ACUPUNCTURE & ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS RES., INT. J., Vol. 37, pp. 89-101, 2012 Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Communication Corp. Printed in the
Acute Effects of Electro-acupuncture (EA) On Hippocampal Long Term Potentiation (LTP) of Perforant Path-Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells Synapse Related to Memory
*Xiaokuo He, M.D., Ph.D., Postgraduate student Tiebin Yan, Ph.D., Professor of Rehabilitation
Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine,
*Rongfa Chen, M.D., Postgraduate student
Dept. of Anesthesiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, PR China.
Dongzhi Ran, M.D., Postgraduate student
Dept. of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen,
(* These authors contributed equally to this article.)
(Correspondence: Tiebin Yan; Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine,
(Received June 2, 2012; Accepted With Revisions September 1, 2012)
Acupuncture, a traditional Chinese therapeutic method, has been widely used in clinical practice to treat diseases such as stroke, Bell’s palsy, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson diseases, dysmenorrhea and chronic pain. Mounting lab data had suggested that electro-acupuncture could alleviate dementia and restore long term potentiation of hippocampus in rat. Clinical data also indicated that electro-acupuncture could improve electrical activity of brain in vascular dementia patients. However, its biological basis and acute effects on hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) remain not well understood. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether acute electro-acupuncture (acupoints: ST36 and SP6; continuous wave, 2 mV, 2Hz; lasted 20 min) could enhance LTP of perforant path-dentate gyrus granule cells in anesthetized rat and explore its underlying mechanisms. We found that electro-acupuncture could significantly increase PS2/PS1 in pair pulse test ( p <0.05, inter-pulse interval: 20ms and 90ms). When compared to control group, electro-acupuncture could significantly enhance LTP to about 234% which was about 143% of that in control group ( p <0.05). It suggested that electro-acupuncture could modulate the function of interneurons in hippocampus hence increase LTP.
Key Words: Electro-Acupuncture; Long Term Potentiation; Hippocampus; Dementia; Memory
ACUPUNCTURE & ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS RES., INT. J., Vol. 37, pp.103-123, 2012Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Communication Corp. Printed in the
Using Oral Ketamine and Alternating Bi-lateral Stimulation of Eye Movement Densitization to Sedate Pediatric Patient and to Minimize Adverse Reaction of Ketamine by Means of Acupuncture
Dominic P. Lu, DDS
Clinical Professor of Oral Medicine
Course Director, Selective in Pain and
Ping-Shi Wu, PhD
Assistant Professor of Mathematics (Bio-Statistics) Department of Mathematics,
Winston I. Lu, R. Ph, Pharm. D.
(Correspondence: Dominic P. Lu, DDS,
Ketamine, besides being an anesthetic agent, is also a strong analgesic that can be especially useful for painful procedures. Vivid dreams and nightmare, considered as undesirable side effects of ketamine, are rarely encountered when administrated orally, making it one of the most desirable oral sedative for children because it partially protects the pharyngeal- laryngeal reflex. Besides, if used in recommended dosage, it does not suppress the cardiopulmonary function as most other sedatives do. Ketamine’s bronchodilator effect makes it a good sedative for children with asthma, allergies, and hay fever. Alternating bi-lateral stimulation (ABLS) of eye movement desensitization, applying pre-operatively before ketamine was found to reduce the post-operative violent emergence and behavioral problems. Acupressure at P 6 (Neikuan) acupoint helps to decrease nausea and vomiting episodes by ketamine. 36 patients with history of unmanageable behavior were sedated with ketamine 3mg/kg and ABLS. To prevent possible adverse reaction, Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) were used to test all patients. ABLS significantly decreased tearful separation from parent. It took 15 to 20 minutes for ketamine to take effect, peak effect took 20 to 25 minutes. Working time ranged from 20 to 40 minutes. Post-operative recovery was more pleasant when ABLS was combined with ketamine, acupuncture/acupressure not only prevented vomiting and BDORT safeguard the patients from unpredictable untoward side effects but also promoting calmness.
Key words: Ketamine; Sedation; Desensitization; Emergence; Acupressure-acupuncture; Bi-Digital O-Ring Test.
ACUPUNCTURE & ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS RES., INT. J., Vol. 37, pp.125-138 , 2012 Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Communication Corp. Printed in the
Effects of Combining Electroacupuncture with General Anesthesia Induced by Sevoflurane in Patients Undergoing Supratentorial Craniotomy and Improvements in Their Clinical Recovery Profile & Blood Enkephalin
Caixia Yang, Ph.D.
Staff Scientist, Dept. of Laboratory Diagnosis Centre,
Lixin An, MD.
Professor of Clinical Anesthesiology, Dept. of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology,
Xixiong Kang, Ph.D.
Professor & Director, Dept. of Laboratory Diagnosis Centre,
(Correspondence: Xixiong Kang, Ph.D. Tel. 86-010-67096881, FAX.86-010-67096881.
(Received: Feb 10, 2012; Accepted with Revisions: June 20, 2012)
Drug-induced anesthesia combined with electroacupuncture (EA) in patients has been put into practice in recent years in
Keywords: Glioma; Craniotomy; Electroacupuncture; Analgesia; Sevoflurane; Anesthesia; Recovery time after surgery; Enkephalin.