Tourism Review International 16(1) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 1–14
1544-2721/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427212X13369577826825
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Can Community-Based Tourism Enterprises Alleviate Poverty? Toward a New Organization

Mathekga Isaac Malatji and Oliver Mtapuri

Turfloop Graduate School of Leadership, University of Limpopo, Fauna Park, South Africa

Recently tourism in general and community-based tourism in particular are being touted as means to generate income and alleviate poverty. This article attempts to investigate the extent to which community-based tourism enterprises (CBTEs) are able to alleviate poverty using data gathered from four CBTEs in Mopani District Municipality of the Limpopo in South Africa. The study is essentially qualitative in design. Face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. A thematic approach was used to analyze them. The study shows that the types of jobs that were created by the CBTEs now are low-level, menial, nonpermanent types of jobs. The poor absorptive capacity of new labor of these enterprises means that many people in the community remain unemployed for as long as alternative modes of employment are not found. However, communities learned about conservation, cooking and knitting, and community-building practices. A key contribution of this article is a new Social Learning and Change (SLC) organization as a necessary form of tourism organization to meet the challenges of developing countries in their quest to alleviate poverty using CBTE as strategy. It is an SLC initiative (perhaps a new CBO), consisting of multiple players. It may involve the creation of civic corporation/civic NGO/civic government consistent with SLC in which the issue and not the organization matters. It is about job creation, community cohesion, community development, inclusion, and empowerment.

Key words: Poverty; Empowerment; Community; Change; Cohesion; Tourism

Address correspondence to Oliver Mtapuri, Turfloop Graduate School of Leadership, University of Limpopo, P.O. Box 759, Fauna Park 0787, South Africa. Tel: 00 (27) (15) 290 2827; Fax: 00(27) (15) 290 2836; Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 15–28
1544-2721/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427212X13431568321465
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

State Representations of the Other: The Case of China’s Matriarchy

Yasong (Alex) Wang* and Duarte B. Morais†

*Department of Hospitality Management, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA, USA
†Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

Previous tourism representation research has primarily adopted an essentialist’s approach in interpreting the construction of the self in contrast to the Other and treated both Other and self as holistic entities. Contrary to previous research, the current study takes a postmodern epistemology to uncover the complex and fluid nature of the construction of a Chinese identity through official tourism representations of the matriarchal Mosuo. Forty-six articles published between 1990 and 2010 in major Chinese newspapers were collected and analyzed with Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Three major themes (i.e., feminized Other, economic growth, and authenticity) are identified and the analysis of the themes exposes the differentiating and dynamic nature in the construction of self identity in the state representations of the Mosuo people. Such results demonstrate the necessity of taking a more critical and nuanced approach in the examination of how states use tourism representations to construct national identities.

Key words: National identity; Representation; Critical discourse analysis; Matriarchy; China

Address correspondence to Yasong (Alex) Wang, Department of Hospitality Management, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Ackerman Hall Room 14, 911 South Drive, Indiana, PA 15705, USA. Tel: 724-357-6233; Fax: 724-357-7582; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 29–43
1544-2721/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427212X13431568321500
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Community-Based Tourism: An Exploration of the Concept(s) From a Political Perspective

Andrea Giampiccoli* and Oliver Mtapuri†

*Tourism Research in Economic, Environs, and Society (TREES), North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom, South Africa
†Turfloop Graduate School of Leadership, University of Limpopo, Fauna Park, South Africa

Tourism is always seen as a viable alternative means of boosting development in developing countries. Similarly, community-based tourism (CBT) is generally associated with development in poor, especially rural, communities. This article first presents CBT as a possible community development tool, exploring its conceptual and historical evolution, and then offers solutions for enhancing the opportunities and capacity of CBT in facilitating rural community development. To that end, a definition of community and notions of development are proposed, and a community development strategy, based on issues of empowerment, self-reliance, and sustainability, is explored. Special attention is given to local context issues in relation to community development. In addition, the origin and evolution of the CBT concept, and the linkages between the concept and alternative development paradigms from the 1970s are explored, including the notions of empowerment and self-reliance. This article makes two contributions. Firstly, it proposes that the current meaning of CBT does not coincide with the original concept of CBT because the contemporary policy milieu has changed. Secondly, it presents different CBT typologies in line with contemporary CBT concept(s) and issues of community development.

Key words: Community-based tourism; Community development; Empowerment; Self-reliance

Address correspondence to Andrea Giampiccoli, TREES (Tourism Research in Economic, Environs and Society), North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus), Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa. Tel: +27 (0)18 299 4140; Fax: +27 (0)18 299 4140; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 45–57
1544-2721/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427212X13431568321546
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Understanding Tourist Perspectives on Geotourism Experience: Implications for Destination Development

Aise Kyoungjin Kim and Graham Brown

School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia

In recent years, geotourism has emerged as a distinctive form of nature-based tourism but there is little understanding of the extent to which geotourism experiences influence tourist decisions and behavior. As geotourism is still in its infancy in many destinations, there is a lack of research on understanding the characteristics of geotourists, including their actual interests, expectations, preferences, satisfaction, and behavior. This article reports the findings of a study which examined the profile of people visiting the Flinders Ranges region of South Australia, which is promoted as a geotourism destination. A survey of visitors identified three market segments which differed with respect to travel behavior and experiential outcomes. The findings are used to question the current status of the geotourism market and to discuss destination development strategies that reflect opportunities presented by different market segments.

Key words: Geotourism; Destination development; Market segmentation

Address correspondence to Aise KyoungJin Kim, Lecturer in Tourism Management, School of Management, University of South Australia, Elton Mayo Building Level 3 Room 19, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Tel: +61 (0)8 830 20444; Fax: +61 (0)8 830 20512; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 59–67
1544-2721/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427212X13431568321582
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Comparative Analysis of the Perceived Effects of Two Economic Recessions on Event Organizations

Seungwon “Shawn” Lee,* Joe J. Goldblatt,† and Margaret J. Daniels*

*Tourism and Events Management, School of Recreation, Health and Tourism, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA
†Tourism, Hospitality and Events, School of Arts, Social Sciences & Management, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, Scotland

Events have emerged as a growing and vibrant segment of tourism economies and there is significant evidence of associated economic, sociocultural, and political impacts on local host communities. While there are numerous studies that have determined the economic impact of individual events, there are few that focus on the influence of a changing economic climate on event organizations. This study compared feedback generated by two studies where event management professionals indicated the perceived effects of the economic recessions that spanned from 2000–2001 and 2007–2010. The results indicated a significant difference in the perceived effects of these two recessionary periods. Event professionals were found to have a more conservative view regarding future organizational performance after the 2007–2010 recession in comparison to forecasts accompanying the 2000–2001 recession. Specific recession impacts and methods event professionals employed to reduce financial exposure are identified.

Key words: Tourism economies; Event organizations; Economic recession

Address correspondence to Seungwon “Shawn” Lee, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Tourism and Events Management, School of Recreation, Health and Tourism, George Mason University, 10900 University Blvd., MS 4E5, BRH #222, Manassas, VA 20110-2203, USA. Tel: 703-993-9915; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 69–73
1544-2721/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427212X13431568321627
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Slum Tourism: Ethical or Voyeuristic

Deepak Chhabra* and Akshat Chowdhury†

*School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
†JM University, New Delhi, India

This research note is based on a pilot study and offers a critical elucidation of slum tourism in India from an ethical standpoint. The results unpack a diverse mix of ethical guidelines embraced by the observed organizations. Heavy traces of voyeurism are found. A complex production process strives to provide both meaningful and profitable tourist gazes.

Key words: Slum tourism; Tourist gaze; Voyeurism

Address correspondence to Deepak Chhabra, Ph.D., School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Mail Code 4020 411, N. Central Ave., Ste. 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 75–81
1544-2721/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427212X13431568321663
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

The Impact on Tourism of Mega-Sporting Events: The Stakes of Foreign Spectators

Eric Barget and Jean-Jacques Gouguet

CDES/OMIJ, Limoges University, Limoges, France

Many economic impact studies have been commissioned to ensure that mega-sporting events have an influence on the level of economic activity of the host territory. The attraction of many tourists is usually at the center of the analysis. Nevertheless, these studies are still controversial. Indeed, major methodological challenges arise when it comes to making such calculations, and results should be interpreted with a great deal of caution. We have tried to avoid the main biases linked to calculating the impact in order to develop the most reliable assessment possible of a mega-sporting event. By using base theory and collecting quality information, we have tried to avoid common errors. We chose the Rugby World Cup 2007 in France to illustrate this debate. Foreign spectators were at the root of most of the economic impact on French regions, with significant differences depending on their nationalities and their sociodemographic profiles. It thus appeared that the regional impact of the event was even stronger, since the host matches attracted many foreign spectators with a high level of income and expenditure. Lessons can be learned from such a result for organizers who want to host a mega-sporting event.

Key words: Mega-sporting events; Economic impact; Tourism benefits; Expenditure profile; Base theory

Address correspondence to Dr. Eric Barget, Associate Professor, CDES/OMIJ, Limoges University, 33 Rue François Mitterrand, 87000 Limoges, France. Tel: +33 5 55 45 76 00; Fax: +33 5 55 45 76 01; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it