Tourism Analysis 17(3) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 259–272
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13412775927709
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Written Complaints, Third-Party Intervention, and the Management of Paradoxes: Integrating Extremes

Adam Weaver

Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

A paradox is the presence together at the same time of two opposing but interconnected ideas or phenomena. Managers in the tourism industry function in the face of contradictory considerations that require responses. That paradoxes are daunting in their refusal to be solved does not mean they cannot be managed. Four paradoxes are identified through a qualitative analysis of both written complaints by travelers and a third party’s efforts to address these grievances. Two broad approaches to the analysis and management of the paradoxes are subsequently discussed. The first treats paradoxes as partitioned entities. Each pole of the paradox is viewed discretely, thus demanding an “either/or” choice. The second approach strives to integrate opposing sides of the paradox. In this study, integration exposes an unanticipated relationship, invites managers to view individuals (e.g., as consumers) who are affected by a paradox as potential problem solvers, and demonstrates that failure and success can shape each other. Paradoxes can provoke fresh thought when attempts are made at integrating and synthesizing incongruence rather than viewing apparent oppositions as compartmentalized. Integration helps to identify complementary relationships between seemingly irreconcilable tendencies in ways that could inform the analysis and management of tourism.

Key words: Complaint; Paradox; Integration; Management

Address correspondence to Dr. Adam Weaver, Senior Lecturer in Tourism Management, Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. Tel: +64-4-463 5375; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 273–284
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13412775927745
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Impact of Tourism Marketing on Destination Image: Industry Perspectives

Jonathon Day,* Liping Cai,* and Laurie Murphy†

*Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue Tourism and Hospitality Research Center, West Lafayette, IN, USA
†School of Business, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia

The purpose of the current research is to study the importance of destination image to products and distribution partners in the tourism system. It also examines the perceived contribution of various image creation factors in stages of the consumer buying process. The study examines the opinions of management from travel products located in Australia and active marketing in the US and management from travel wholesalers marketing Australian travel products in the US. Results of the study highlight the importance of destination image to destination image stakeholders. It concludes that image creation factors play different roles during the consumer buying process. The study recognizes the perceived importance of Australian Tourism Commission (ATC) brand development strategies. The Australian branding experience in the US provides insights for destination marketing organizations (DMOs) seeking to maximize their impact on destination image creation by leveraging “word of mouth,” public relations, e-marketing, and stakeholder marketing efforts.

Key words: Destination image; Destination brand; Destination marketing organizations; Competitive strategy

Address correspondence to Jonathon Day, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue Tourism and Hospitality Research Center, Purdue University, 900 State St, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA. Tel: 765 496-2084; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 285–298
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13412775927781
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tell Me Who You Think You Are and I Tell You How You Travel. Exploring the Viability of Market Segmentation by Means of Travelers’ Stated Personality: Insights From a Mature Market (Switzerland)

Christian Laesser* and Anita Zehrer†

*Institute for Systemic Management and Public Governance, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland
†MCI Tourism, Management Center Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

People travel to different destinations for different reasons. In this study, we investigate the viability of market segmentation by personal traits (based on and exemplified by Jungian’s MBTI variables) of travelers from Switzerland, by performing a data-driven a posteriori segmentation by means of k-means clustering. To identify the segmentation power of personal traits, this analysis is complemented with a multiple discriminant analysis as well as a number of contingency tests to identify differences between the segments. We identified four clearly definable segments, which differ in terms of the psychographic traits of the segment members but also in terms of some sociodemographic characteristics as well as travel profiles. Despite a growing body of work on classical market segmentation, there is a growing but still limited number of works on potentialities of psychographic approaches relating to a traveler’s traits and/or personality as a segmentation basis in tourism.

Key words: Market segmentation; Segmentation criteria; Personal traits; Self-stated personality; Tourism marketing

Address correspondence to Prof. Christian Laesser, Institute for Systemic Management and Public Governance, University of St. Gallen, Dufourstrasse 40a, CH-9000 St. Gallen, Switzerland. Tel: +41(71)224-2525; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 299–309
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13412775927826
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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“Unfriendly, Unfunny, and Tyrannical”: An Exploratory Study of the Travel Guidebook in the Australian Print Media

Victoria Peel,* Anders Sørensen,† and Adam Steen‡

*Australian International Tourism Unit, National Centre for Australian Studies, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
†Centre for Leisure Management Research, CEUS-School of Business, Nykøbing F., Denmark
‡Faculty of Business, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia

Frequent casual allusions to guidebooks in the tourism literature suggest their significance in contemporary tourist experience. Yet beyond the dominant discourses of literary and historical textual analysis, focused interpretation of the role of guidebooks in the tourism system is rare. This article aims to stimulate debate concerning the role of the guidebook in contemporary tourism and to identify how the guidebook is represented in the context of popular media. Results from a content analysis of representations of the guidebook in Australian print media between 2000 and 2009 suggest guidebooks are perceived both negatively and positively within journalistic discourse, that they are framed as significant facilitators of visitor experience and tourism development, and that an extensive range of travel guidebooks in both book and digital form available to consumers reflects the recent evolution in independent travel. Future guidebook-specific research objectives are identified.

Key words: Guidebooks; Destination development; Print media; Visitor behavior

Address correspondence to Victoria Peel, Australian International Tourism Unit, National Centre for Australian Studies, Monash University, Melbourne, 3145, Australia. Tel: +61 3 99034035; Fax: +61 3 99034225 ; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 311–323
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13412775927862
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism in El Salvador: Cointegration and Causality Analysis

Manuel Vanegas Sr.

Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA

Testing for cointegration using data covering over the period 1967–2010, the study was able to establish the existence of long-run relationships between tourism receipts and gross domestic product in El Salvador. Moreover, the Granger Causality test does confirm the existence of a unidirectional causality running from tourism to economic growth. The elasticity value of gross domestic product with respect to tourism receipts indicates that a 1% of a sustained growth in tourism receipts, in the long run, would lead to an estimated increase in El Salvador economic growth of near 0.64%, ceteris paribus. The nonsignificance of the exchange rate indicates that tourism development bears the task of the short-run adjustment to a long-run equilibrium. Our results, without generalizing, are consistent with other findings. These findings are important for El Salvador (ES) policy makers, in terms of its tourism policy formulation, in terms of its tourism policy management, and in terms of its overall economic growth. The above estimates point in the direction that enhancing tourism development both can have the presence of strong multiplier impacts and can be important for the economic growth of ES economy. One limitation to this type of analysis is the appropriate definition of the tourism development variable, or of the economic growth variable, or of any other economic variable. This limitation is a difficult one.

Key words: El Salvador; Tourism and economic growth; Cointegration; Causality; Elasticity

Address correspondence to Manuel Vanegas Sr., Ph.D., Adjunct Professor, Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. Tel: 480-988-2161; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 325–342
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13412775927907
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tour Operators’ Service Quality and Efficacy of Satisfaction Measurement

Fang Meng,* Ercan (Sirakaya) Turk,* and Volkan Altintas†

*School of Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, College of Hospitality, Sport, and Retail Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
†International Degree Programme in Tourism Management, Bremen University of Applied Sciences, Bremen, Germany

The purpose of this research is to assess the service quality determinants of tour operators and examine the efficacy of these evaluations on overall trip satisfaction when customer mood is introduced as a moderating variable. The overall hypothesis of the article is that tourists’ assessments of services and satisfaction may not be free of bias, but may depend on emotional states (such as mood) during the evaluation stage. The study used a sample of German tourists who traveled to the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The findings of the study lend support to previous literature that suggests tourists’ moods influence overall trip satisfaction. Specifically, mood had significant interaction effects with intangible components of tour operations, such as staff and tour guides’ services, as well as attitudes of locals, in predicting the overall trip satisfaction ratings. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed within the general framework of consumer behavior, and research ideas are provided to help guide further research in the area.

Key words: Tour operation; Service quality; Customer satisfaction; Mood; Moderating effect

Address correspondence to Fang Meng, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, Center of Economic Excellence in Tourism and Economic Development, College of Hospitality, Sport and Retail Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Tel: 803-777-0631; Fax: 803-777-6427; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 343–355
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13412775927943
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Information Source Preferences and Associated Expenditure of First-Time and Repeat Visitors at a South African Wine Festival

Martinette Kruger, Karin Botha, and Melville Saayman

Tourism Research in Economic, Environs, and Society (TREES), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

Growth in the number of festivals urges festival organizers and researchers alike to find ways to effectively identify and attract visitors. The reason for this is an increase in competition due to an increase in the number of events as well as a greater need for festivals to contribute to the economic well-being of communities where these events/festivals are hosted. One such approach is segmentation by means of information sources, associated expenditure, and frequency of visitation. The Wacky Wine Festival in Robertson, South Africa is one of the country’s largest wine festivals. This wine festival is unique in that it takes place on an existing wine route where 48 wine farms actively participate in the festival. This article presents the results of a survey that was conducted during the festival in June 2009 when visitors to the festival completed 424 questionnaires. The aim of this exploratory research was to determine first-time and repeat visitors’ information source preference at the festival as well as the associated expenditure. Correspondence analysis, as well as ANOVAs, was used to analyze the data. The results revealed that visitors to the Wacky Wine Festival have specific preferences for certain information sources and that visitors’ expenditure at the festival also varies. The results also revealed valuable information concerning the design and implementation of marketing strategies aimed at both first-time and repeat visitors at the festival.

Key words: Information sources; Expenditure; First-time visitors; Repeat visitors; Wine festival; South Africa

Address correspondence to Dr. Martinette Kruger, TREES (Tourism Research in Economic, Environs and Society), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa, 2520. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 357–369
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13412775928023
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Governance of Tourism Planning in Macao

Penny Yim King Wan

Institute for Tourism Studies, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macao, China

Using an institutional approach, this article examines the mode of governance regulating Macao’s tourism planning. We study the tourism planning system, practices and rules, the coordination of intergovernmental departments, and public access to information through a qualitative content research method. We also assess whether the existing mode of governance facilitates or impedes the city’s sustainable tourism development. The results of this study reveal that Macao’s tourism planning is governed by a progrowth mode which is steered by the government officials for the economic reasons. This mode impedes long-term sustainable tourism growth. Finally, we offer policy directions on how to develop a more effective governance to facilitate sustainable tourism.

Key words: Governance; Tourism planning; Sustainable development; Macao; China

Address correspondence to Dr. Penny Yim King Wan, Assistant Professor, Institute for Tourism Studies, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macao, China. Tel: (853) 85982175; Fax: (853) 8519058; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 371-376–
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13412775928069
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

The Rocket Science of Sustainable Tourism

Timothy J. Tyrrell* and Robert J. Johnston†

*Center for Sustainable Tourism, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
†George Perkins Marsh Institute and Department of Economics, Clark University, Worcester, MA, USA

The science of sustainable tourism is not “Rocket Science” but they have much in common: The mission is daunting, the target is moving, the target is a considerable distance away, and the efficient operation of the main engine is critical. The differences are equally apparent: Rocket scientists know how to best operate their engine, have agreed on their target, and have a good understanding of the risks of the mission. Tourism scientists claim none of these. Overall, sustainable tourism scientists are attempting to solve a much more difficult problem—one that must deal with humans.

Key words: Sustainable tourism; Rocket science; Optimal trajectory

Address correspondence to Timothy Tyrrell, Professor, Tourism Development and Management, Director, Center for Sustainable Tourism, Arizona State University, 411 N. Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA. Tel: 602-496-0156; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 377–383
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13412775928104
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Factors affecting Consumer’s Choice of Ethnic Restaurants

Hwa-Kyung Kim,* Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee,† and Seung-Hyun Yoon‡

*Department of Hotel Management, Semyung University, Jecheon, Korea
†Tourism and Hospitality Management, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, Japan
‡School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey,UK

There are a growing number of ethnic restaurants in the UK and many factors influence which restaurant a consumer chooses. This study explores the factors influencing people’s choice of Korean food in the UK and the results can lead to a better understanding of how to increase the awareness of people to Korean foods. Ten face-to-face interviews were conducted and 170 surveys completed by consumers who had experienced a Korean restaurant in the UK. The study discovered the significant differences in many factors, particularly between ages and genders. The study can contribute for ethnic restaurateurs in the UK who needs to investigate diverse segmentation of customer’s behavior and preference in order to stay competitive in the market.

Key words: Food choice; Food attributes; Neophobia; Korean restaurants

Address correspondence to Timothy J. Lee, Tourism and Hospitality Management, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, 874-8577 Japan. Tel: +81 977 78 1224; Fax: +81 977 78 1121; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 387–397
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13412775928140
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

China And Deep-Rooted Vision: Cultural Grammar In Contest In Tourism, Today

Chun Xiao Hou

University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK

In this review article, Hou provides critique of China, today, as an imaginal realm performed and articulated through tourism. In noting the inevitability that the projections of tourism about places and nations are infused with historically informed understandings forged not just decades ago but centuries past, she calls for much greater awareness in Tourism Studies/Tourism Management (and beyond) of the cultural grammar of tourism, and thereby not only of what conceivably gets represented through tourism, but also of what conceivably gets misrepresented. In this respect, Hou works from the premise that a relatively large intellectual gap has existed between (for instance) established Chinese notions of Chineseness, and “European” notions of Chineseness. In that light, she examines what can be learned for Tourism Studies/Tourism Management from scrutiny of what a recent Western observer (the Hungarian academic, Nyíri) says was and is happening about the signification of Chineseness today, and what certain lead experts on the politics of nationalism say was and is happening in terms of the projection of Chineseness. Overall, Hou queries whether there are many who work on such matters of cultural grammar in research or operational practice in tourism who have been sufficiently trained in transdisciplinary understanding to be able to comment critically on the constitutive exteriority of China (or of any still-developing/fast-developing nation) in and through tourism. Hou argues that while the inscriptive and performative authority of tourism is manifestly immense, the critical capacity of Tourism Studies/Tourism Management scholars to scrutinize the selective and productive rhetoric of “place”/“space”/“nation” construction is not. (Abstract by the Reviews Editor)

Key words: Chinese nationalism; China as “stationary culture”; Eurocentrism; Emergent Chineseness; Orientalism; The imaginal of tourism; The constitutive exteriority of China; Representation/misrepresentation; The politics of erasure; Synarchy

Address correspondence Dr. Chun Xiao Hou, c/o Division of Tourism Studies, University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury, Luton, Beds. LU2 8LE, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it