Tourism Analysis 17(1) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 1–14
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13330406123936
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Applying Causal Mapping to Tourism Research: A Case Study of American College Students’ Experiences in China Study Abroad Programs1

Brooke Bliss,* Xiang (Robert) Li,† Fang Meng,‡ and Rich Harrill†

*Carroll School of Management, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA
†School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
‡School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, SmartState Center of Economic Excellence in Tourism and Economic Development, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

This article utilizes causal mapping technique to examine how influential psychological factors in one’s judgment, both conscious and unconscious, contribute to tourist behaviors. Through analyzing qualitative data generated from extensive interviews of two US college students who participated in study abroad programs in China, this research provides insight into the students’ decision-making process, particularly influencers that affect these decisions when choosing the programs. Students’ specific motivations, origin of perceptions, the strength of influential relationships, and the ramifications of in-country experiences were also discussed. The study demonstrates the utility of causal mapping in deciphering tourists’ thought processes. Further, the results provide insights and implications about marketing China as a study abroad destination for American students.

Key words: China; Causal mapping; Study abroad; SMERF tourism

1The first three authors contributed equally to this article, and their names appear in alphabetical order.
Address correspondence to Xiang (Robert) Li, Ph.D., School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Tel: +1 (803) 777-2764; Fax: +1 (803) 777-1224; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 15–26
1083-5423/12 $60.00 .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13330406123972
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Information Usefulness Versus Ease of Use: Which Makes a Destination Website More Persuasive?

Hui (Jimmy) Xie,* Deborah Kerstetter,† Anna S. Mattila,‡ Christine Buzinde,† and Duarte B. Morais§

*Department of Recreation and Tourism Management, California State University at Northridge, Northridge, CA, USA
†Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
‡School of Hospitality Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
§Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

It is important that destination marketing organizations (DMOs) understand how website design influences consumers’ interest in visiting a destination. Grounded in psychological theories of emotions, this study proposes a model to predict interest in visiting the destination. Results of structural equation modeling indicate that perceived information usefulness and perceived ease of use have a positive effect on perceived enjoyment, which in turn has a positive impact on interest in visiting the destination. In addition, perceived ease of use has a much stronger effect on interest in visiting than perceived information usefulness. Implications for marketing practice and future research are discussed.

Key words: Perceived information usefulness; Perceived ease of use; Perceived enjoyment; Interest in visiting the destination

Address correspondence to Hui (Jimmy) Xie, Assistant Professor, Department of Recreation and Tourism Management, California State University at Northridge, 250 Redwood Hall, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330, USA. Tel: (818) 677-5896; Fax: (818) 677-2695; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 27–41
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13330406124016
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Multistakeholder Values on the Sustainability of Dive Tourism: Case Studies of Sipadan and Perhentian Islands, Malaysia

Janet Haddock-Fraser* and Mark P. Hampton†

*Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, UK
†Kent Business School, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK

The impact on the marine environment of the rapidly growing dive tourism industry in less developed countries is increasingly understood, but little research currently exists on its impact on overall sustainability at host sites. This article applies Social Exchange Theory to assess multistakeholders’ perspectives of dive tourism for two Malaysian islands: the Perhentians and Sipadan. We argue that multiple interest groups exist within the sites, with heterogeneous attitudes relating to dive tourism. We found that dive instructors (most knowledgeable and engaged) have the most polarized views and clearly identify links between environment, society, and development. Nondive businesses show greater engagement with economic development impact, but may not link this to environmental preservation. Tourists were surprisingly indifferent—highlighting their lack of loyalty to “place” per se or opportunities for alternative travel choices.

Key words: Sustainable tourism; Stakeholders; Economic development; Environment

Address correspondence to Mark P. Hampton, Senior Lecturer in Tourism Management, Kent Business School, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7PE, UK. Tel: +44 1634 888862; Fax: +44 1634 888890; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 43–54
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13330406124098
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Gender Bias and Demographics Vis-à-Vis Managing Turkish Hospitality Industry Personnel1

Michael K. McCuddy,* Musa Pinar,* and Ibrahim Birkan†

*Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN, USA
†Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey

Within the large and growing body of research on gender issues is a concern with gender bias in managerial decisions and actions. Unfortunately, mixed evidence exists as to whether men and women differ in how they enact their organizational roles and deal with their employees. Focusing on the perceptions of employees in Turkey’s hospitality industry, this article reports on a study designed to ascertain the extent to which gender bias is perceived to exist in six managerial activities as they relate to managing human resources, and whether the perception of gender bias is affected by employees’ demographic characteristics. Results demonstrate the existence of a gender bias for three of the six managerial activities, as well as the differential impact of the demographic characteristics on the managerial activities. Implications of the results for the Turkish hotel industry are explored.

Key words: Gender bias; Hospitality industry; Demographics; Supervising personnel; Turkey

1An earlier version of this article was presented at the American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences 17th Annual Meeting, February 18–21, 2010, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Address correspondence to Musa Pinar, Ph.D., Professor of Marketing, College of Business Administration, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383, USA. Tel: (219) 464-5401; Fax: (219) 464-5789; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 55–66
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13330406124133
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

International Stereotype and the Collective Construction of Destination Image

Chun-Chu Chen,* Yueh-Hsiu Lin,† and James F. Petrick*

*Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
†Graduate Institute of Hospitality Education, National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ROC

This research examines destination image as a collective construction by utilizing the context of image formation, particularly focusing on the context of structural relationships between guest and host nations. Based on international image theory that suggests overall perceptions of a foreign nation stemming from the perceived relationships between two nations or international stereotypes might be collectively formed within a nation and serve as a predictor of internation attitudes, this research investigates the effects of international stereotypes on destination image. The results indicate that people have more negative destination perceptions of a perceived unfriendly nation than a perceived friendly nation, which provides evidence of destination image as a collective construction. The results further highlight the importance of context in the process of image formation.

Key words: International stereotype; Destination image; Collective image

Address correspondence to Chun-Chu Chen, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, TAMU 2261, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Tel: 979-845-9786; Fax: 979-845-0446; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 66–77
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13330406124179
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cohort Analysis of Tourists’ Spending on Lodging During Recreational Fishing Trips

Sangchoul Yi, Jonathon Day, and Liping A. Cai

School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

Utilizing Palmore’s analytic strategy in cohort analysis, the present study was designed to investigate cohort differences and longitudinal change in lodging expenditure on recreational fishing trips. The study examined recreational fishing tourists’ lodging expenditure behavior in the context of rural tourism. National survey data for 2001 and 2006 fishing, hunting, and wildlife-associated recreation were analyzed to conduct cohort analysis. Findings showed that lodging expenditure in 2006 increased as much as 40% from figures for 2001. That increase was primarily due to changes in tourists’ taste and social structure. The study pays particular attention to the social changes anticipated as baby boomers retire. The senior baby boomer cohort in this study provided an explanation for why and how senior baby boomer tourists behaved differently than the broader tourism market. Academically, the study approached tourism’s economic contribution at the macrolevel (tourism industry wide) and microlevel (tourists’ spending behavior). The study suggested that the macroapproaches and microapproaches could provide in-depth understanding of tourists’ behavior.

Key words: Cohort analysis; Lodging expenditure; Recreational fishing; Senior baby boomer generation; Tourists’ spending; Truncated regression model

Address correspondence to Sangchoul Yi, Research Assistant, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, 900 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47906-2059, USA. Tel: (765) 464-9051; Fax: (765) 494-0327; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 79–89
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13330406124214
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Factors Influencing Domestic Tourism for Urban and Semiurban Populations Around Nairobi National Park, Kenya

Moses Makonjio Okello,* Lekishon Kenana,† and Damiannah Kieti‡

*SFS Center for Wildlife Management Studies, Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
†Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, Kenya
‡Department of Tourism and Tour Operations Management, Moi University-Kenya, Eldoret, Kenya

Tourism is a very important source for foreign revenue for Kenya. But most of this revenue is from international tourists. However, international tourists cannot always support the tourism industry, especially in years of economic, political, and social turmoil. A vibrant domestic tourism can cushion the industry from fluctuations of the international tourism market and bring stability and predictability in the industry. This study sought to address factors influencing urban and semiurban local population visitation to Nairobi National Park (NNP), and suggest ways of improving it in Kenya. The data for this study were gathered through semistructured interviews and discussions with communities surrounding the park. The results revealed that a significant (p < 0.001) majority (66%) of the community had visited the park. About half of the people (59%) were interested in viewing wildlife as the main recreational opportunity provided by the park. However, only less than 50% of the community had visited the park more than three times in their lifetime. The level of education influenced the likelihood of the community to visit the park and appreciate its conservation contribution. Even though the lack of free time, lack of interest in wildlife, or the thinking that protected areas in Kenya were meant for foreign tourists, were not hindrances to local community visiting the parks, they noted that key constraints were lack of extra disposable income, high cost of food and hospitality services inside the park for local communities, and poor marketing of parks especially targeting local Kenyans hindered high visitation rates of local Kenyans to protected areas. A large number (81%) of community members mentioned poor marketing as the reason for low park visits. Indeed, 96% said no form of advertisement for NNP had influenced their decision to visit. Hence, there is a need for new domestic customer-oriented marketing and a more friendly hospitality services tailored to local tourists among government policy to improve the economy to release more disposable income for leisure targeting NNP and other protected areas in Kenya.

Key words: Domestic tourism; International tourism; Domestic marketplace; Nairobi National Park

Address correspondence to Dr. Damiannah Kieti, Department of Tourism and Tour Operations Management, Moi University-Kenya, P.O. Box 3900–30100, Eldoret, Kenya. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 91–98
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13330406124296
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Causality Between Foreign Direct Investment and Tourism: Empirical Evidence From India

Saroja Selvanathan,* E. A. Selvanathan,* and Brinda Viswanathan†

*Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia
†Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India

India’s liberalization and deregulation policies during the early 1990s have attracted a huge amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) into India in recent years. India has been ranked as the second most favored FDI destination in the world, just behind China. Policy makers in many countries believe that FDI will lead their country’s overall development, including the tourism sector. This article investigates the causal link between FDI and tourist arrivals in India by employing the Granger causality test under a VAR framework. A two-way causality link is found between FDI and tourist arrivals in India. This explains the rapid growth in the tourism sector as well as FDI in India during the last decade. Our two-way causality results in relation to India are similar to the findings of a number of small island developing states (SIDS).

Key words: Foreign direct investment (FDI); Inbound tourism; Growth; Cointegration; Causality

Address correspondence to Professor Saroja Selvanathan, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it