Tourism Analysis 17(2) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 105–120
1083-5423/12 $60.00 .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13330406124052
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

e-Democracy and Web 2.0: A Framework Enabling DMOs to Engage Stakeholders in Collaborative Destination Management

Marianna Sigala and Dimosthenis Marinidis

Department of Business Administration, University of the Aegean, Chios, Greece

Destination management (DM) is a collaborative process requiring destination marketing organizations (DMOs) to reconcile the diverging interests of various stakeholders and actively involve them in decision- and policy-making processes. Web 2.0 tools and e-democracy applications empower DMOs to further enhance the role and deepen the participation of tourism stakeholders in such collaborative DM processes. However, the literature has paid limited attention to such issues. This article synthesizes literature from four fields [namely stakeholder theory, collaborative decision making, collaborative destination management (CDM), and e-democracy] for developing a framework showing how DMOs can exploit Web 2.0 for developing collaborative decision-making processes for DM. The theoretical and practical implications of this framework are discussed.

Key words: Web 2.0; Collaboration; Destination management; Decision making; Policy making; e-Democracy; Destination marketing organization (DMO)

Address correspondence to Dr. Marianna Sigala, Department of Business Administration, University of the Aegean, Chios, Michalon 8, Chios Island, 82100, Greece. Tel/Fax: +30 22710 35160; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 121–137
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13388995267706
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Modeling Seasonal Variation in Tourism Flows With Climate Variables

Nada Kulendran* and Larry Dwyer†

*School of Economics and Finance, and Centre for Tourism and Service Research, Faculty of Business and Law, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
†Professor of Travel and Tourism Economics, School of Marketing, Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales, Australia

The purpose of this article is to model and forecast the seasonal variation, the fluctuations in tourist numbers from season to season in Australian inbound holiday tourism, using climate variables such as maximum temperature, humidity, and hours of sunshine. For estimation purposes this study uses quarterly data on arrivals from the US, UK, Japan, and New Zealand to Australia from September 1975 to September 2009. Seasonal variation, which is the respective and predictable movement of visitation around the trend line, was first extracted from the quarterly holiday tourist arrivals time series using the Basic Structural Model (BSM) approach. Subsequently, the influence of climate variables on seasonal variation in different seasons was identified using the average Euclidean minimum distance (AD) statistics. The AD statistics show that climate variables shape the characteristic of seasonal variation of tourism flows but the effect tends to vary between seasons and countries. A time-series model was estimated with climate variables to forecast seasonal variation. The forecasting comparison result shows that climate variables improve the forecasting performance. The approach can be replicated to help destination managers and forecasters determine if climate variables influence tourism flows between other origins and destinations globally.

Key words: Seasonal variation; Climate variables; Average Euclidean distance statistics; ARCH modeling; Australian tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. Nada Kulendran, Senior Lecturer, School of Economics and Finance, City Campus, Faculty of Business and Law, Victoria University, P.O. Box: 14428, MCMC, Melbourne 8001, Australia. Fax: +03 9919 4888; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 139–151
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13388995267742
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Success in Hosted Accommodation: Does Owner Age Matter?

Paull Weber* and Jack Carlsen†

*School of Management, Curtin University, Perth, Australia
†Curtin Sustainable Tourism Centre, Curtin University, Perth, Australia

Recent studies of mature entrepreneurs in Europe, the UK, and North America suggest that, contrary to popular perception, the growing number of small businesses created and operated by mature entrepreneurs have a longer life span and are generally more successful. The literature primarily attributes this perceived success to various age-related advantages, such as the ability to accrue greater commercial experience, more personal networks and experience, and greater personal financial resources that can be used to fund the venture. In order to investigate the age-related success of small tourism businesses, this study analyzes 167 responses from a survey of 655 hosted accommodation owner-operators in Western Australia. The relative success of each business venture was evaluated using a number of criteria: longevity of the enterprise, consumer demand (measured via occupancy rate), and two measures of self-perceived levels of success. The results show that while businesses operated by mature entrepreneurs have a longer life span, every other indicator of success—both objective and subjective—suggests that these owner-operators are actually less successful than expected. These results contradict the emerging body of evidence elsewhere, and suggest that firms run by older entrepreneurs may in fact be more marginal than has previously been supposed.

Key words: Mature entrepreneur; Success measures; Hosted accommodation; Western Australia

Address correspondence to Jack Carlsen, Curtin Sustainable Tourism Centre, Curtin University PO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845, Australia. Tel: 08 92661132; Fax: 08 92663833; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 153–165
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13388995267788
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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A Comparative Study of Tour Guides’ Interpretation: The Case of Macao

Man-U Io* and Leonie Hallo†

*Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, China
†Centre for Asian Business, University of South Australia, Adelaide Australia

The present study aims to explore how tour guides’ interpretations influence tourists’ experience and their interest in heritage tourism. To examine tour guides’ interpretation quality, style, and their impact on the tourist experience, a comparative study of sightseeing and on-site guides was conducted. The results suggest that tour guides should provide tourists with an insightful interpretation and provoke tourists’ emotional thoughts in order to help them to achieve a high level of tourist experience with the visited heritage site and arouse their interest in visiting other relevant heritage sites. In addition to communication competence and knowledge, tour guides’ motivation for interpretation is also an important factor influencing the quality and style of their interpretation.

Key words: Macao; World heritage site; Cultural interpretation; Tour guide; Chinese tourists; Tourist experience

Address correspondence to Dr. Man-U Io, Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, Colina de Mong-Há, Macao SAR, China. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 167–180
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13388995267823
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Destination Image Consistency and Dissonance: A Content Analysis of Goa’s Destination Image in Brochures and Guidebooks

Brian Garrod and Aleksandra Kosowska

School of Management and Business, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Wales, UK

Successful destination marketing requires consistency in the use of imagery. This article employs content analysis and semiotics to examine representations of Goa, both written and visual, as they are transmitted through holiday brochures and travel guidebooks. The findings suggest that the two media offer substantially different representations. While the former tend to represent Goa as a beach holiday destination, the latter tend to reflect past marketing efforts that have promoted Goa as constituent part of India. These representations tend to be dissonant with one another and arguably this weakens the image of Goa as a destination. The study recommends that destination marketers collaborate more widely and effectively in order to ensure consistency of their destination imagery.

Key words: Destination branding; Destination image; International tourism; Goa; India

Address correspondence to Brian Garrod, School of Management and Business, Aberystwyth University, Penglais Campus, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Wales, SY23 3DD, UK. Tel: 01970 621638; Fax: 01970 622409; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 181–193
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13388995267869
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

French Nature-Based Tourist Potentials to Norway: Who Are They?

Aaron Tkaczynski* and Nina K. Prebensen†

*School of Tourism, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
†Tromsø University Business School, Tromsø, Norway

Nature-based tourism is perceived as a substantial and growing market for many countries such as Australia, New Zealand, and Norway. However, despite detailed research into the analysis of motivations and activity preferences of tourists after a tourist experience, little research has been conducted into identifying potential nature-based tourists’ destination choice prior to visitation. Knowledge of these previsitation perceptions of a country’s nature-based tourism offerings as perceived by these possible tourists is important for market segmentation and targeting purposes and subsequent marketing campaigns. The present study outlines a sequential procedure to reveal nature-based tourism potentials to Norway followed by an online questionnaire of French residence. A two-step cluster analysis is run to segment tourists by their prechoice motivational preferences (psychographics), number of activities sought (behavioral), age, education, employment, gender, household income, household size, marital status (demographic), and region (geographic). A total of 2,010 French residents who exhibit an interest in nature-based vacations and visiting Norway are segmented into three valid groups according to their variations. It is concluded that these segments differ based on the 10 identified variables. As a result of the findings, recommendations are made including utilizing all four segmentation bases to target the three segments. Future research opportunities are also outlined.

Key words: Market segmentation; Motivation; Nature-based tourism; Preferences; Two-step cluster analysis

Address correspondence to Aaron Tkaczynski, Lecturer, School of Tourism, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Qld 4072, Australia. Tel: +61 7 3346 7093; Fax: +61 7 3346 8716; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 195–211
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13388995267904
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Competition, Total Quality Management Practices, and Performance: Evidence From Upscale Hotels

Anoop Patiar,* Michael C. G. Davidson,† and Ying Wang†

*Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, QLD, Australia
†Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, QLD, Australia

Hotels operate in a highly competitive market and therefore place a strong emphasis on quality management in order to gain/maintain competitiveness. This research examined the relationship between total quality management (TQM), market competition, and hotel departmental financial and nonfinancial performance. The data were collected from a sample of Australian and Indian hotels using a self-administered postal survey. The results suggested that while TQM and market competition had a direct interactive effect on hotel departmental nonfinancial performance, the effect on the financial performance was indirect. It was also suggested that those hotels subscribing to TQM philosophy were more likely to thrive on competition.

Key words: Total quality management (TQM); Market competition; Departmental performance; Hotels

Address correspondence to Anoop Patiar, Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, QLD 4111 Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 213–224
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13388995267940
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

All Work and no Play Makes Jack a Dull Boy: An Exploration of Business Travelers’ Attendance at Live, Ticketed Entertainment Events

Matthew Bernthal, Mark Nagel, Rich Harrill, and Paul Riner

College of Hospitality, Retail, & Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

This study explores the factors that influence business travelers’ attendance at ticketed live entertainment events while traveling on business. Many ticketed live entertainment events (e.g., concerts, sport events) are held in metropolitan areas that are ripe with large numbers of business travelers who can be considered a market segment for event promoters. The current study surveyed business travelers in order to gain initial insight into what does and does not motivate them to attend such events. Results provide practical benefit to marketers of ticketed live entertainment events by helping them better understand business travelers as potential customers.

Key words: Sport tourism; Event tourism; Business travel; Event management

Address correspondence to Rich Harrill, Director, International Tourism Research Institute, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29201, USA. Tel: (803) 777-7682; Fax: (803) 777-1224; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp.225–231
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13330406380175
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Frustration: A Comparison Of Chain Hotel And Independent Hotel Employees

Rüya Ehtiyar* and Melek Yıldız†

*School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
†Social Science Institute, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

Conceptually, frustration is an interference with the occurrence of an instigated goal-response at its proper time in the behavior sequence. Unfulfilled needs or its delaying is the first step of this process. A person whose needs are unfulfilled or delayed feels disappointed and frustrated. In the working life, this emotion is very important for job satisfaction. When it is thought that a psychological situation of employees brings customer satisfaction in the service industry, this importance is considerable for accommodation companies. The purpose of this study is to find out forms of frustration in organizations; its reasons; employees’ feelings and their reactions to frustration; and the relationship between frustration and job satisfaction by explaining the frustration concept within the context of chain and independent hotel employees.

Key words: Frustration; Hospitality; Chain hotels; Independent hotels; Employees

Address correspondence to Rüya Ehtiyar, Associate Professor, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Antalya, Turkey. Tel: +90 242 227 45 51; Fax: +90 242 227 46 70; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 233–237
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13388995267986
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Language of Tourism Advertising: A Pragmatic Approach

Elmira Djafarova and Teresa Waring

Newcastle Business School, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Much of the existing research on tourism advertising has focused on visual semiotics rather than verbal language. This research note discusses the methodological approach that was taken to investigate language use in British tourism print advertising. Pragmatics, a branch of linguistics, was utilized to support the content analysis of figures of speech. This methodological approach is the first serious attempt to explore the language use in tourism advertising. The approach taken provides rich insight into the interpretation of figures of speech and demonstrates how language contributes to the communication of tourism images. The major contribution of this research lies in the detailed textual analysis of figures of speech. This analysis is based on pragmatic approach, relevance theory, which enhances the interpretation of tourism images.

Key words: Tourism advertising; Content analysis; Pragmatics; Relevance theory

Address correspondence to Elmira Djafarova, Ph.D., Newcastle Business School, Northumbria University, City Campus East 1-231, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, NE1 8ST. Tel: +44 (0)191 227 4250; Fax: +44 (0)191 2273682; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 239–243
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13388995268020
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Auction Sales of Hotel Rooms and Airline Seats

Frederick DeKay, Rex S. Toh, and Peter Raven

Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA, USA

This article provides a primer on the different types of single-item auctions, and then discusses the various combinations of pricing flexibility and opaqueness. It then reveals that whereas 13% of hotel rooms are sold through auction sites, less than 1% of airline seats are auctioned off. It concludes with plausible reasons for the relative unpopularity of buying airline tickets through auctions.

Key words: Auction sales; Hotel room; Airlines seats

Address correspondence to Dr. Rex S. Toh, Department of Marketing, Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122, USA. Tel: (206) 296-6007; Fax: (206) 296-2083; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 245–251
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DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13388995268066
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Marketing Strategies for Casinos: A Case for Australia

Bon-Ki Koo,* Timothy J. Lee,† and Tae-Hong Ahn‡

*Tourism Management, Gyeongju University, Gyeongju, Korea
†Tourism and Hospitality Management, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Beppu, Japan
‡Department of Tourism, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea

The increasing popularity of the gambling industry has prompted casinos to develop strategies to maintain a competitive advantage and accomplish business goals. This study examines the Australian casino operations to provide ideas for potential promotional strategies. Seven such strategies are identified: advertising; improved public relations; sales promotions; personal selling; branding image; loyalty programs; and pricing and packages. The importance of each is discussed with examples drawn from casinos, and promotional strategies are provided with a critical evaluation in a broader context. This study provides a method for casino practitioners to monitor and review their promotional strategies to keep stimulating patronage and enhancing overall revenues.

Key words: Casino marketing; Promotion strategy; Gaming industry; Australia

Address correspondence to Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ph.D., Tourism and Hospitality Management, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, 874-8577, Japan. Tel: +81 977 78 1224; Fax: +81 977 78 1121; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it