Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research 37(2-3) Abstracts

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ACUPUNCTURE & ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS RES., INT. J., Vol. 37, pp. 89-101, 2012 Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Communication Corp. Printed in the USA.

Acute Effects of Electro-acupuncture (EA) On Hippocampal Long Term Potentiation (LTP) of Perforant Path-Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells Synapse Related to Memory 

*Xiaokuo He, M.D., Ph.D., Postgraduate student Tiebin Yan, Ph.D., Professor of Rehabilitation
Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510120, PR China.

*Rongfa Chen, M.D., Postgraduate student
Dept. of Anesthesiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, PR China. 

Dongzhi Ran, M.D., Postgraduate student
Dept. of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen, Guangzhou 510080, PR China.

(* These authors contributed equally to this article.) 

(Correspondence: Tiebin Yan; Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, GuangZhou 510120, PR China, Phone: (+86)20-813-32259; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .)

(Received June 2, 2012; Accepted With Revisions September 1, 2012)

ABSTRACT:
Acupuncture, a traditional Chinese therapeutic method, has been widely used in clinical practice to treat diseases such as stroke, Bell’s palsy, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson diseases, dysmenorrhea and chronic pain. Mounting lab data had suggested that electro-acupuncture could alleviate dementia and restore long term potentiation of hippocampus in rat. Clinical data also indicated that electro-acupuncture could improve electrical activity of brain in vascular dementia patients. However, its biological basis and acute effects on hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) remain not well understood. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether acute electro-acupuncture (acupoints: ST36 and SP6; continuous wave, 2 mV, 2Hz; lasted 20 min) could enhance LTP of perforant path-dentate gyrus granule cells in anesthetized rat and explore its underlying mechanisms. We found that electro-acupuncture could significantly increase PS2/PS1 in pair pulse test ( p <0.05, inter-pulse interval: 20ms and 90ms). When compared to control group, electro-acupuncture could significantly enhance LTP to about 234% which was about 143% of that in control group ( p <0.05). It suggested that electro-acupuncture could modulate the function of interneurons in hippocampus hence increase LTP. 

Key Words: Electro-Acupuncture; Long Term Potentiation; Hippocampus; Dementia; Memory 

 

ACUPUNCTURE & ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS RES., INT. J., Vol. 37, pp.103-123, 2012Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Communication Corp. Printed in the USA.

Using Oral Ketamine and Alternating Bi-lateral Stimulation of Eye Movement Densitization to Sedate Pediatric Patient and to Minimize Adverse Reaction of Ketamine by Means of Acupuncture 

Dominic P. Lu, DDS
Clinical Professor of Oral Medicine
Course Director, Selective in Pain and Anxiety Control, School of Dental Medicine University of Pennsylvania, and President, American Society for the Advancement of Anesthesia in Dentistry

Ping-Shi Wu, PhD
Assistant Professor of Mathematics (Bio-Statistics) Department of Mathematics,Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA

Winston I. Lu, R. Ph, Pharm. D.
Pharmacist, Providence Memorial Hospital, El Paso, TX

(Correspondence: Dominic P. Lu, DDS, 1810 Blue Barn Road Orefield, PA 18069; Tel: (6l0) 298-8805; Fax: (610)395-8093) (Received August 6, 2012; Accepted with revisions September 13, 2012) 

ABSTRACT:
Ketamine, besides being an anesthetic agent, is also a strong analgesic that can be especially useful for painful procedures. Vivid dreams and nightmare, considered as undesirable side effects of ketamine, are rarely encountered when administrated orally, making it one of the most desirable oral sedative for children because it partially protects the pharyngeal- laryngeal reflex. Besides, if used in recommended dosage, it does not suppress the cardiopulmonary function as most other sedatives do. Ketamine’s bronchodilator effect makes it a good sedative for children with asthma, allergies, and hay fever. Alternating bi-lateral stimulation (ABLS) of eye movement desensitization, applying pre-operatively before ketamine was found to reduce the post-operative violent emergence and behavioral problems. Acupressure at P 6 (Neikuan) acupoint helps to decrease nausea and vomiting episodes by ketamine. 36 patients with history of unmanageable behavior were sedated with ketamine 3mg/kg and ABLS. To prevent possible adverse reaction, Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) were used to test all patients. ABLS significantly decreased tearful separation from parent. It took 15 to 20 minutes for ketamine to take effect, peak effect took 20 to 25 minutes. Working time ranged from 20 to 40 minutes. Post-operative recovery was more pleasant when ABLS was combined with ketamine, acupuncture/acupressure not only prevented vomiting and BDORT safeguard the patients from unpredictable untoward side effects but also promoting calmness. 

Key words: Ketamine; Sedation; Desensitization; Emergence; Acupressure-acupuncture; Bi-Digital O-Ring Test.
 

ACUPUNCTURE & ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS RES., INT. J., Vol. 37, pp.125-138 , 2012 Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Communication Corp. Printed in the USA

Effects of Combining Electroacupuncture with General Anesthesia Induced by Sevoflurane in Patients Undergoing Supratentorial Craniotomy and Improvements in Their Clinical Recovery Profile & Blood Enkephalin 

Caixia Yang, Ph.D.
Staff Scientist, Dept. of Laboratory Diagnosis Centre, Beijing Tiantan Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. 

Lixin An, MD.
Professor of Clinical Anesthesiology, Dept. of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Ruquan Han, MD.
Professor & Director of Clinical Anesthesiology, Dept. of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Song Lin, MD.
Professor & Director, Dept. of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. 

Xixiong Kang, Ph.D.
Professor & Director, Dept. of Laboratory Diagnosis Centre, Beijing Tiantan Hospital of Capital MedicalUniversity, Beijing, China. 

Baoguo Wang, MD.
Professor of Clinical Anesthesiology, Dept. of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

(Correspondence: Xixiong Kang, Ph.D. Tel. 86-010-67096881, FAX.86-010-67096881. Baoguo Wang, MD. Tel. 86-010-62856766, FAX.86-010-62856766.)

(Received: Feb 10, 2012; Accepted with Revisions: June 20, 2012)

ABSTRACT:
Drug-induced anesthesia combined with electroacupuncture (EA) in patients has been put into practice in recent years in China. In this study, we showed the effectiveness of EA on the speed of post-operative recovery of patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy and the potential clinical mechanism of EA. Dual channel electrical stimulator made by HANS Beijing connected the following acupoints respectively: LI4 (Hegu), SJ5 (Waiguan), ST36 (Zusanli), BL63 (Jinmen), LR3 (Taichong), and GB40 (Qiuxu). Disperse-dense and symmetric biphasic pulse waves were selected, frequency of waves (pulse rates) were 2Hz/100Hz, altered/3sec; pulse duration was 0.6ms/0.2ms, 2Hz: 0.6ms,100Hz: 0.2ms; symmetric biphasic pulse wave. We found that the EA-group required 9.62% less sevoflurane than the sham EA-group (P<0.05). During recovery from anesthesia, the autonomous respiration recovery time, tracheo-tube removal time, eye-opening time, voluntary motor recovery time, orientation force recovery time, and the operating-room departure time of the EA-group were all significantly shortened 35.86%, 27.07%, 38.38%, 30.11%, 34.95%, 28.80% than the corresponding sham EA-group, respectively (P<0.05). The serum enkephalin values were elevated in the EA group versus the sham EA-group. 

Keywords: Glioma; Craniotomy; Electroacupuncture; Analgesia; Sevoflurane; Anesthesia; Recovery time after surgery; Enkephalin.