Tourism Review International 15(4) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 297–311
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13369577826708
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Exploration of Social Stimuli Influencing the Student Sightseeing Tour Experience

Stuart E. Levy* and Donald Getz†‡

*Department of Marketing, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
†Professor Emeritus, Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
‡Visiting Professor, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden

The social aspect of group touring is of critical importance to tour members and travel providers, even within limited duration group travel such as sightseeing tours. However, scant attention has been paid to individual and contextual elements that influence positive social interactions between group travelers. To address this knowledge gap, this study explores group traveler motives, characteristics, and situational factors which can contribute to forming more socially oriented travel experiences, and investigates how these elements influence consumer evaluations within the student sightseeing tour context. Utilizing focus groups, interviews and surveys, this research investigates the role of eight social stimuli on key marketing outcomes, including satisfaction, word of mouth, and repeat intention. Four stimuli—mood, perceived similar interests, cultural motives, and extroversion—were found to significantly influence respondent evaluations and intentions. Based on these findings, recommendations for tour companies and guides are given and future research directions are suggested.

Key words: Relationship marketing; Travel motivations; Group travel; Sightseeing tours; Student travel

Address correspondence to Stuart E. Levy, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, The George Washington University, Funger Hall, Suite 301, 2201 G Street NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA. Tel: (202) 994-1706; Fax: (202) 994-1630; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 313–323
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13369577826744
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Holidays as Health: Exploring the No Leave, No Life Campaign via the Theory of Planned Behavior

Sue Beeton

Department of Marketing and Tourism and Hospitality, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia

Taking a holiday is often seen as a way to provide release from daily stresses and the working environment, yet the current working environment for many seems to limit the workers’ ability to take recreation leave. This issue has been noted for some time, but it has now become a major financial liability for employers as well as a community health issue. Furthermore, domestic tourism in many countries remains low, with people taking fewer local holidays or short breaks. These two issues are prevalent in Australia, where the financial liability to companies is estimated at AUD$33 billion and domestic tourism remains flat. The Australian government, under the auspices of the national destination marketing organization, Tourism Australia, has developed an innovative program aimed at not simply addressing the domestic tourism issue, but also the leave issue for corporations through its No Leave, No Life Campaign. The potential of this marketing campaign to alter behavior is analyzed within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior, concluding that it has the potential to succeed and may be transferrable to other countries, but must be treated as a long-term exercise.

Key words: Leave accumulation; Well-being; Domestic tourism; Tourism marketing

Address correspondence to Sue Beeton, Department of Marketing and Tourism and Hospitality, La Trobe Business School, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 325–336
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13369577826780
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Potential of Ecotourism Development in Bangladesh Coast: An Overview

M. R. Islam,* M. S. Iftekhar,† and M. W. Islam‡

*Estuary Management Officer, Manly Council, NSW, Australia and former Team Leader, ICZM Program, Bangladesh
†School of Economics and Finance, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
‡Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh

The features of the coastal zone of Bangladesh have potential for developing ecotourism. The coast houses attractive ecotourism sites rich in both natural and cultural assets. Though the number of ecotourists in the country is negligible, ecotourism has great potential to expand at a rapid rate. The government is endeavoring to promote ecotourism in the country by integrating its resource planning, management, and utilization, based on principles of multiple use, conservation, and development of the natural resource base. Development of ecotourism offers opportunities for alternative livelihood options and improves the socioeconomic conditions of communities surrounding ecotourism sites. This article provides an overview of the ecotourism status in the coastal zone, policy perspectives, potential for community involvement in ecotourism development, ongoing initiatives, and their challenges.

Key words: Bangladesh; Coastal zone; Ecotourism; Livelihood options; Management

Address correspondence to M. S. Iftekhar, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, School of Economics and Finance, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 85, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, Australia. Tel: 61+ 03 62262308; Fax: 61+ 03 62267587; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 337–348
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13369577826889
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

“It’s a Challenge, it’s Hard to Get a Wave”: The Impact of Constraints on Women Surf Tourists

Laura Sophia Fendt* and Erica Wilson†

*School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, The Hotel School Sydney/Southern Cross University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
†School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Faculty of Business and Law, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia

This article aims to explore active female surfers’ constraints associated with surf tourism. A qualitative, interpretive research paradigm informed by feminist perspectives was utilized. Twenty female surf tourists were interviewed in an effort to address the study’s objectives. Semistructured in-depth interviews were the main data collection method, allowing women to freely speak about their experiences. Analysis of these interviews revealed a range of personal, sociocultural, and practical constraints, which worked to limit these women prior to or during engagement in surf tourism. It became evident that the major constraints that hindered women were “the unknown” and management of logistics. In addition, women felt constrained by their financial resources and by being a minority as a female surfer. These findings are discussed in relation to existing leisure constraint theories identifying similarities to constraints encountered in other kinds of tourism. Furthermore, this study’s findings support assumptions of constraints being equally enabling as well as restricting, thus demonstrating a positive relationship between constraint and experience.

Key words: Gender; Surf tourism; Leisure constraints; Female surfers

Address correspondence to Laura Sophia Fendt, Associate Lecturer/Ph.D. Candidate, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, The Hotel School Sydney/Southern Cross University, 60 Phillip Street, Sydney 2000, NSW, Australia. Tel: +61 2 8249 3212; Fax: +61 2 92401338; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 349–353
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13369577826942
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Analysis of the Serviced Apartments Sector and its Prospects in Southeast Asia

Joan C. Henderson and Russell Arthur Smith

Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Serviced apartments are a distinct and sometimes neglected form of accommodation which is growing in commercial significance in the Southeast Asian region and beyond, marked by the emergence and expansion of international companies offering a variety of brands. Traditionally located in cities and targeting business travelers, there may be unrealized potential at alternative sites related to leisure tourists. Beach resorts and vacationers are one such opportunity, but there are constraints on development evidenced by market conditions in the popular Thai destinations of Phuket and Pattaya. The analysis of key attributes and trends concludes with some suggestions about avenues for further research.

Key words: Beach resorts; Serviced apartments; Southeast Asia

Address correspondence to Joan C. Henderson, Associate Professor, Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798. Tel: 65 6790 6116; Fax: 65 6791 3697; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 15, pp. 355–361
1544-2721/11 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427211X13369577826988
Copyright © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Tourism and Microcluster in Aysén, Chile

Wolfgang Scholz,* Jürgen Breuste,† Fabien Bourlon,‡ Jorge Rojas Hernandez,§ and Robinson Torres Salinas¶

*Faculty of Spatial Planning, International Spatial Planning Centre, TU of Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany
†Urban and Landscape Ecology, IALE Centre for Landscape Research (CeLaRe), Department of Geography/Geology, University Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
‡Sustainable Tourism Unit, Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
§Faculty of Social Science, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
¶Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile

This article analyzes the development of economic clusters and their relationship to tourism. Tourism clusters can be a useful tool to promote tourism in a particular area. However, for their implementation, there are conditions to consider when transferring the cluster concept to tourism. With reference to the case study region of Aysén in Patagonia, Chile, the article analyzes the current situation of tourism development and its weaknesses with special attention to the local actors involved in tourism. The author’s team conducted an intensive survey on stakeholders in tourism in the region. This revealed the need for cooperation and tailor-made training of local actors in order to develop tourism in Aysén for the benefit of the local stakeholders.

Key words: Tourism development; Economic clusters; Tourism clusters; Stakeholders

Address correspondence to Wolfgang Scholz, Faculty of Spatial Planning, International Spatial Planning Centre, Technical University of Dortmund, August-Schmidt-Strasse 6, 44221 Dortmund, Germany. Tel: +49-231-755-4399; Fax: +49-231-755-4398; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it