Tourism Analysis 16(6) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp.637 –647
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13228713394606
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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An Examination of Norwegians’ Expenditure Patterns on Domestic Winter Tourism

Christer Thrane,*† Eivind Farstad ,† and Petter Dybedal†

*Lillehammer University College, Faculty of Economics and Organization Science, Lillehammer, Norway
†Institute of Transport Economics, Gaustadalléen 21, Oslo, Norway

Foreign travel during summer time has gotten much attention from tourism scholars in past tourism research. This study, by contrast, scrutinizes the much less studied topic of domestic travel during winter time. In particular, the study addresses how a set of determinants affect Norwegians’ expenditures on their main domestic winter vacation away from home. Two of the main findings are (1) that it is necessary to split total expenditures into subcategories of expenditures to obtain a precise and comprehensive grasp of what causes the variations in expenditure patterns, and (2) that trip-related characteristics in general are much more important determinants of expenditures than sociodemographic variables. Some scholarly and marketing implications are finally discussed.

Key words: Norway; Tourism expenditures; Domestic tourism; Winter tourism, Tobit modeling

Address correspondence to Christer Thrane, Professor, Lillehammer University College, Faculty of Economics and Organization Science, Box 952, 2604 Lillehammer, Norway. Tel: +47 61 28 82 47; Fax:+47 61 28 81 70; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 649–662
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13228713394642
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Understanding Destination Choices of German Travelers

Carl H. Marcussen

Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Nexø, Denmark

Based on a literature review, this article proposes and subsequently tests 19 hypotheses about what affects destination choices. This is followed by an analysis of a set of data about long journeys undertaken by German travelers. The hypotheses are tested using three different methods, namely simple t-tests, multiple linear regression, and binomial logistic regression. Duration of stay, temperature difference, a coastline at the destination, mode of transport, travel distance, relative prices, travel party size, origin region, and number of destinations visited were the most significant determinants. Based on t-values from a series of multiple regression analysis, the three most significant characteristics are identified for each of the 25 most frequently visited destinations by German travelers.

Key words: Multiple regression; Logistic regression; Destination choice; Probabilities of visitation; Temperature differences

Address correspondence to Carl H. Marcussen, Ph.D., Senior Researcher, Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Stenbrudsvej 55, 3730 Nexø, Denmark. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 663–675
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13228713394688
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cross-Cultural Segments in International Student Travel: An Analysis of British and Chinese Market

Feifei Xu, Michael Morgan,1 and Miguel Moital

School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK

This article uses a global-centric approach to identify clusters of segments that cross national and cultural boundaries in the student travel market in the UK and China, a relatively underresearched area. Based on students’ motivations of travel, the article uses cluster analysis on 523 questionnaires from students in the two countries. The results indicated five cross-national segments in the student travel market, namely; the conservatives, the enthusiasts, the adventurers, the fun seekers, and the learners. Significant differences among the five segments, in terms of their driven motivation and traveling preferences, were identified. The results suggested that underneath the superficial differences, British and Chinese students can be segmented into similar clusters. The results of the study provide an important understanding of the student market, contributing to focus the marketing efforts differently when attempting to target different segments cross national.

Key words: Cross-cultural; Student travel; International segmentation; China; United Kingdom

1Sadly, Michael Morgan passed away after this manuscript was accepted for publication.
Address correspondence to Dr. Feifei Xu, Lecturer, School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, Fern Barrow, Poole, BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: 01202965547; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 677–692
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13228713394723
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Sex Tourism: A Match Through Japan’s Romance Dori (Street)

Austin Uzama

Tatiana International Research Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan

This article conveys the reality that Japan constitutes a sex tourist destination. Research method involved participant observation and interviews with sex tourists. Findings suggest, on one hand, that the sex industry continues to grow, irrespective of whether there is an economic recession and, on the other hand, that the younger the sex worker, the higher sex tourists are willing to pay for his/her services. This article advocates no ethical condemnation of the “sexatainment” industry in Japan and, as such, maintains a morally neutral stance. It recognizes societal ambivalent regard of sex business; it does however attempt to provoke awareness that although this trade, which is as old as mankind although considered by many as the dark side of tourism, in Japan, as in other countries; it certainly contributes to general economic gain. This benefit spreads across a broad spectrum of the economy; from transportation to manufacturing and other industrial sectors. It is also felt even in schools of higher learning.

Key words: Sex tourism; International tourist; Tourism in Japan; Japan travel; Sex in Japan

Address correspondence to Austin Uzama, Tatiana Intl. Research Co. Ltd., 3-11-30-105 Izuka, Kawaguchi city, Saitama-ken 332-0023, Japan. Tel: 0081-482-55-7688; Fax: 0081-482-55-5556; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 693–700
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13228713394769
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring Influential Factors That Explain the Probability of Visiting a Destination: The Case of State Travel Information Inquiry Groups

Minkyung Park* and Chi-Ok OH†

*School of Recreation, Health, and Tourism, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA
†Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies (CARR S), Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI, USA

Despite the importance of inquiry groups who requested travel information to the destinations in tourism marketing, little is known about the mechanism of how they are converted and what factors influence the inquirers to be converted to visitors. This study explores the state travel information inquirers to understand explanatory factors that influence the probability of visiting a destination after acquiring travel information. Using a logistic regression analysis, the study found that various explanatory factors affected the probability to visit a tourism destination among travel information inquiry groups. Further, the study indicates that in-state residents and short-distance visitors from adjacent states were more likely to visit after having inquired tourism information. This finding supports the idea that the resident segment is a more cost effective market and marketing activities that target these groups could be a good promotional strategy. The study results are expected to help tourism practitioners justify their advertising efforts and promotion budget, as well as develop better advertising and management strategies for converting more travel information inquirers into visitors.

Key words: Conversion study; Destination marketing; Destination marketing organizations (DMOs)

Address correspondence to Minkyung Park, Ph.D., School of Recreation, Health, and Tourism, George Mason University, 10900 University Blvd. MSN 4E5, Manassas, VA 20110, USA. Tel: 703-993-2062; Fax: 703-993-2025; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 701–707
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13228713394804
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Casino Security Risks and Outsourcing Criteria

Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee

School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Security is a major issue for casinos and other gambling establishments. Millions of dollars change hands at a casino in any one day and patrons must feel safe and that the gaming is honest and secure. This study consists of two parts. The first focuses on the security risks facing casinos including those associated with theft, cheating, cyber threats, underage gambling, and Internet gambling. The second investigates the criteria that should be taken into consideration when choosing an outside security organization for a casino. These include image and reputation, cost effectiveness, communication and level of control, knowledge and experience of security, and culture and employees. Recommendations are made on how overall security can be improved on gambling premises and how successful implementation of outsourced security can be made.

Key words: Casino risks; Casino security; Outsourcing

Address correspondence to Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ph.D., School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia. Tel: +61 7 3346 6259; Fax: +61 7 3346 8716; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 709–713
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13228713394840
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

African as Tourist

Muchazondida Mkono

School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia

This article argues that in most tourism studies the African has been stereotypically cast as a “touree” but not “tourer.” As such, mainstream theory in tourism is a product of a predominantly Western ethnocentric view of the tourist as a Westerner. In recent years, however, some authors have started to question modern-man-in-general approaches to the study of tourism, highlighting their failure to recognize the interface between culture and tourism. The article argues further that authenticity, for example, has been at the center of tourism sociological debate for decades, yet to date no attempts have been made to provide an African viewpoint. Indeed, the lack of African tourist studies which investigate culture specific meanings in relation to central debates in tourism has created an “African perspective gap” in tourism theory in general.

Key words: Western ethnocentrism; Tourism theory; Authenticity; African tourists; African perspective

Address correspondence to Muchazondida Mkono, Ph.D. student, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, P.O. Box 157, Lismore, New South Wales, 2480, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 715–720
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13228713394886
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Windsurfing Risks: Participants’ Expectations, Perceptions, and Satisfaction

Girish Prayag

SKEMA Business School, Sophia Antipolis, France

Many studies exist on destination choice risks but few have investigated perceived risk in the adventure sector. Of adventure activities, mountaineering and white-water rafting are the most researched. Also, the use of a comparative framework measuring risk perceptions in relation to initial expectations is limited. Hence, this study evaluates risk expectations and perceptions among a convenience sample of windsurfers to Mauritius. The results indicated the existence of risk “gaps” and perceived risk had a negative relationship with satisfaction. Managerial implications are suggested.

Key words: Perceived risk; Windsurfing; Expectations; Satisfaction; Mauritius

Address correspondence to Girish Prayag, Assistant Professor of Marketing, SKEMA Business School, 157 Rue A. Einstein-BP085, 06902 Sophia Antipolis, France. Tel: +33(0)4 93 95 45 53; Fax: +33(0)4 93 95 44 06; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 721–727
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13228713394921
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Away From Home: A New Revelation of Young to Tourist Behavior

Paolo Mura and Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore

School of Hospitality, Tourism & Culinary Arts, Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Although the economic and sociocultural significance of the youth tourism market highlights the importance of conducting research on the young tourist, there is a lack of in-depth exploration and understanding of young tourists’ experiences on holiday. The aim of this article is to explore young beach-oriented tourists’ behavior on holiday by employing a qualitative research method. Twenty-five young tourists in Ios, Greece were observed systematically over a 3-month period and then interviewed. The findings reveal that drug consumption (including alcohol) and unprotected sex were common activities among the young tourists on Ios. More interestingly, the results show that patterns of behavior on holiday were often discussed by the young tourists in relation to patterns of behavior in the home environment. This finding has important implications because it further advances our understanding of the relationship between the tourism experience and the leisure experience in the home environment.

Key words: Youth tourism; Qualitative methods; Tourism marketing

Address correspondence to Paolo Mura, School of Hospitality, Tourism & Culinary Arts, Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 731–746
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354211X13228713659648
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

Political Economy of Destination Image: Manufacturing Cuba

Culum Canally and Barbara A. Carmichael

Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

The overt manipulation of tourist destination image (TDI) is a commonly accepted practice among tourism destination marketing organizations, as well as, tourism business interests. While there has been significant critique of the business of tourism and tourism marketing’s role in worldmaking—as recently covered in the pages of this journal and in other publications like Tourism Geographies—less scrutiny has focused on how public policy acts, through tourism, as a salient worldmaker. This article from Canally and Carmichael (in Canada) constructs a framework incorporating models from tourist destination image research and critical theory to determine how governmental public policy, both domestic and international, influence TDI formation. This framework is then used to conduct a critical discourse analysis of the three key US policy documents that formulate the US government’s stance towards diplomatic relations with Cuba. The result is a political economy of TDI, which traces the influence of intergovernmental and extra-governmental power structures that manipulate the image of a potential tourist destination (Cuba), to manufacture a discourse that aligns with the ideologies of the political elites in the US. A conceptual model of governmental manipulation of image formation agents is proposed.

Key words: Tourist destination image; Cuba; Critical discourse analysis; Political economy; Worldmaking

Address correspondence to Dr. Culum Canally, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it