Information Technology & Tourism 13(3) Abstracts

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Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 13 pp. 139–159
1098-3058/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830512X13283928066715
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

The Online Reputation Construct: Does it Matter for the Tourism Domain? A Literature Review on Destinations’ Online Reputation

Elena Marchiori and Lorenzo Cantoni

webatelier.net, Faculty of Communication Sciences, Università della Svizzera italiana (University of Lugano), Lugano, Switzerland

Online communication perspective might be relevant for a research on reputation for two main reasons: (i) it sees the Web as one more publishing arena, where people access information and form a mediated experience, providing contents that are accessed by many people, and those people might form opinions similar to those expressed, those contents can be considered proxies of reputation; (ii) applications and usages belonging to the so-called Web 2.0 allow individuals to publish online their opinions: user-generated contents (UGC), those individual opinions may be seen as instances of reputation: they can be harvested and treated as answers to an implicit survey. The goal of this research is to investigate whether it is possible to define a framework for the analysis of the online reputation in the tourism field, in particular applied to tourism destinations.

Key words: Online reputation; Tourism destinations; Literature review; eTourism; eWOM; Reputation

Address correspondence to Elena Marchiori, Ph.D. Candidate, webatelier.net Laboratory, Faculty of Communication Sciences, Università della Svizzera italiana (University of Lugano-USI), Via G. Bufi 13, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 13 pp. 161–176
1098-3058/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830512X13283928066751
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Role of DMS in Reshaping Tourism Destinations: An Analysis of the Portuguese Case

João Vaz Estêvão,* Maria João Carneiro,† and Leonor Teixeira†

*School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, ESTH, Polytechnic Institute of Guarda, Seia, Portugal
†DEGEI-University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, Aveiro, Portugal

The growing competition among tourism destinations, the diversity of tourism suppliers, and the sophistication of the tourism demand bring new challenges to destination competitiveness, making it a more dynamic and ongoing process. The emergence of the Internet as the main vehicle of promotion and distribution of tourism destinations’ offerings has been presenting considerable advantages, but also challenges, to destination managers. Among the several Internet-based solutions aiming at enhancing destination competitiveness, destination management systems (DMSs) have emerged as a relevant tool to increase destination competitiveness. The present article extends previous research by providing a literature review on the advantages of DMSs and by presenting a diagnosis analysis of potential benefits of creation of DMSs in Portugal and of the current conditions to establish these systems in this country. The analysis reveals that the adoption of DMSs may provide a wide range of advantages for destination management organizations (DMOs), the tourism industry, and potential visitors, namely, at the coordination, disintermediation, and promotion levels. The study also suggests that DMSs may bring several benefits to the Portuguese tourism system, such as the diversification of tourism destinations, products, origin markets, and distribution channels. Although some constraints seem to exist for creating DMSs in Portugal, the country’s current tourism policies, the recent restructuration of regional tourism boards, and some data concerning the e-Readiness of the Portuguese tourism industry seem to favor the creation of these systems.

Key words: Destination management systems (DMSs); Tourism destinations; Destination management organizations (DMOs); Competitiveness

Address correspondence to Maria João Carneiro, DEGEI-University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Tel: 00351 234 370027; Fax: 00351 234 370215; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 13 pp. 177–189
1098-3058/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830512X13283928066797
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Leapfrogging and Internet Implementation by Tourism Organizations

Ahmad Fareed Ismail,*† Noor Hazarina Hashim,‡ Gabriel Gemignani,§¶ and Jamie Murphy*

*Murdoch Business School, Murdoch University, Western Australia, Australia
†Department of Food Service & Management, Faculty of Food Science & Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
‡Faculty of Management and HRD, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
§Innaloo, Western Australia, Australia
¶The Perth Mint, Gold Corporation Australia, Western Australia, Australia

Drawing upon the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) and technological ideologies, this article develops three areas for research of successful Internet implementation. The first research area is to operationalize and validate measures of successful Internet implementation. The second area calls for investigating how five factors—bandwagon effects, leapfrog effects, cloud computing, open communities, and system legacy—relate to successful Internet implementation. Finally, this article proposes combining technology ideologies and adopter categories to examine (un)successful Internet implementation. Diffusion of Innovations covers many aspects of innovation adoption and implementation, but implementation stage research remains sparse and perhaps no diffusion research has incorporated moral values towards technology. The article concludes with the contributions of this agenda for researching successful Internet implementation.

Key words: Leapfrog effects; Diffusion of Innovations; Internet implementation; e-Tourism; Cloud computing

Address correspondence to Ahmad Fareed Ismail, Murdoch Business School, 90 South Street, Murdoch University, Western Australia 6150, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 13 pp. 191–204
1098-3058/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830512X13283928066832
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Use of the World Wide Web by the Portuguese Accommodation Industry

Susan Athey

College of Business, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO, USA

This article analyzes 1,557 accommodations in Portugal to determine how they use the Web for marketing. Use varies by location, type of property, and star rating of the property. Eighty-four percent have a website, with the largest percentage located in Lisbon. Pousada and hotel property types have the largest percentage of websites. The higher the star rating, the more likely the property is to have a website. English and Portuguese are the most common property website languages. Only 49% of the properties allow a customer to make an online reservation with immediate confirmation, identified as one of the most important value-added features for a hotel website.

Key words: Portugal; Marketing; Internet; Websites; Accommodations

Address correspondence to Dr. Susan Athey, College of Business, 1201 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, USA. Tel: +1 970-491-5322; Fax: +1 970-491-0596; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 13 pp. 205–214
1098-3058/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830512X13283928066887
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Strategic Implications for Overcoming Communication Gaps in Tourism Caused by Digital Divide

Christian Maurer and Veronika Lutz

Department of Tourism and Leisure Management, IMC FH Krems University of Applied Sciences, Krems, Austria

Based on the fact that information is nowadays commonly spread by means of digital media, poor access to any kind of digital information and communication technology can cause severe information gaps. Based on a literature review as well as expert interviews, this article assesses the phenomenon of the global digital divide, various reasons for the divide’s existence, possible consequences, and strategic implications for reducing the gap. A hierarchical structure of four multiple digital divides (digital access, digital usage, digital skills, and digital attitude divide) between five stages of digital development composing the global digital divide was deduced and put into relation with the continuum from information to knowledge gap in the tourism context. It will be argued that the key impact of the digital divide on global tourism is on communication between demand and supply. Communication gaps are related in a digital communication matrix, which ought to be used for education among digitally underdeveloped destinations to support them in overcoming the digital divide.

Key words: Digital divide; Information gap; ICTs in tourism; Developing countries

Address correspondence to Christian Mauer, Department of Tourism and Leisure Management, IMC University of Applied Sciences Krems, Piaristengasse 1, A-3500 Krems, Austria. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 13 pp. 215–228
1098-3058/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830512X13283928066913
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Destinations and the Web: A Network Analysis View

Roland Piazzi,* Rodolfo Baggio,† Julia Neidhardt,‡ and Hannes Werthner‡

*Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
†Dondena Center for Research on Social Dynamics, Bocconi University, Milan, Italy
‡Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria

Network analysis methods have gained much attention in the last few years and have provided a wealth of insights into the structural and dynamic properties of many systems. Here, we apply these methods to the study of tourism destinations’ Web spaces. This exploratory analysis aims at showing how these techniques can be used and what outcomes can be obtained. After a short introduction to network analysis and a brief review of the literature, two cases are presented, namely Austria as a whole country, and a smaller destination within Italy: the island of Elba. For each case, data collection methods are described and the characteristic network parameters are calculated. The comparison between the two cases highlights both similarities and differences, which are described and interpreted. Finally, the limitations of this approach are discussed.

Key words: Web; Network analysis; Tourism destinations

Address correspondence to Rodolfo Baggio, Master in Economics and Tourism, Dondena Center for Research on Social Dynamics, Bocconi University, via Sarfatti, 25, 20136 Milan, Italy. Tel: +39 0258365437; Fax: +39 0258365439; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 13 pp. 229–238
1098-3058/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830512X13283928066959
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourist-Activated Networks: Implications for Dynamic Bundling and En Route Recommendations

Florian Zach* and Ulrike Gretzel†

*National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
†Laboratory for Intelligent Systems in Tourism, Institute for Innovation in Business and Social Research, University of Wollongong, Australia

This article discusses tourist-activated networks as a concept to inform technological applications supporting dynamic bundling and en route recommendations. Empirical data were collected from travelers who visited a regional destination in the US and then analyzed with respect to its network structure. The results indicate that the tourist-activated network for the destination is rather sparse and that there are clearly differences in core and peripheral nodes. The findings illustrate the structure of a tourist-activated network and provide implications for technology design and tourism marketing.

Key words: Tourist-activated networks; Network analysis; Dynamic packaging; On-the-move traveler; Destination management organizations

Address correspondence to Florian Zach, National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 13 pp. 239–257
1098-3058/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830512X13283928066995
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Online Information Search: Differences Between Goal-Directed and Experiential Search

Astrid Dickinger* and Brigitte Stangl†

*Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, MODUL University Vienna, Vienna, Austria
†Institute for Tourism and Leisure Research, HTW Chur, Chur, Switzerland

Travelers’ use of the Internet as an information source has been the subject of research in the past. Most studies focus on the search process; however, the influence of the actual search goal on search behavior has been neglected. Travelers’ interactions with a website may depend on whether they search for precise factual information or rather stimulus driven and unplanned. This article provides an overview of literature on information search and shows how searchers who are browsing a website just for fun or are searching for factual information differ in their perception. A survey among 445 travelers will give insight into search behavior depending on the search setting. The results indicate that the main drivers for value and satisfaction for a goal-directed search are content quality followed by usefulness. These effects are attenuated for the experiential search. Further, ease of use is only significant for the goal-directed search group while enjoyment only exhibits effects for experiential searchers.

Key words: Information search behavior; Goal-directed and experiential information search; e-Tourism

Address correspondence to Astrid Dickinger, Associate Professor, Department or Tourism and Hospitality Management, MODUL University Vienna, Am Kahlenberg 1, 1190 Vienna, Austria. Tel: +43 1 320 3555 412; Fax: +43 1 320 3555 90; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it