Tourism Analysis 17(4) Abstracts

Return to Tourism Analysis main page>

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 403–415
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X 13412775927989
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Examining the RV Travelers’ Camping Experience: A Social Media Approach

Jill Fjelstul, Youcheng Wang, and Xu Li

Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

The aim of this study was to analyze RV travelers’ experience posted on campground online review websites. The study contributes to the relevant literature by understanding what influences the campground experience. Findings were categorized by six themes: campground attributes, campsite attributes, outdoor activities, surrounding area, campground policies, and staff. Findings also depicted major topic areas revealed in the reviewed postings. Implications were outlined for the campground owner/operator and future RV traveler as a result of this study.

Key words: RV traveler; Campground; Travel experience; Online reviews; Social media

Address correspondence Jill Fjelstul, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32819, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 417–429
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13473157390605
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Role of Environmental Attitude in a Nature-Based Festival: The Case of Boryeong Mud Festival

Youngjoon Choi, Christine N. Buzinde,1 Deborah Kerstetter, and Alan Graefe

Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

Drawing on consumer behavioral constructs, scholars have varying worked with festival organizers to maximize the success of promoted events and although their scholarship has augmented literature on festival management it has nonetheless tended to ignore other complementary constructs such as environmental attitudes, particularly as relates to nature-based festivals. Thus, this study examines the role of environmental attitudes on visitors’ perception of and satisfaction with a nature-based festival. It augments extant research on festivals vis-à-vis the incorporation of environmental attributes to the established work on consumer behavioral constructs. Boryeong Mud Festival, a popular nature-based festival in South Korea, is the site at which the current study was undertaken. A questionnaire designed to measure visitors’ evaluation of the festival and to examine their environmental attitude was administered and the findings indicate that visitors’ perception of the nature-based festival is related to their environmental attitudes.

Key words: Nature-based festivals; Environmental attitude; Quality; Perceived value; Satisfaction; Behavioral intention

1Current address: School of Community Resources & Development, College of Public Programs, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
Address correspondence to Youngjoon Choi, Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State
University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 431–443
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13473157390641
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Do Weather Conditions Influence Leisure Traffic? Evidence From Michigan and Implications for Climate Change

Charles Shih* and Sarah Nicholls†

*Travel & Tourism Program, International College, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan
†Departments of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies, and Geography, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

Understanding of the nature of the relationship between weather conditions and participation in outdoor recreation and tourism remains relatively limited, despite the need to better comprehend these dynamics in order to prepare for the implications of projected increases in climate variability and climate change. This study addressed this gap through quantification of the relationships between daily weather conditions and leisure traffic activity throughout the US state of Michigan. Using a double-log model, daily leisure traffic counts were regressed against three sets of independent variables—weather conditions, economic conditions, and the availability of leisure time—across the four seasons. Daily maximum temperature had a statistically significant, positive effect on tourism traffic in spring, summer, and fall, with a slightly less pronounced impact in winter. Precipitation, in contrast, had a minimal impact on leisure traffic in spring, summer, and fall, but a negative impact in winter. These findings have implications not only for the current management and marketing of Michigan outdoor recreation and tourism providers, but also for the potential adaptation strategies they might consider adopting under conditions of climate change. In order to best capitalize on the opportunities presented by the changing climate, providers are advised to consider factors such as changing season length and diversification into additional, year-round activities and facilities. For winter sports providers, the ability to make snow will become increasingly critical.

Key words: Leisure traffic; Weather; Climate variability; Climate change; Michigan

Address correspondence to Sarah Nicholls, Departments of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies, and Geography, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1222, USA. Tel: (517) 432-0319; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 445–457
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13473157390687
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Are You a Tourist? Tourism Definition From the Tourist Perspective

Xiaojuan Yu,*† Namhyun Kim,*‡ Chih-Chien Chen,§ and Zvi Schwartz¶

*Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA
†School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
‡College of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, Seoul, South Korea
§School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
¶Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

Using a large-scale visitors’ survey data, this study empirically investigates the question of who is a tourist from the tourist’s perspective, and contrasts the findings with elements of more formal definitions. The study contributes to the literature on tourism definition and measurement by demonstrating how tripographic and socioeconomic factors affect visitors’ propensity to self-categorize as tourists. The results point to a clear distance threshold of around 75 miles and provide support for the technical approach to the definition of tourism. First-time visitors, visitors whose main purpose was pleasure, women, and lower middle class income are more inclined to self-categorize as tourists, while those who visit friends and relatives are not. These findings could be used to further improve the definition and measurement of tourism, as well as enhance destination marketing practices.

Key words: Tourism definition; Tourism statistics; Tourist self-categorization; Usual environment; Distance threshold

Address correspondence to Xiaojuan Yu, School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-Sen University (Zhuhai Campus), Zhuhai, Guangdong, China, 519082. Tel: +86-136-3123-8406; Fax: +86-756-366-8279; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 459–472
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13473157390722
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Do Less Advanced Forecasting Methods Perform on Weekly RevPAR in Different Forecasting Horizons Following the Recession?

Tianshu Zheng,* Barry A. N. Bloom,† Xiaofan Wang,* and Thomas Schrier*

*College of Human Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
†School of Hospitality Administration, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA

The purpose of this study is to examine the performance of three smoothing methods on forecasting weekly Revenue per Available Room (RevPAR) following the recent recession in comparison to more sophisticated time series forecasting methods. The results of this study show that simpler methods perform better. Simple Moving Average and Single Exponential Smoothing outperformed Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average and Artificial Neural Networks in all 10 of 5-week forecasting horizons, which suggests accurate weekly RevPAR forecasting in both short and long term can be achieved with simple, easy-to-learn, yet effective methods. The findings of the study are expected to not only contribute to the limited literature of RevPAR forecasting, but also provide practitioners with empirical evidence for selecting appropriate time series forecasting methods for weekly RevPAR forecasting in different time horizons, particularly following an economic downturn.

Key words: RevPAR; Forecasting; Forecasting horizons; ARIMA; Neural networks; Moving average; Exponential smoothing

Address correspondence to Tianshu Zheng, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Iowa State University, 9W MacKay Hall, Ames, IA 50011-1121, USA. Tel: (515) 294-9554; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 473–493
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13473157390768
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Simple Framework for Evaluating the Economic Welfare of a Large Event

ShiNa Li

International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK

Large events have become an important and unique economic phenomenon. Although existing studies have assessed the total economic impact of a large event measured by gross domestic product (GDP), few studies have examined the welfare impacts of an event on local residents. To fill in this gap, this article builds a simple framework for assessing the economic welfare of a large event measured by Equivalent Variation. In this framework, extensions to modeling event investment and expenditure, such as event tourism expenditure and investment in the construction, are introduced to a standard computable general equilibrium model. The main critic for previous studies is that they always generate unrealistically large economic results. This framework attempts to overcome this by modeling investment in the event construction in a more reasonable method—modeling both positive and negative impacts. The framework is then applied to assessing the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Findings show that welfare gains generated in 2008 by holding the Beijing Olympics account for 0.33% and 7% of real GDP growth in China and Beijing, respectively. This implies that economic benefits in terms of welfare gains brought by holding the Beijing Olympics are not significant at both the national and city levels. Based on the model results, some policy implications are suggested.

Key words: Economic welfare impacts; Large events; CGE modeling; Beijing Olympic Games

Address correspondence to ShiNa Li, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Events Management, Leeds Metropolitan University, 226 Brontë Building, Headingley Campus, Leeds, UK, LS6 3QW. Tel: +44(0)113 812 3483; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 495–508
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13473157390803
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cyprus as a Winter Destination: An Exploratory Study

Savvina Karyopouli and Christina Koutra

Business School, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, Dorset, UK

Seasonal fluctuations of demand are regular in the Mediterranean islands. This could be attributed to the distinct qualities of island destinations, their vulnerability, peripherality, and isolation. This article aims to determine whether Cyprus has the geographical and governance qualities needed to address seasonality by diversifying its tourism product. An exploratory, interpretive, inductive approach to research was undertaken with key informers within the industry to investigate these issues. The findings indicate that Cyprus has the necessary geographical features to address seasonality. However, there is high dependency on small number of tour operators, air travel companies, the narrow sun-and-sea product, and governmental control, which prevents winter tourism development.

Key words: Cyprus; Seasonality; Mediterranean islands; Mature destinations

Address correspondence to Dr. Christina Koutra, Lecturer in Global Corporate Social Responsibility, Business School, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, BH2 6AT Dorset, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 509–522
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13473157390849
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Towards a High-Quality Religious Tourism Marketing: The Case of Hajj Service in Saudi Arabia

Riyad Eid

Department of Business Administration, College of Business & Economics, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

Hajj (Pilgrimage) is a unique, universal Islamic event, taking place annually, in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, accommodating around 3 million Muslims (Ministry of Hajj, 2010). Hajj consists of performing specific prayers at the sacred places and as it is obligatory as one of the five pillars of Islam, it is imperative that the experience is a safe and pleasant one for the pilgrims. This article investigates the quality of Hajj service and the satisfaction level of the pilgrims as “customers.” It is distinguished from other work as it considers the importance of facilities and services required for Hajj with respect to the actual pilgrims’ perceptions (i.e., the demand side) rather than service providers’ and/or planners’ perceptions (i.e., the supply side). Using a sample of 934 pilgrims from five different countries and following Parasuraman’s SERVQUAL model we found that tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy are perceived as being important factors that make safe and pleasant Hajj. Furthermore, the article provides a detailed discussion of SERVQUAL as measurement tool to test the level of pilgrims’ satisfaction of the facilities and services provided during Hajj period.

Key words: Service marketing; Hajj; Pilgrimage; Religious tourism; Saudi Arabia; SERVQUAL

Address correspondence to Riyad Eid, Department of Business Administration, College of Business & Economics, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain P.O. Box 17555, United Arab Emirates. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 523–532
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13473157390885
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

DMA Model: Understanding Digital Marketing Adoption and Implementation by Islamic Tourism Organizations

Hatem El-Gohary*† and Riyad Eid‡

*Birmingham City University, Perry Barr, Birmingham, UK
†Cairo University Business School, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
‡United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

Islamic studies and Islamic research have gained a lot of interest and considerable attention from researchers, policy makers, and practitioners during the last few years as a result of the demanding desire to know more about Islam. However, regardless of the dominant position held by Islamic studies and Islamic research in today’s research world, Islamic tourism is still very much less presented in the literature. This article aims to explore, analyze, and develop a clear understanding about the different factors affecting the adoption of digital marketing (D-marketing) by Islamic tourism organizations (ITOs) by building on the current body of knowledge in the field. The article systematically reviews the literature related to digital marketing adoption to understand its adoption by organizations working in Islamic tourism sectors. Based on this review and through linking digital marketing, technology adoption, technology diffusion, and Islamic Shariah theories, a conceptual model that links five factors (namely: internal environmental forces, external environmental forces, digital marketing adoption, digital marketing implementation, and digital marketing performance) is proposed to provide a clear understanding about the different factors affecting the adoption of digital marketing by Islamic tourism organizations. Future research is encouraged to build on this framework to test how internal and external environmental forces of Islamic tourism enterprises, along with its digital marketing implementation, influence its performance.

Key words: Digital marketing adoption (DMA) model; Digital marketing adoption; Islamic tourism; Islamic tourism organizations; Internal and external environmental forces

Address correspondence to Hatem El-Gohary, Reader in Marketing, Birmingham City Business School, Galton Building, City North Campus, Perry Barr, Birmingham, B42 2SU, UK. Tel: 0044 121 202 4616; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 533–545
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13330406124250
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Beach Recreation Among Urban Dwellers in Lagos, Nigeria: A Multivariate Analysis of Preferences and Decision-Making Process

O. A. Ajala* and I. R. Aliu†

*Department of Geography, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife Osun, Nigeria
†Department of Geography and Planning, Lagos State University, Apapa Lagos, Nigeria

This article empirically examines the underlying factors that influence beach preferences, choice decision-making processes, and perception of beach facilities by the local residents in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey of perception of two beaches by respondents in four Local Government Areas (LGAs) provided the primary data for the study. Using the Random Utility Theory (RUT) framework, the study discovered that preference formation and beach choices are considerably influenced by the respondent’s perception of spatial and environmental attributes of beach sites as well as the recreationist characteristics. The implication of these findings is that the observed beach behavior of recreationists cannot only be attributed to their personal attributes but essentially to their perception of the conditions of the beaches. Hence, government with other stakeholders in tourism development in Nigeria needs to take a critical interest in the development of the beaches with regards to accessibility, facilities, security, environment, space, transport system, and a host of other important things that can facilitate attraction to coastal beaches in Lagos and in Nigeria at large.

Key words: Beach recreation; Tourism development; Preferences; Lagos, Nigeria

Address correspondence to I. R. Aliu, Doctorate Candidate and Lecturer, Department of Geography and Planning, Lagos State University, Ojo PMB 1087 Apapa Lagos, Nigeria. Tel: +2348027525933; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 547–552
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13473157390920
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

An Exploratory Study of Vacation Stress

John C. Crotts* and Anita Zehrer†

*Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA
†Tourism Business Studies, MCI Management Center Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

This exploratory study is focused on the degree to which stress occurs on vacations, including how and where it develops, who is most susceptible, and how it affects one’s interest in returning to the destination in the future. Drawing from a national panel of 110 US residents who reported taking a recent vacation, the data revealed pretrip planning produced higher levels of stress when compared to the stress related to the actual travel to, or the stay at, the destination. Lastly, those who took an international vacation accompanied by a spouse or relative reported more stress in the trip-planning phase; males and older adults traveling with children were more prone to stress while traveling to the destination; and first-time consumers and younger adults reported more stress while at the destination. Implications for marketers are discussed.

Key words: Vacation stress; Transactional theory of stress

Address correspondence to John C. Crotts, Ph.D., Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 553–555
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13473157390966
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Netnographic Tourist Research: The Internet as a Virtual Fieldwork Site

Muchazondida Mkono

School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia

The Internet is emerging as a valuable fieldwork site for researching tourist experiences. This article argues that netnography, a web-based research technique developed by Robert Kozinets, could become more useful in tourism research as the Internet is increasingly normalized as part of everyday lifestyle. However, so far, in the field of tourism research, very few researchers have embraced netnographic techniques as alternatives or complements to traditional fieldwork methods such as face-to-face interviews and surveys. The article also considers the merits, opportunities, and challenges of netnographic tourism research, and provides suggestions for further study.

Key words: Netnography; Tourist experience; Tourism research methods

Address correspondence to Muchazondida Mkono, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it