decision Support System (DSS), based on optimization of physical, chemical, and socioeconomic parameters to determine suitable locations for mariculture, is presented in this article.

Key words: Mariculture; Suitability; Sustainability; Optimization; Seribu Islands

Address correspondence to Wiwin Windupranata, Hydrographic Science and Engineering Research Division, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung, 40132 Indonesia, Tel: +62-22-2506451; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 141–151
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162732
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Diving Tourism in Mozambique: An Opportunity at Risk?

Yara Tibiriçá,* Alastair Birtles,† Peter Valentine,‡ and Dean K. Miller‡

*Association of Coastal Conservation of Mozambique (ACCM)–Zavora Marine Lab., Inharrime, Prov. Inhambane, Mozambique
†School of Business, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
‡School of Earth & Environmental Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia

This article examines divers’ perspectives and demographics in Tofo Beach, Inhambane. It discusses the urgent need for good management. Analysis is based on data collected from 530 semistructured questionnaires for divers and participatory observation during field research from April to December 2008. For 74% of respondents, the diving component was a key incentive to visit Mozambique. Most of the divers in Tofo are experienced and particularly wish to interact with whale sharks and manta rays. It is suggested that while marine tourism is a potential opportunity for sustainable tourism, it may be at risk due to the lack of management combined with the dependence on just a few marine mega fauna species not yet protected.

Key words: Diving tourism; Mozambique; Marine tourism; Scuba dive; Sustainability

Address correspondence to Yara Tibiriçá, Association of Coastal Conservation of Mozambique (ACCM), Zavora Marine Lab., Zavora Beach, Inharrime, Inhambane Province, Mozambique. Tel: +258 828206785; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 153–165
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162778
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Scuba Diver Perceptions and Evaluations of Crowding Underwater

Brian W. Szuster,* Mark D. Needham,† and Bixler P. McClure*

*Department of Geography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
†Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA

This article describes three exploratory investigations of dimensions influencing scuba diver perceptions of crowding in underwater settings. Five focus groups of five to eight divers each suggested that number, proximity, and clustering of divers were important crowding dimensions. A multiple sort procedure with 60 other divers revealed that number and proximity were most important. A survey of 101 additional divers confirmed that number and proximity of divers significantly influenced crowding, but the number of divers was the strongest determinant. Photographs were used to test crowding dimensions underwater. Although additional research is needed to confirm these findings, this study serves as a guide for future research on social aspects of dive site planning and management.

Key words: Scuba; Diving; Crowding; Social carrying capacity; Marine recreation

Address correspondence to Brian W. Szuster, Department of Geography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 445 Saunders Hall, 2424 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA. Tel: +1-808-956-7345; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 167–178
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162813
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Successful Interpretation in Great Barrier Reef Tourism: Dive in or Keep Out of it?

Alexandra Coghlan,* K. Ruth Fox,† Bruce Prideaux,† and Michael Lück‡

*International Centre for Ecotourism Research, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
†School of Business, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
‡School of Tourism and Hospitality, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

Marine wildlife tourism on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) focuses on: (i) “swim-with” programs, (ii) surface watching activities (whales and dolphins), (iii) diving (corals, sharks, etc.), (iv) reef snorkeling trips, and (v) glass-bottom boat tours. A 4-year study indicated significant differences in travel experiences and reef tour satisfaction between respondents (N = 3407) participating in different types of activities. Non-divers were less likely to have been to other reefs, less motivated to visit the region to see the GBR, and they were more likely to say that interpretation changed their appreciation of the reef and their behavior. It is proposed that management, product design and experience, and outcome will be different for each group and not all findings within marine wildlife tourism are transferable between tourism types.

Key words: Great Barrier Reef; Activities; Interpretation

Address correspondence to Alexandra Coghlan, International Centre for Ecotourism Research, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland 4222, Australia. Tel. +(07) 555 27368; Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 179–190
1544-273X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162859
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism in Regions of Natural Resource Decline: A Newfoundland Case Study

Natalie Springuel

University of Maine Sea Grant College Program, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME, USA

Tourism is increasingly touted as a development opportunity for coastal areas affected by natural resource decline, but can the investment in tourism ever replace the full human ecological value of a natural resource-based industry, including its impacts on a region’s culture, economy, and environment? This ethnographic study examines the impact of the 1992 cod moratorium on Newfoundland’s coastal communities, and particularly the emerging role of heritage tourism in community revitalization. Interviews with stakeholders and first-hand observations at tourism destinations show that marine heritage tourism, in particular, can play an important role in the future of coastal areas and people, though it will never replace an exhausted natural resource.

Key words: Heritage tourism; Fisheries; Newfoundland; Coastal communities

Address correspondence to Natalie Springuel, University of Maine Sea Grant College Program, College of the Atlantic, 105 Eden St., Bar Harbor, ME. 04609, USA. Tel: (207) 288-2944, ext. 5834; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 191–202
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162895
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Kia Angi Puku To Hoe I Te Wai: Ocean Noise and Tourism

Emmanuelle Martinez* and Mark B. Orams†

*Coastal-Marine Research Group, Massey University, North Shore MSC, Auckland, New Zealand
†New Zealand Tourism Research Institute, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand

Ubuntu, a traditional African concept, acknowledges interconnectedness between humans and between humans and nature. This concept is also central to the worldview of Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand, where the phrase kaitiakitanga is used to express the guardianship responsibilities Maori have with all living things. Such indigenous paradigms are pertinent to the issue of ocean noise, including the effect of human induced ocean noise on cetaceans. Few studies have focused on quantifying sound produced by tour boats and their effects, nor has research been conducted on the deliberate use of sound to create and enhance interactions between tourists and targeted species. It is argued here that an alternate approach to management is needed to minimize any potential effects on targeted species.

Key words: Whale watching; Swim-with-dolphins; Noise; Sound; Management

Address correspondence to Emmanuelle Martinez, Coastal-Marine Research Group, Institute of Natural Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102 904, North Shore MSC, Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: +64 9 414 0800 ext 41196; Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 203–211
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162930
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Model for Coastal Tourism: The Coast Is All in One’s Mind

Martijn Smeenge And Ben Offringa

Professorship in Visitor Studies, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands

Globally, coastal areas can be seen as the most popular tourist-recreational destinations. Consequently, these destinations generate major visitor flows. Furthermore, they are interpreted differently by every visitor, for example depending on lifestyles and age. These two problems, or maybe chances, are the central focus in this article. More specifically, this conceptual paper examines what the typical coastal experience consists of and in which ways the producers of the tourist-recreational coastal product can anticipate this. After explaining the principles of visitor management, as defined by Ennen, a theoretical framework is presented that tries to capture the total coastal experience. Then, two existing coastal areas are projected onto this framework. Finally, some conclusions are drawn.

Key words: Coastal tourism; Visitors; (Re)Interpretation

Address correspondence to Martijn Smeenge, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, PO Box 3917, 4800 DX Breda, The Netherlands. Tel: +31765332214; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 213–222
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453162976
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Towards a Utilitarian Ethic for Marine Wildlife Tourism

John Dobson

Department of Tourism, Hospitality and Events Management, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK

Ethical issues in wildlife tourism have been the subject of increasing academic interest in recent years. This article begins by examining the issues that arise from extending moral consideration to animals through an exploration of the boundaries that can be drawn in order for a being to be considered part of the moral community. Issues of animal suffering during wildlife tours are then explored using catch and release sport fishing and aquaria as examples. Utilitarianism (with its emphasis on consequentialism, welfare, and ensuring the greatest good for interested parties) is then introduced and its potential to act as an ethical framework for marine wildlife tourism is considered and evaluated. The article concludes that although utilitarianism has certain weaknesses as an ethical philosophy, its consequentialist focus and its requirement that the interests of both human and animals involved in wildlife tourism interactions are given equal consideration, can help ensure that more balanced decisions are made regarding the distribution of benefits and costs that result from marine wildlife tours.

Key words: Wildlife tourism; Animal ethics; Utilitarianism

Address correspondence to John Dobson, Department of Tourism, Hospitality and Events Management, Cardiff School of Management, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Western Avenue, Cardiff, UK, CF5 2YB. Tel: 00 44 2920 416317; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, pp. 223–232
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427311X13195453163010
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The Learning Tourist: The Role of Identity-Related Visit Motivations

John H. Falk

Oregon Sea Grant, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA

Tourism and leisure patterns are changing in the 21st century; increasing numbers of people view leisure and tourism as an opportunity to expand their understanding of themselves and their world. A research model is described herein that utilizes the construct of identity-related visit motivations as a tool for understanding tourists’ visits to free-choice learning settings such as aquariums, coastal preserves, and whale- watching cruises. The model could have important implications for both future tourism research as well as improved tourism practice.

Key words: Learning; Tourism; Free choice; Identity; Motivations

Address correspondence to John H. Falk, Sea Grant Professor of Free-Choice Learning, Oregon State University, 237 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA; Tel: +1-541-737-1826; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it