Tourism Culture & Communication 11(1) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 11, pp. 1–15
1098-304X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830411X13049571092589
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Legacy of Mining: Visual Representations and Narrative Constructions of a Swedish Heritage Tourist Destination

Susanna Heldt Cassel* and Cecilia Mörner†

*School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden
†School of Culture and Media, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden

This article examines the marketing and management efforts that have been undertaken to make the Falun World Heritage Site a successful tourist destination in terms of hegemonic, visual representations, and narrative constructions. Visual representation is assumed to be a vital aspect of the construction of narratives used to promote tourist destinations. The idea of a narrative as something that constructs sites as comprehensible places through visual representation can be used to illuminate the logic of heritage tourism and branding destinations. The article argues that representations of a heritage site that are closely related to hegemonic ideas of the site’s history are not necessarily the most profitable ones. If the heritage site is to contribute to local development and tourism, it is essential to understand what the representations of heritage communicate. Using the Falun World Heritage Site as a case study, the article aims to show how the attraction of a site can be hindered by hegemonic assumptions of its history, and therefore of its most interesting and valuable aspects. Analyses of Falun’s marketing, as well as the site itself, show that the constructed hegemonic narratives about the Falun Mine primarily concern men, masculinity, and nationalism. Visitors are offered an opportunity to take part through narratives of the Swedish Great Power Period, as constructed and experienced by male geniuses and male mineworkers. These are the stories that correspond to the hegemonic view of those who manage and market the site.

Key words: Cultural heritage; Gender; Industrial heritage; Narrative constructions; Tourist destination; Visual representations

Address correspondence to Susanna Heldt Cassel, Ph.D., Assistant Professor/Senior Lecturer in Human Geography, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, SE-781 88 Borlänge, Sweden. Tel: +46 (0)23 77 85 31 +46 (0)7 337 27 395; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 11, pp. 17–30
1098-304X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830411X13049571092633
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Towards a Religious View of Tourism: Negotiating Faith Perspectives on Tourism

Daniel H. Olsen

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada

In recent years there has been a growth of academic literature related to the intersections between religion and tourism. While much of this research has taken place from an industry and academic perspective, little has been written on how leaders of particular religious faiths critique and evaluate secular understandings of religiously informed and motivated travel from a theological standpoint. The purpose of this article is to address this paucity of research by broadly examining how religious leaders and groups view tourism as a social phenomenon. Rather than this article being based on case-based primary research that highlights and critiques the specific views of tourism of particular religious traditions, this article offers a reflection on how scholars interested in investigating the views of tourism of religious leaders and groups can begin to answer the question, “how would one study how religious leaders view tourism?” Five research themes are suggested to understand religious views of tourism, including religious perspectives on appropriate leisure, religious views of hospitality, gendered religious spatial practices, religious views of the human body, and religious attitudes towards the arts. The article concludes with a call to tourism scholars to take religious views of tourism more seriously in any discussion related to religion and tourism.

Key words: Religious tourism; Theology; religious leaders

Address correspondence to Daniel H. Olsen, Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Brandon University, 4-10, John R. Brodie Science Centre, 270 18th Street, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada, R7A 6A9. Tel: (204) 727-9766; Fax: (204) 728-7346; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 11, pp. 31–42
1098-304X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830411X13049571092679
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Promoting Tourism in Linguistic Minority Spaces on the Web: A Study of Linguistic and Visual Resources on Tourist Websites for Dingle, Ireland and Inari, Finland

Helen Kelly-Holmes,* Sari Pietikäinen,† and Máiréad Moriarty*†

*Department of Languages and Cultural Studies, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
†Department of Languages, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland

This article explores the web-based promotion of tourism in two linguistic minority spaces, namely Dingle in the Corca Dhuibne Gaeltacht (designated Irish-speaking region) in Ireland and Inari in Finnish Sámiland. Tourism websites not only mediate the contact between tourist and tourism producer, but may also become part of the touristic experience both before and after the visit. Various combinations of resources are used on websites in order to provide access to information about the particular location on the one hand, and in order to differentiate the location and its particular attractions, on the other. Using a selection of 28 websites (14 from each location), we examine how tourist websites promote Dingle and Inari; what combination of linguistic and visual resources are used on these sites for promotional purposes; whether the relevant minority language is used, and, if so, how.

Key words: Tourist websites; Minority languages; Irish Sámi; Virtual ethnography

Address correspondence to Dr. Helen Kelly-Holmes, Department of Languages and Cultural Studies, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 11, pp. 43–54
1098-304X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830411X13049571092723
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

I–Thou Relationships in Tourism: The Case of Cross-Cultural Interaction Between Okinawan Locals and Japanese Tourists

Graham K. Henning,* Shinsuke Kawabata,* and Keiko Miyajima†

*School of Business, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA
†City University of New York, New York, NY, USA

This study examines encounters between Okinawan locals and Japanese mainland tourists on Okinawa. Rarely has Okinawan tourism been studied. The study applies the I–Thou ideas of Martin Buber, the great theologian, to those interactions. It appears this is the first study in tourism research to do so. I–Thou relations are those that engage another person fully, while I–It relations view the other person as a means to another end. I–Thou relations lead to change; I–It relations do not. It is difficult to ascertain the presence of I–Thou relations, but transformation, community, friendship, certain short encounters, as well as certain ways of describing the experience may be marks of I–Thou relations. This study interviewed 42 tourists and 35 locals via in-depth qualitative interviews. The results suggest some surprising conclusions. Goal-oriented tourism inhibits cross-cultural relations. Neither cultural similarity nor cultural difference affect whether I–Thou relations occur. I–Thou relations do not occur often, tempering views about tourism as an agent of change. The tourism goals of cultural plurality and transformation of our world can be achieved through I–Thou relations. The cultures of Japan and Okinawa indicate how transformation can be handled where I–It relations dominate.

Key words: Local–tourist relationship; Martin Buber; Intercultural; Cross-cultural; Transformation

Address correspondence to Graham K. Henning, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Business, Hagedorn Hall, Adelphi University, 1 South Avenue, Garden City, NY 11530, USA. Tel: 516-877-4452; Fax: 516-877-4607; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 11, pp. 57–67
1098-304X/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830411X13049571092769
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Critical Review

Cooperative Business Organizations: Intrinsic in Every Strategically Functional Tourism Industry

Neil Leiper,1 Matthew Lamont, and Nerilee Hing

School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia

Relationships between organizations sharing the same domain (such as a marketplace) can take the form of competition, cooperation, coexistence, or a combination of such. An article previously published in Tourism, Culture & Communication suggested that competition and cooperation are mutually exclusive. That is, business organizations cannot simultaneously compete and cooperate. This critique from Leiper, Lamont, and Hing critically discusses the notions of “competition” and “cooperation,” and presents evidence supporting a contention that business organizations commonly compete and cooperate on a concurrent basis. This review also seeks to clarify the notion of industrial cooperation by identifying and discussing two forms of industrial cooperation: intraindustry, and interindustry. The importance of both intraindustry and interindustry cooperation in understanding the structure of tourism industries is also highlighted. Readers should note that this article was initially composed as a counterargument paper (and almost completed!!) by Professor Neil Leiper in his study on the east coast of Australia. The article has been read as an “in progress” work by Lamont and Hing, who had worked closely with Professor Leiper over recent years. Lamont and Hing have sought to work with precision to retain and strengthen the core ideas of their colleague, Professor Leiper. In certain places, they have drawn on their long knowledge of the Leiper manifesto for relevant and strategic Tourism Management/Tourism Development decision making to round off the interpretations that Professor Leiper was in process of finalizing at his untimely passing. (Abstract by the Critical Review Editor)

Key words: Competition; Cooperation; Business strategy; Strategic management; Partial industrialization; Tourism