Event Management 16(2) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 107–118
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X 13343565268258
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Events and Festivals: Fit for the Future?

Calvin Jones

Cardiff Business School & ESRC BRASS Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK

Over recent decades, the events and festivals sector has enjoyed a period of sustained growth in terms of both commercial scale and media attention. Now, however, a number of factors suggest that a retrenchment may be imminent, bringing with it significant threats to the viability of much current activity. Environmental factors, particularly fossil-fuel depletion and climate change regulation, will work to make travel (and hence event attendance) more costly. At the same time, the necessary unwinding of public and private debt, in the West at least, may put further pressure on events’ and festivals’ revenues. This article examines these pressures in more detail and makes tentative suggestions as to how the sector might respond to ensure that it can continue to provide important social and cultural benefits in straitened times.

Key words: Climate change; Peak oil; Risk; Economics; Demand; Recession/credit crunch

Address correspondence to Dr. Calvin Jones, Cardiff Business School & ESRC BRASS Centre, Cardiff University, Colum Drive, Cardiff, CF10 3EU, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 119–131
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13343565268294
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sustainable Mega-Events: Beyond the Myth of Balanced Approaches to Mega-Event Sustainability

C. Michael Hall

Department of Management, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Australia

The concept of sustainability is now integral to the lexicon of tourism and is increasingly becoming part of the discourse of mega-events. Yet despite the success of the concept of sustainable development in being adopted in tourism policy making and research, tourism is less sustainable then ever if environmental measures are adopted. Similarly, substantial questions have been raised as to the sustainability of mega-events. Three frames of sustainability are used with reference to tourism and mega-events: economic sustainability, balanced sustainability, and steady-state sustainability. Each of these has implications for the paradigm under which mega-events are developed and attracted. Only steady-state sustainability is regarded as sufficient to maintain or enhance natural capital. However, the likelihood of the required policy learning to occur for this paradigm to be adopted are slim given the role of political and corporate interests in promoting mega-events as a solution to problems of place competitiveness rather than as a symptom of the problems of contemporary neoliberal thinking with respect to events, places, and sustainability.

Key words: Steady-state tourism; Hallmark events; Political economy; Neoliberalism

Address correspondence to C. Michael Hall, Department of Management, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 133–141
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13343565268339
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Review of Business Events Literature

Judith Mair

Department of Management and Australia & International Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, Melbourne Australia

This article examines the developments in research into business events over 10 years from 2000 to 2009. It examines the main themes of the research that has been undertaken and highlights research gaps. Before 2000, researchers had identified considerable gaps in the business events literature. The reason most often cited for lack of research was the difficulty in obtaining statistics. Considerable research has been completed since then, yet researchers are still faced with the difficulties of obtaining meaningful statistics on the business events industry. Existing reviews of the business events literature demonstrate that some of the main themes which have emerged as important research topics include the economic impact of events and the site selection process of conference and convention organizers. This review identified further areas that have been the focus of considerable research efforts in the period from 2000 to 2009. These include the evaluation of satisfaction by meeting planners, the role of destination image in convention attendance, and the decision-making process of convention attendees. Research gaps and issues are still being identified in many areas of business events. The article concludes with a discussion on this, including a lack of rigor in much business events research, a tendency towards descriptive statistics and analysis, a lack of research into the social and environmental impacts of business events, and a failure to include reference to incentives in the business events literature.

Key words: Business events; Meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE); Convention site selection; Convention destination image; Review

Address correspondence to Dr. Judith Mair, Department of Management, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 143–155
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13343565268384
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Sponsorships Work: The Sponsorship Engagement Model

Kirk L. Wakefield

Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA

Prior sponsorship research has focused almost entirely upon accurate recall and recognition of sponsors of events. This emphasis on awareness belies the fact that the primary sponsors of national and international events already possess high brand recognition and instead seek higher level communication goals (preference and retention) from sponsorships. Audience data from two studies (an American football match and a 3-day motorsports event) demonstrate the psychological processes by which audiences are engaged through sponsorship activation. Importantly, this research conceptualizes and measures the activation construct and illustrates subsequent effects on brand concreteness, brand attributions, and brand personality. These three factors, in turn, enhance the sponsoring brand’s distinctiveness and lead to positive behavioral responses favorable to the sponsor.

Key words: Event sponsorship; Brand concreteness; Brand attributions; Brand personality

Address correspondence to Kirk L. Wakefield, Edwin W. Streetman Professor of Retail Marketing, Marketing Department, Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University, One Bear Place #98007, Waco, TX 76798-8007, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 157–170
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13343565268410
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Do Meeting Organizers Choose Convention Sites Based on Different Types of Meetings? An Empirical Analysis of the Italian Meetings Industry

Giacomo Del Chiappa

Department of Economics and Business, University of Sassari & CRENoS, Sardinia, Italy

Understanding site selection criteria and decision-making processes used by meeting organizers is critical to explain and predict their purchasing behavior. There is substantial literature covering site selection, and while previous research has helped to identify many of the criteria involved, very few studies have focused on the relative importance of each one. In particular, there has been no published paper differentiating the importance of each of the destination’s attributes and the influence that different types of meeting organizer exerts over the executive site choice, based on types of meetings. The present research aims to explore this somewhat neglected area of tourism research by focusing on six types of meetings, i.e., conferences, conventions, incentive travel meetings, kick-off meetings, seminars, and symposiums. The study is based on a web survey of selected Italian meeting organizers. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0), then applying the chi-square test and post hoc analysis (Bonferroni test), where appropriate, to indicate whether the influence that the different categories of meeting organizers exert over the site selection process, and the way organizers assess the importance of each selection factors, can be differentiated by type of meeting. Findings support both these research propositions, and suggest ways in which a destination can enhance its competitiveness according to the type of meeting it would like to attract.

Key words: Site selection; Types of meeting; Meeting organizers’ influence; Destination competitiveness; Italian meetings industry

Address correspondence to Dr. Giacomo Del Chiappa, Department of Economics and Business, University of Sassari & CRENoS, Sardinia, Italy. Tel. +39 (079) 21 3006; Fax: +39 (079) 21 3002; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 171–187
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13343565268456
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Event Studies: Discourses and Future Directions

Donald Getz

School of Tourism, the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Norwegian School of Hotel Management, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway

The field of Event Studies is described and its evolution considered, with specific reference to three general subdivisions or discourses. Event tourism, event management, and disciplinary perspectives are all quite different in terms of their approach to studying planned events, the concepts of interest, and related public and policy discourse. Major concepts being discussed in event management and event tourism are identified (both being highly instrumentalist in nature), while sociological and anthropological themes are examined to illustrate the disciplinary approach. In particular, major differences between the three discourses are observable in the context of how event impacts are addressed, and this is reflected in public and political discourse. The article concludes with a discussion of future directions and the need for interdisciplinary theory building.

Key words: Event studies; Discourses; Policy implications; Interdisciplinary theory

Address correspondence to Donald Getz, School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, Australia and Norwegian School of Hotel Management, University of Stavanger, Norway. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it