Tourism Review International 15(1-2) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 5–20
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020093
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Current Paths in South African Tourism Research

Gustav Visser* and Gijsbert Hoogendoorn†

*Department of Geography, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
†School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa

The African continent is not well represented in international tourism scholarship. Nevertheless, tourism is afforded considerable policy importance in the region, not least South Africa, Africa’s leading tourism destination. The number of investigatory voices interrogating the nexus of tourism and development in South Africa is small relative to other continents, but expanding. This article provides a review of the existing research paths and proposes new directions for scholarship focused on the South African tourism system.

Key words: South Africa; Tourism research; Research paths; Development

Address correspondence to Gustav Visser, Department of Geography, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa. Tel: ++27 51 401 3762; Fax: ++27 51 401 3816; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 21–35
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020174
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Tourism Food Supply Linkages in Zambia: Evidence From the African Safari Lodge Sector

Christian M. Rogerson

School of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Management, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, South Africa

The significance of strengthening intersectoral linkages between tourism and agriculture is acknowledged. In particular, the building of local linkages is considered a potential vehicle for pro-poor development. Against the background of international scholarship on tourism—agriculture linkages this article presents findings from research on the food supply patterns of safari lodges in Zambia, a growing African tourism destination. It is concluded that while 60% of food supplies to these upmarket tourism establishments are sourced from within Zambia, the actual amount of food production for lodges that originates in neighboring communities is relatively small. Several factors that limit local linkages are highlighted.

Key words: Tourism–agriculture linkages; Nature tourism; Zambia

Address correspondence to Christian M. Rogerson, School of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Management, University of Johan­nesburg, Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 37–50
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020219
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Low-Income Earners as Second Home Tourists in South Africa?

Gijsbert Hoogendoorn

School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa

This investigation draws on a continued research program on understanding second homes in South Africa. Processes of mobility, migration, and circulation are explored within this type of tourism. Thereafter, a research agenda is proposed in terms of the same processes as recreational second home users, but the focus shifts to nonrecreational/tribal/rural second home users or low-income earners as second home tourists in South Africa. Some similarities and differences are highlighted between high-income and low-income earners’ second home usage patterns, in terms of temporal and spatial dimensions, including seasonality, distances traveled, purpose of visit, place connection, and rural linkages. It is proposed that the research focus of second home tourism be broadened to “poor persons” (or low-income earners) nationally and internationally, as part of second home tourism to develop a richer and more inclusive focus of investigation.

Key words: Second homes tourism; South Africa; Time; Migration; Mobility; Low income

Address correspondence to Gijsbert Hoogendoorn, School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, Wits, 2050, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 51–62
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020255
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Ilha de Moçambique: Conserving and Managing World Heritage in the Developing World

Vanessa Dantas É Sá* and Charles Mather*†

*Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
†Department of Geography, Memorial University at Newfoundland, St John’s, Canada

The problem of managing and maintaining cultural and natural sites inscribed in the list of World Heritage Sites (WHS) is a global one. Yet the challenge of maintaining the “outstanding universal value” of WHS is almost certainly more pressing in the developing world. This article draws from the experience of Mozambique’s WHS, the Island of Mozambique, to reflect on the challenges of meeting the goal of outstanding universal value in a context of poverty and postconflict reconstruction. We contrast proposals to rehabilitate the island’s cultural heritage produced in the late 1990s with more recent conservation efforts, in the context of the broad goal of addressing human settle­ment challenges while also preserving the past.

Key words: Island of Mozambique; World Heritage; Heritage management; Poverty

Address correspondence to Charles Mather, Department of Geography Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s, Newfound­land, Canada. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 63–75
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020291
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The Tourism Global Commodity Chain in Namibia: Industry Concentration and its Impacts on Transformation

Renaud Lapeyre

School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Applying Global Commodity Chain (GCC) theory, this article uncovers governance patterns in the Namibian tourism industry. The sector, it is argued, is best characterized as a buyer-driven GCC, in which large tour operators and accommodation groups control most economic transactions, and in which local actors remain generic suppliers with limited power to capture a significant share of the value. In a context of rapid globalization and fierce competition, horizontal and vertical integration have further concentrated economic powers in the hands of larger groups (national or international). With such an ownership structure, previously disadvantaged Namibians lack economic leverage to be fully involved in the largely white-dominated tourism sector.

Key words: Tourism; Global commodity chains; Governance; Concentration; Namibia

Address correspondence to Renaud Lapeyre, Post-doctoral Fellow, School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, Wits, 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 77–90
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020336
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Rethinking South African Urban Tourism Research

Christian M. Rogerson* and Gustav Visser†

*School of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Management, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, South Africa
†Department of Geography, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

A critical overview of the state of the art of research on urban tourism in South Africa is undertaken. Conceptually, the investigation is framed by the contention that calls for growing theorization of urban tourism in the developed North are not tenable without reference to the empirical and policy realities of Southern urban tourism systems. It is demonstrated urban tourism figures strongly in the South African tourism landscape. An overview of urban tourism niches and associated research literature is presented. It is shown that while historically urban tourism was largely ignored by urban scholars, since the early 1990s a range of urban tourism products has developed, many of them parallels of urban tourism products found in advanced postindustrial economies. The conclusion suggests that urban tourism in South Africa offers fertile ground for future empirical, theoretical, and policy research.

Key words: Urban tourism; South Africa; Urban development; Developing world

Address correspondence to Gustav Visser, Department of Geography, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa. E-mail This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 91–106
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020372
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

South African Tourism Road to Economic Recovery: 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup as Vehicle

Sanette Ferreira

Department of Geography, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

The FIFA 2010 World Cup has provided a real opportunity to give life to the ninth recommendation of the UNWTO’s 2009 roadmap to recovery, namely “to improve tourism promotion and capitalize on major events.” Unfortunately, the developmental impacts of mega-events in the global periphery are frequently inflated and there is little guarantee that the realized effects will meet the expectations of one in every three South Africans to personally benefit from employment creation opportunities through the 2010 FIFA World Cup. This article reflects on the following. First, the existing body of knowledge on mega-sport events and the tangible and intangible benefits for host societies. Second, the inflated expectations of South Africans since winning the FIFA 2010 bid in May 2004. Third, 2009 as build-up phase toward hosting the FIFA 2010 World Cup, by using three other local mega-sport events and disclosing their contribution to the local economy. Fourth, the political will of the South African government to invest in long-term tourism developmental goals by exposing the size of investments made in large-scale superstructural and infrastructural projects. And last, unveiling the golden-egg contribution of this mega-sport event during tough economic times.

Key word: Mega-event; Economic recession; Infrastructure; Tourism superstructure; Inflated expectations; Economic recovery

Address correspondence to Sanette Ferreira, Department of Geography, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Tel: ++27 21 808 3105; Fax: ++27 21 808 3103; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 107–121
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020417
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Changing All-Suite Hotel in South Africa: From “Extended Stay” to African “Condo Hotel”

Jayne M. Rogerson*

Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Despite a growth of scholarship in African tourism only limited work has been pursued on the accommodation sector in general and the hotel industry in Africa in particular. This article examines the phenomenon of the all-suite hotel. Against the backdrop of a review of the international development of the all-suite hotel, the article analyzes the growth and characteristics of all-suite hotels in South Africa. It is argued that while the trajectory of all-suite hotel development in South Africa exhibits certain common features with the US, Western Europe, and Australia, there are also certain distinctive local trends in the evolving all-suite sector.

Key words: Accommodation; All-suite hotel; South Africa; African “condo hotel”

Address correspondence to Jayne M. Rogerson, Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa: E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 123–133
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020453
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Youth Tourism in South Africa: The English Language Travel Sector

Maisa Correia

Department of Tourism Management, School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Language travel has gone largely unnoticed as a key contributor of youth tourism. The global language travel market is dominated by the UK and the US, with Canada, Australia, Ireland, Malta, and New Zealand also recognizing the importance of language travel for tourism. Little attention has been paid to language travel in research, including in South Africa. This article reviews the organization and development of the language travel industry in South Africa as an important aspect of the country’s youth tourism economy. South Africa’s language travel industry is explored in terms of its global position, development, size, key role players, structure, operation, and significance for the broader tourism industry. It is shown significant differences exist in the operation and source markets between inland and coastal language schools.

Key words: Language travel; Youth tourism; South Africa

Address correspondence to Maisa Correia, Department of Tourism Management, School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 135–147
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020499
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Using Sustainable Tourism Indicators to Measure the Sustainability of a Community-Based Ecotourism Venture: Malealea Lodge & Pony Trek Centre, Lesotho

Kevin F. Mearns

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Unisa, South Africa

This article constructs an evaluation framework using sustainable tourism indicators for measuring the sustainability of community-based ecotourism ventures. This framework is then applied to the Malealea Lodge & Pony Trek Centre in Lesotho. The results yield a number of concerning results that need to be addressed to ensure the long-term sustainability of the tourism venture. A mixed method case study approach was followed during which various sources of data were combined to determine the sustainability in terms of a number of social, economic, and environmental indicators. The evaluation framework proved valuable for the measurement of the present sustainability as well as the recommendation of areas for improvement of the sustainability performance. The constructed evaluation framework may serve as an important departure point for the determination of the sustainability of community-based ecotourism ventures in southern Africa. Although the constructed framework includes a number of baseline and community-based ecotourism-specific indicators, site-specific indicators may need to be added to take local conditions and circumstances into account for the reapplication of the evaluation framework to other community-based ecotourism ventures.

Key words: Sustainable tourism indicators; Community-based ecotourism; Southern Africa; Lesotho

Address correspondence to Kevin F. Mearns, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, PO Box 392, Unisa, 0003, South Africa. Tel: +27 11 471 3866; Fax: +27 11 471 3860; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 149–157
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020534
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Tourism Development and Local Communities: The Direct Benefits of Tourism to OvaHimba Communities in The Kaokoland, Northwest Namibia

Jarkko Saarinen

Department of Geography, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

The tourism industry has the potential to provide major benefits to destinations. In Namibia tourism is seen as a good strategy for development, but tourism-based growth does not automatically lead to a socioeconomic development in peripheral communities. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the quantity of local-level benefits from tourism in peripheral community contexts and discuss the possibilities of local communities to participate, control, and guide tourism-based growth and development. The empirical case involves two OvaHimba communities located in Kaokoland, Northwest Namibia. The selected communities value tourism but, in a monetary value, the direct benefits of tourism are still rather modest and there is a need to develop a more transparent benefit-sharing model for tourism businesses operating and collaborating directly with the OvaHimba communities in Kaokoland.

Key words: Tourism benefits; Community-based tourism; Indigenous tourism; OvaHimba; Namibia

Address correspondence to Jarkko Saarinen, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 3000, 90014, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 159–169
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020570
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Community-Based Natural Resource Management and Tourism: Nata Bird Sanctuary, Botswana

Moren T. Stone* and Christian M. Rogerson†

*Department of Environmental Science, University of Botswana, Botswana
†School of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Management, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Community-based tourism has been promoted in many parts of the developing world as an alternative to private sector-led tourism projects. Supporters of community-based tourism contend that projects might not only reduce rural poverty and advance conservation by strengthening local economies and empowering communities but also manage natural resources for long-term economic, social, and ecological benefits. In countries of Southern Africa notions of community-based tourism linked to conservation benefits have become popular. In Botswana, community-based natural resource man­agement is one of the foundations for national tourism planning. This article examines the case of Nata Bird Sanctuary in Northeast Botswana and highlights serious shortcomings in terms of the local community’s perceptions of the management, distributional benefits, and ownership of this project.

Key words: Community-based tourism; Nata Bird Sanctuary; Botswana

Address correspondence to Moren T. Stone, Department of Environmental Science, University of Botswana, Botswana. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 171–182
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020615
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The Effects of CBNRM Integration Into Local Government Structures and Poverty Alleviation in Botswana

Kutlwano Mulale* and Joseph E. Mbaiwa†‡

*Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in the Department of Environmental Science, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
†Tourism Studies, University of Botswana, Okavango Research Institute, Maun, Botswana
‡School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, South Africa

The devolution of natural resource management to local government institutions is a dominant theme in contemporary discussion of common property natural resource management. However, much has not been researched on what levels of local government ought to receive devolutionary powers. The objective of this article, therefore, is to assess the effects of CBNRM integration into local government structures and its contribution to poverty alleviation and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Kgalagadi and Ngamiland Districts. This article is informed by the decentralization theory. Using primary and secondary data sources, results indicate that CBNRM is not integrated into local government structures in the two districts. At the village level are community-based organizations (CBOs) whose role within the local government structure is unspecified and unclear. Interestingly, CBOs are the units of local-level governance that received devolutionary powers of natural resource management in Botswana under the community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) program. The role of local government (District Councils) in CBNRM development is not integrated. This study concludes by stating that CBNRM has potential to contribute to poverty alleviation and contribute to MDGs in Ngamiland and Kgalagadi Districts. However, this is possible if CBNRM can be integrated into local government structures and recognized as one of the strategies that seek to reduce poverty and contribute to MDGs in Botswana.

Key words: Decentralization; Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM); Local government structures

Address correspondence to Joseph E. Mbaiwa, Tourism Studies, University of Botswana, Okavango Research Institute, Private Bag 285, Maun, Botswana. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 183–197
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020651
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism, Second Homes, and an Emerging South African Postproductivist Countryside

Gijsbert Hoogendoorn* and Gustav Visser†

*School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
†Department of Geography, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

Issues concerning postproductivism have seen limited direct systematic research attention within South African tourism studies. However, it has recently been proposed that postproductivism as part of tourism development, although difficult to discern in its early stages, has as a process gathered sufficient momentum to warrant scholarly attention in the local context. This article develops this contention by focusing on the role of second home tourism as a contributor to developing a South African postproductivist countryside. The investigation tracks the development of a postproductivist countryside in one of South Africa’s main agricultural regions: the eastern Free State. Drawing on the experiences of the rural town of Clarens and its hinterland, the diversification of economic activities away from classic productivist functions to those of postproductivism linked to consumptive activi-ties, such as second home tourism, is outlined.

Key words: Second homes; South Africa; Postproductivism

Address correspondence to Gijsbert Hoogendoorn, School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, Wits, 2050, South Africa. Tel: +277117176521; Fax: +277117176529; E-mail: gijsbert.hoogendoorn@ wits.ac.za


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 199–211
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345020697
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Niche Tourism Policy and Planning: The South African Experience

Christian M. Rogerson

School of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Management, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Niche tourism is garnering an increasing critical international scholarship. After the 1994 democratic transition tourism appears as a strategic sector in South African economic planning and from 2004 initiatives emerge to promote niche tourism. Within the context of rising international policy discussions around niche tourism, the South African experience is analyzed. Niche tourism has become incorporated into national tourism planning for South Africa in order to contribute towards the goals of increased job creation, decent work, and geographical dispersal. Government is seeking to develop a set of strategic planning initiatives around niche tourism in order to support a competitive tourist destination. The article examines the definition, changing role, and strategic planning for niche tourism within the wider tourism policy environment of postapartheid South Africa. The find­ings disclose a struggle to define niche tourism sectors and subsequently to implement high-impact strategic policy interventions.

Key words: Tourism policy; Niche tourism; South Africa

Address correspondence to Christian M. Rogerson, School of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Management, University of Johan­nesburg, Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 213–223
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13139345302487
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Research Within the Southern African Development Community: Production and Consumption in Academic Journals, 2000–2010

Christian M. Rogerson* and Jayne M. Rogerson†

*School of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Management, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
†Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

The production and consumption of tourism knowledge has emerged as a vibrant research focus. This article extends this body of research by analysis of the production and consumption of tourism knowledge across the 15 countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) for the period 2000–2010. Issues of concern in the production of tourism research are patterns of publishing, nature of journals (tourism vs. nontourism), and extent of local versus nonlocal scholarship. Using Google Scholar citations the consumption of tourism research discloses the most cited articles published in the period 2000–2010, most cited as published 2006–2010, and most cited for each country. In relation to international tourism scholarship as a whole, a key finding from the SADC is that the majority of tourism research is published outside of tourism-focused journals. This suggests that bibliometric studies that track tourism scholarship based only on the contents of major tourism journals fail to capture a key segment of tourism scholarship.

Key words: Tourism scholarship; Tourism journals; Southern African Development Community (SADC)

Address correspondence to Christian M. Rogerson, School of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Management, University of Johan­nesburg, Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it