Event Management 16(1) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 1–9
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13264729827479
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Local Festivals Affect the Destination Choice of Tourists

Min-Jung Oh* and Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee†

*Korea Tourism Development Institute, Nonhyeon-Dong, Seoul, Korea
†Hospitality and Tourism, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Beppu City, Japan

This study investigates whether local festivals can be a tourist attraction in their own right and encourage tourists to visit a particular tourist destination. It examines 17 of the 30 festivals held on Jeju Island, Korea, as a case study. It also identifies links between the festivals and tourists’ perception of Jeju Island. The results of the study suggest that the more the tourists were aware of the festivals, the more likely they were to consider the festivals as an important factor in their destination choice. The level of satisfaction from attending the festivals was directly proportional to the level of overall satisfaction of the destination. Recommendations are provided for the successful management of festivals at a destination to attract more tourists including “systematization of the festivals” and “self-supporting festivals.” This study contributes to research into the role of festivals as a main tourism catalyst not only as a supporting event for the tourism industry in a well-developed tourist destination.

Key words: Local festivals; Destination choice; Jeju Island

Address correspondence to Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ph.D., Professor in Hospitality and Tourism, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Jumonjibaru, Beppu City, 874-8577 Japan. Tel: +81 977 78 1224; Fax: +81 977 78 1123; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 11–23
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13264729827514
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Towards the Development of an Evaluation Questionnaire for Academic Conferences

Clifford Lewis and Greg Kerr

Institute of Innovation in Business and Social Research, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia

Each year, academic conferences are held at destinations throughout the world. These conferences provide benefits to the host destination’s economy as well as to the conference participants. Involving travel and accommodation, academic conferences can be classified as business tourism. Academics often have a range of conferences from which to choose. The conference experience therefore may be important in the decision to reattend or recommend a conference to other potential attendees. While many conference organizers distribute a “conference evaluation sheet” at the end of a conference, there is no evidence of a standardized questionnaire that evaluates the entire conference experience. The objective of this work is to make such a contribution by identifying the attributes that are deemed to be important to the academic conference attendee and assigning a measurement scale for each attribute. The attributes are identified by way of a review of the services and tourism literature, and through semistructured interviews with academics. In addition to evaluating the entire conference experience, the questionnaire can be used to make longitudinal comparisons of a conference, and comparisons between conferences.

Key words: Meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE); Academic conferences; Evaluation questionnaire

Address correspondence to Clifford Lewis, Faculty of Commerce, Institute of Innovation in Business and Social Research, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia. Tel: +61-04-1353-0051; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 25–36
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13264729827550
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Case Study of Recreational Golfers’ Interest in the 2008 Ryder Cup

John Harris,* Sangkwon Lee,† and Mark Lyberger†

*Department of Management, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland
†Sport Administration, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA

The Ryder Cup is the premier team competition in golf and is often described as the third biggest sports event in the world. Despite this, the match has received scant attention from scholars in event management and other associated disciplines. This case study examines recreational golfers’ interest in the Ryder Cup and attempts to discover what they perceive to be the defining characteristics of the match, in order to develop a better understanding of the positioning of the event. While there has been an increase in research focusing on major sporting events, little work has explored the Ryder Cup and less still has looked at the views of recreational participants in a sport. The research identified that respondents generally identified positive characteristics with the match but also found that the Ryder Cup was of less interest to them than a range of other major golf and sport events. The limitations of the case study and an outline of further research in this area is also discussed.


Key words: Ryder Cup; Sporting events; Golfers; Interest

Address correspondence to John Harris, Ph.D., Department of Management, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow, Scotland G4 0BA, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 37–50
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13264729827596
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Management Attitudes Towards Event Impacts in the Tourist Destination: The Case of Istria, Croatia

Klara Trošt* and Ines Milohnić†

*Institute of Agriculture and Tourism Poreč, Poreč, Croatia
†Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management Opatija, University of Rijeka, Croatia

As the understanding of the importance of monitoring of social and environmental event impacts grows, together with the economic impacts, event management stakeholders face the challenge of greater responsibility in strategic decision making, as well as in achieving sustainable event results. The purpose of this article is to determine the attitudes of the local tourist organizations’ managers in the County of Istria towards the importance of monitoring of the economic, social, and environmental impacts of events. The County of Istria is the most developed tourist region in Croatia. Events have only recently been recognized in Croatia as an interesting phenomenon, both in a scientific and a practical sense. For the needs of the research, the data were gathered directly from the managers of 27 tourist organizations, using the interview method. The research results indicate that art events, which are limited to the summer months and geographically directed to the coastal destinations, make up the most significant part in the event structure. Environmental and social events in tourist destinations have been identified as the most significant, followed by the economic impacts. Equally, the research revealed a lack of managerial skills in the event evaluation aspects.

Key words: Events; Impacts; Evaluation; Local tourist organization; Istria

Address correspondence to Klara Trošt, Institute of Agriculture and Tourism Poreč, Karla Huguesa 8, 52450 Poreč, Croatia. Tel: +385 9591 48008; Fax: +385 52 431659; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 51–64
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13264729827631
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Mental Accounting and Festival Visitors’ Expenditures: An Exploration for New Factors

Michelle Y. Mosely* and Charles Chancellor†

*Virginia State University, Department of Hospitality Management, Petersburg, VA, USA
†School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA

The purpose of this study was to examine the theoretical concept of mental accounting to determine if festival visitors’ budgeting practices influence expenditures. The exploratory findings from this study suggest that visitors’ budgeting practices play a role in their festival expenditures. Results revealed that participants did not plan to spend more money at the festival than what they budget to spend on leisure activities in a typical weekend. This study also explored respondents’ perspectives of other possible factors that influence their festival expenditures. Several new factors emerged, such as festival prices, supporting community organizations, product quality, and need. Recommendations are provided for further research.

Key words: Festivals; Visitors’ expenditures; Mental accounting

Address correspondence to Charles Chancellor, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies, Indiana University, 1025 East Seventh Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. Tel: 812-856-0969; Fax: 812-855-3998; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 65–76
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13264729827677
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Antecedents and Consequences of Tourist Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction: A Case Study of a Festival in Korea

Siyoung Ryu,* Seoho Um,* and Timothy J. Lee†

*College of Tourism Studies, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Korea
†Hospitality and Tourism, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Beppu City, Japan

The study aims to verify the two-dimensional construct, compare it to a unidimensional model, and identify the causality among the antecedents and consequences of tourist satisfaction/dissatisfaction. It examines satisfaction and attitude change of visitors to a festival in Korea. It used the Expectation-Disconfirmation Paradigm but excluded expectation and perceived performance. It found that wants-disconfirmation had a strong relationship with both satisfaction and dissatisfaction, while needs-disconfirmation had a relationship only with satisfaction. Tourist satisfaction was positively related to attitude change; however, the relationship between tourist dissatisfaction and attitude change was not significant. The results of the study lead to a better understanding of tourist behavior and an improved ability to predict future behavior more accurately, especially of a festival event.

Key words: Festival; Tourist satisfaction; Attitude change; Two-factor theory; Needs/wants

Address correspondence to Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ph.D., Professor in Hospitality and Tourism, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Jumonjibaru, Beppu City, 874-8577 Japan. Tel: +81 977 78 1224; Fax: +81 977 78 1123; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 77–91
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13264729827712
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Capacity Building and the Contribution of Public Festivals: Evaluating “Cardiff 2005”

Nick Clifton,* Diane O’Sullivan,† and David Pickernell‡

*Economic Geography and Regional Development, Cardiff School of Management, Cardiff, UK
†Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Welsh Enterprise Institute, University of Glamorgan Business School, Pontypridd, UK
‡Economic Development Policy, Welsh Enterprise Institute, University of Glamorgan Business School, Pontypridd, UK

Festivals and special events are increasingly encouraged by urban policy makers as driving local (and regional) economic and cultural regeneration, with the consequent justification of public investment therein. This has led to an emerging need for deeper understanding of their contribution, and for evaluation beyond the purely economic. In order to explore these issues, the Cardiff 2005 festival is used as a case study. This initiative attracted £1.3 million from the Millennium Commission’s Urban Cultural Programme, matched by Cardiff City Council, to fund a year-long celebration of Cardiff’s centenary. This article, therefore, explores the significance of “fit for purpose” festival/special event evaluation, highlighting critical issues in evaluation practice. Ultimately, although a cultural success, Cardiff 2005 represents something of a missed opportunity, in terms of both legacy and fit for purpose evaluation. It is suggested that this has implications for similar initiatives both in the UK and internationally.

Key words: Festivals; Evaluation; Capacity building; Cardiff; Legacy

Address correspondence to Nick Clifton, Reader in Economic Geography and Regional Development, Cardiff School of Management, UWIC, Llandaff, Cardiff, CF5 2YB UK. Tel: +442920 417159; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 93–101
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13264729827758
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Key Characteristics of Multicultural Festivals: A Critical Review of the Literature

Insun Sunny Lee,* Charles Arcodia,1 and Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee†

*School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
†Hospitality and Tourism, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Beppu City, Japan

While multicultural festivals have become a significant feature of multicultural societies, offering a distinct and valuable experience for visitors, few studies have considered their role in contemporary social settings. This article outlines the key characteristics of multicultural festivals by drawing upon literature from a range of disciplines to clearly conceptualize their role. The article concludes that such festivals play a particularly significant role engendering multiculturalism in outwardly diverse social contexts. It contributes, in turn, to further comprehension of the importance of such festivals in contemporary social contexts characterized by growing ethnic diversity.

Key words: Multicultural festival; Cultural celebration; Cultural identity; Cultural expression; Social interaction

1Address as of July 1, 2012: Department of Tourism Leisure Hotel & Sport Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, QLD, Australia.
Address correspondence to Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ph.D., Professor in Hospitality and Tourism, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Jumonjibaru, Beppu City, 874-8577 Japan. Tel: +81 977 78 1224; Fax: +81 977 78 1123; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it